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  • 1.
    Lindkvist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Kjaer, Christoffer
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Side Collision Induced Pelvis Fracturers in Modern Cars2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, p. S273-S274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Lopez-Valdes, F. J.
    et al.
    Juste, O.
    Pipkorn, B.
    Garcia-Munoz, I.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Dahlgren, M.
    Alba, J. J.
    A Comparison of the Performance of Two Advanced Restraint Systems in Frontal Impacts2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, p. S119-S125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The goal of the study is to compare the kinematics and dynamics of the THOR dummy in a frontal impact under the action of 2 state-of-the-art restraint systems.

    Methods: Ten frontal sled tests were performed with THOR at 2 different impact speeds (35 and 9km/h). Two advanced restraint systems were used: a pretensioned force-limiting belt (PT+FL) and a pretensioned belt incorporating an inflatable portion (PT+BB). Dummy measurements included upper and lower neck reactions, multipoint thoracic deflection, and rib deformation. Data were acquired at 10,000Hz. Three-dimensional motion of relevant dummy landmarks was tracked at 1,000Hz. Results are reported in a local coordinate system moving with the test buck.

    Results: Average forward displacement of the head was greater when the PT+FL belt was used (35km/h: 376.3 +/- 16.1mm [PT+BB] vs. 393.6 +/- 26.1mm [PT+FL]; 9km/h: 82.1 +/- 26.0mm [PT+BB] vs. 98.8 +/- 0.2mm [PT+FL]). The forward displacement of T1 was greater for the PT+FL belt at 35km/h but smaller at 9km/h. The forward motion of the pelvis was greater when the PT+BB was used, exhibiting a difference of 82mm in the 9km/h tests and 95.5mm in the 35km/h test. At 35km/h, upper shoulder belt forces were similar (PT+FL: 4,756.8 +/- 116.6N; PT+BB: 4,957.7 +/- 116.4N). At 9km/h, the PT+BB belt force was significantly greater than the PT+FL one. Lower neck flexion moments were higher for the PT+BB at 35km/h but lower at 9km/h (PT+FL: 34.2 +/- 3.5 Nm; PT+BB: 26.8 +/- 2.1 Nm). Maximum chest deflection occurred at the chest upper left region for both belts and regardless of the speed.

    Conclusion: The comparison of the performance of different restraints requires assessing occupant kinematics and dynamics from a global point of view. Even if the force acting on the chest is similar, kinematics can be substantially different. The 2 advanced belts compared here showed that while the PT+BB significantly reduced peak and resultant chest deflection, the resulting kinematics indicated an increased forward motion of the pelvis and a reduced rotation of the occupant's torso. Further research is needed to understand how these effects can influence the protection of real occupants in more realistic vehicle environments.

  • 3. López-Valdés, F. J.
    et al.
    Juste-Lorente, O.
    Maza-Frechin, M.
    Pipkorn, B.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Lorente, A.
    Aso-Vizan, A.
    Davidsson, J.
    Analysis of occupant kinematics and dynamics in nearside oblique impacts2016In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the kinematics and dynamics of restrained postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) exposed to a nearside oblique impact and the injuries that were found after the tests.Methods: Three male PMHS of similar age (64 4years) and anthropometry (weight: 61 9.6kg; stature: 172 +/- 2.7cm) were exposed to a 30 degrees nearside oblique impact at 34km/h. The test fixture approximated the seating position of a front seat occupant. A rigid seat was designed to match the pelvic displacement in a vehicle seat. Surrogates were restrained by a 3-point seat belt consisting of a 2kN pretensioner (PT), 4.5kN force-limiting shoulder belt, and a 3.5kN PT lap belt. The shoulder belt PT was not fired in one of the tests. Trajectories of the head, shoulder, and hip joint (bilaterally) were recorded at 1,000Hz by a 3D motion capture system. The 3D acceleration and angular rate of the head, T1, and pelvis, and the 3D acceleration of selected spinal locations was measured at 10,000Hz. Seat belt load cells measured the belt tension at 4 locations. PMHS donation and handling were performed with the approval of the relevant regional ethics review board.Results: Activation of the shoulder PT reduced substantially the peak forward excursion of the head but did not influence the lateral displacement of the head center of gravity (CG). In all 3 subjects, the lateral excursion of the head CG (291.1, 290, 292.1mm) was greater than the forward displacement (271.4, 216.7, 171.5mm). The hip joint excursion of the PMHS that was not exposed to the shoulder PT seat belt was twice the magnitude observed for the other 2 subjects. The 3 PMHS sustained clavicle fractures on the shoulder loaded by the seat belt and 2 of them were diagnosed atlantoaxial subluxation in the radiologist examination. Avulsion fractures of the right lamina of T1, T2, T3, and T4 were found when the PT was not used. The 3 PMHS received multiple fractures spread over both aspects of the rib cage and involving the posterior aspect of it.Conclusion: In this study of nearside oblique impact loading, the PMHS exhibited kinematics characterized by reduced torso pitching and increased lateral head excursion as compared to previous frontal impact results. These kinematics resulted in potential cervical and thoracic spinal injuries and in complete, displaced fractures of the lateral and posterior aspects of the rib cage. Though this is a limited number of subjects, it shows the necessity of further understanding of the kinematics of occupants exposed to this loading mode.

  • 4. Pipkorn, Bengt
    et al.
    López-Valdés, Francisco J.
    Juste-Lorente, Oscar
    Insausti, Ricardo
    Lundgren, Christer
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests2016In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 17, p. 124-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the potential chest injury benefits and influence on occupant kinematics of a belt system with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions. Methods: This article investigates the kinematics and dynamics of human surrogates in 35km/h impacts with 2 different restraints: a pretensioning (PT), force-limiting (FL) seat belt, a reference belt system, and a concept design with a split buckle consisting (SB) of 2 separate shoulder and lap belt bands. The study combines mathematical simulations with the THOR dummy and THUMS human body model, and mechanical tests with the THOR dummy and 2 postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests of similar age (39 and 42years) and anthropometry (62kg, 181cm vs. 60kg, 171.5cm). The test setup consisted of a rigid metallic frame representing a standard seating position of a right front passenger. The THOR dummy model predictions were compared to the mechanical THOR dummy test results. The THUMS-predicted number of fractured ribs were compared to the number of fractured ribs in the PMHS. Results: THOR sled tests showed that the SB seat belt system decreased chest deflection significantly without increasing the forward displacement of the head. The THOR model and the THOR physical dummy predicted a 13- and 7-mm reduction in peak chest deflection, respectively. Peak diagonal belt force in the mechanical test with the reference belt was 5,582N and the predicted force was 4,770N. The THOR model also predicted lower belt forces with the SB system than observed in the tests (5,606vs. 6,085N). THUMS predicted somewhat increased head displacement for the SB system compared to the reference system. Peak diagonal force with the reference belt was 4,000N and for the SB system it was 5,200N. The PMHS test with the SB belt resulted in improved kinematics and a smaller number of rib fractures (2vs. 5 fractures) compared to the reference belt. Conclusion: Concepts for a belt system that can reduce the load on the chest of the occupant in a crash and thereby reduce the number of injured occupants, in particular the elderly, was proposed.

  • 5. Stigson, Helena
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Krafft, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Differences in Long-Term Medical Consequences Depending on Impact Direction Involving Passenger Cars2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, p. S133-S139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is limited knowledge of the long-term medical consequences for occupants injured in car crashes in various impact directions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate whether injuries leading to permanent medical impairment differ depending on impact direction. Methods: In total, 36,743 injured occupants in car crashes that occurred between 1995 and 2011 were included. All initial injuries (n = 61,440) were classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005. Injured car occupants were followed for at least 3years to assess permanent medical impairment. The data were divided into different groups according to impact direction and levels of permanent impairment. The risk of permanent medical impairment was established for different body regions and injury severity levels, according to AIS. Results: It was found that almost 12% of all car occupants sustained a permanent medical impairment. Given an injury, car occupants involved in rollover crashes had the highest overall risk to sustain a permanent medical impairment. Half of the head injuries leading to long-term consequences occurred in frontal impacts. Far-side occupants had almost the same risk as near-side occupants. Occupants who sustained a permanent medical impairment from cervical spine injuries had similar risk in all impact directions (13%) except from rollover (17%). However, these injuries occurred more often in rear crashes. Most of the injuries leading to long-term consequences were classified as minor injuries by AIS for all impact directions. Conclusions: Studying crash data from a perspective of medical impairment is important to identify injuries that might not be prioritized only considering the AIS but might lead to lower quality of life for the occupant and also costs for society. These results can be used for road transport system strategies and for making priority decisions in vehicle design.

  • 6.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lecuyer, Erwan
    Hynd, David
    Carroll, Jolyon
    Kruse, Dion
    Bostrom, Ola
    Evaluation of Near-Side Oblique Frontal Impacts Using THOR With SD3 Shoulder2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no Supplement 1, p. S96-S102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Within the EC Seventh Framework project THORAX, the Mod-Kit THOR was upgraded with a new thorax and shoulder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the THOR ATD met a set of prerequisites to a greater extent than Hybrid III and by that measure whether the dummy could serve as a potential tool for future evaluation of serious head and chest injuries in near-side oblique frontal impacts.

    Method: A small-overlap/oblique sled system was used to reflect occupant forces observed in oblique frontal crashes. The head and thoracic response from THOR was evaluated for 3 combinations: belt only with no deformation of the driver's side door (configuration A), belt only in combination with a predeformed door (configuration B), and prepretensioning belt and driver airbag (PPT+DAB) in combination with a predeformed door (configuration C). To evaluate head injury risk, the head injury criterion (HIC) and brain injury criteria (BrIC) were used. For evaluation of the thoracic injury risk, 3 injury criteria proposed by the THORAX project were evaluated: Dmax, DcTHOR, and strain (dummy rib fractures).

    Results: Unlike Hybrid III, the THOR with SD3 shoulder interacted with the side structure in a near-side oblique frontal impact. HIC values for the 3 test configurations corresponded to a 90% (A) and 100% (B and C) risk of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ head injury, and BrIC values resulted in a 100% risk of AIS 2+ head injury in configurations A and B. In C the risk was reduced to 75%. The AIS 2+ thoracic injury risks based on Dmax were similar (14-18%) for all tests. Based on DcTHOR, AIS 2+ injury risk increased from 29 to 53% as the predeformed door side was introduced (A to B), and the risk increased, to 64%, as a PPT+DAB was added (C). Considering the AIS 2+ injury risk based on strain, tests in A resulted in an average of 3 dummy rib fractures (17%). Introducing the predeformed door (B) increased the average of dummy fractures to 5 (39%), but in C the average number of dummy rib fractures decreased to 4 (28%).

    Conclusions: THOR with an SD3 shoulder should be the preferred ATD rather than the Hybrid III for evaluating head and thorax injuries in oblique frontal impacts. Thoracic interaction with the predeformed door was not well captured by the 3D IR-Traccs; hence, use of deflection as an injury predictor in oblique loading is insufficient for evaluating injury risk in this load case. However, injury risk evaluation may be performed using the strain measurements, which characterize loading from seat belt and airbag as well as the lateral contribution of the structural impact in the loading condition used in this study.

  • 7.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Res, Vargarda, Sweden.
    Rosén, Erik
    Bostrom, Ola
    Real-life fatal outcome in car-to-car near-side impacts--implications for improved protection considering age and crash severity.2009In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that current side airbags, protecting head and chest, are saving lives in near-side impacts (Kahane 2007; McCartt and Kyrychenko 2007). The aim of this study was to analyze NASS/CDS real-life data on fatal trauma in near-side car-to-car crashes, stratified by age into non-senior and senior occupants. Furthermore, a hypothetical model explaining side airbag effectiveness as a function of lateral delta-v was presented. The model together with the field data was then used to demonstrate further enhancement of side airbag restraint performance.

    METHOD: Weighted NASS/CDS data from 1994 to 2006 for front seat occupants in near-side car-to-car impacts was used to calculate the exposure, incidence, and risk of fatal trauma with respect to lateral delta-v. The dataset was also divided into non-senior (10-59 years) and senior (age > or = 60 years) occupants. The hypothetical model was created to adjust the NASS/CDS data to represent a car fleet fully equipped with current side airbag protection. The model was then used to evaluate the increase in effectiveness of improved side airbag protection achieved by increasing the lateral delta-v in the range where the airbag have most mitigating effect, increasing the airbag protection level within the delta-v range currently tested, and a combination of the two approaches.

    RESULTS: From the NASS/CDS data, the median delta-v for fatal injury was 37 km/h for the total sample. When stratified with respect to age, the median delta-v for fatal injury was 41 km/h for non-seniors and 28 km/h for senior occupants. The exposures for both age groups were similar. However, the fatal incidence showed a difference in delta-v range between non-senior and senior occupants. Applying the airbag model increased the median delta-v to 40 km/h for the total sample and 47 and 30 km/h for non-seniors and seniors, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Current side airbag systems offer very good protection for non-senior occupants up to delta-v 40 km/h. Though still high, the protection for senior occupants is lower. To enhance side airbag protection, the side airbag performance should be maximized where the fatal incidence is high. Therefore, to further reduce non-senior fatalities, the test speed should be increased. To further reduce senior fatalities, the protection level within severities currently tested should be increased. A combination of the two approaches would result in about a 40 percent increase of the side airbag effectiveness.

  • 8.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sui, Bo
    Lindkvist, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Krafft, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Census Study of Real-Life Near-Side Crashes with Modern Side Airbag-Equipped Vehicles in the United States2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no Supplement 1, p. S117-S124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the crash characteristics, injury distribution, and injury mechanisms for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) 2+ injured belted, near-side occupants in airbag-equipped modern vehicles. Furthermore, differences in injury distribution for senior occupants compared to non-senior occupants was investigated, as well as whether the near-side occupant injury risk to the head and thorax increases or decreases with a neighboring occupant. Method: National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 2000 to 2012 were searched for all side impacts (GAD L&R, all principal direction of force) for belted occupants in modern vehicles (model year > 1999). Rollovers were excluded, and only front seat occupants over the age of 10 were included. Twelve thousand three hundred fifty-four MAIS 2+ injured occupants seated adjacent to the intruding structure (near-side) and protected by at least one deployed side airbag were studied. To evaluate the injury risk influenced by the neighboring occupant, odds ratio with an induced exposure approach was used. Result: The most typical crash occurred either at an intersection or in a left turn where the striking vehicle impacted the target vehicle at a 60 to 70 degrees angle, resulting in a moderate change of velocity (delta-V) and intrusion at the B-pillar. The head, thorax, and pelvis were the most frequent body regions with rib fracture the most frequent specific injury. A majority of the head injuries included brain injuries without skull fracture, and non-senior rather than senior occupants had a higher frequency of head injuries on the whole. In approximately 50% of the cases there was a neighboring occupant influencing injury outcome. Conclusion: Compared to non-senior occupants, the senior occupants sustained a considerably higher rate of thoracic and pelvis injuries, which should be addressed by improved thorax side airbag protection. The influence on near-side occupant injury risk by the neighboring occupant should also be further evaluated. Furthermore, side airbag performance and injury assessments in intersection crashes, especially those involving senior occupants in lower severities, should be further investigated and side impact dummy biofidelity and injury criteria must be determined for these crash scenarios.

  • 9.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Approximately 1.25 million people globally are killed in traffic accidents yearly. To achieve the UN Global Goal of a 50% reduction of fatal and serious injuries in 2020 a safer infrastructure, as well as new safety technologies, will be needed. Side crashes represent 20% of all serious and 25 % of fatal injuries. The overall aim of this thesis is to provide guidelines for improved side impact protection. First, by characterizing nearside crashes and injury outcome, including injuries from the farside occupant, for non-senior and senior front seat occupants. Second, to determine whether the WorldSID dummy provides opportunities for improved in-crash occupant protection. And third, by relating in-crash occupant protection to pre-crash countermeasures, to explore a holistic approach for side crashes using the integrated safety chain from safe driving to crash.

    Methods: NASS/CDS data for both older and modern vehicles was used to provide exposure, incidence, and risk for fatal injury as well as detailed injury distribution and crash characteristics. The WorldSID dummy was compared to Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in impactor tests at high and low severities to demonstrate the possibilities of this tool. Crash tests were performed to evaluate WorldSID crash test dummy assessments of injuries found in the NASS/CDS data. The integrated safety chain was used to demonstrate how to evaluate occupant protection in side crashes from a larger perspective, involving infrastructure and Automated Emergency Braking.

    Result: Most side crashes occur at intersections. The head, thorax, and pelvis are the most frequently injured body regions, and seniors have a higher risk for rib fractures compared to non-seniors. The WorldSID dummy response was similar to the PMHS response at the higher impact speed, but not at the lower. In conjunction with improved airbags infrastructural change, and the use of Automated Emergency Braking, can effectively reduce the number of fatalities and injured occupants in side impacts.

    Conclusion: Future focus for side impact protection should be on intersection crashes, improved occupant protection for senior occupants, and protection for and from the farside occupant, reducing injury risk to the head, thorax, and pelvis. The WorldSID dummy has the ability to reproduce humanlike responses in lateral and oblique impacts. However, at a low crash severity, chest deflection could be underestimated, which must be taken into consideration when evaluating, for example, pre-crash inflated side airbags. Analyzing nearside crashes using the integrated safety chain shows that speed management by means of roundabouts is an efficient countermeasure reducing the number of injurious crashes, as well as reducing variations in crash severity. In combination with an Automated Emergency Braking a large part of side crashes could be avoided or crash severity mitigated. Rather than developing structures and airbags for high-speed crashes, it is important to consider alternative countermeasures. Hence the need for an integrated approach to side impacts.

  • 10.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hynd, David
    Carroll, Jolyon
    Dahlgren, Mikael
    Comparison of the THORAX Demonstrator and HIII sensitivity to crash severity and occupant restraint variation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Boström, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no Supplement 2, p. S217-S223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims, by means of the WorldSID 50th percentile male, to evaluate thoracic loading and injury risk to the near-side occupant due to occupant-to-occupant interaction in combination with loading from an intruding structure.Method: Nine vehicle crash tests were performed with a 50th percentile WorldSID male dummy in the near-side (adjacent to the intruding structure) seat and a THOR or ES2 dummy in the far-side (opposite the intruding structure) seat. The near-side seated WorldSID was equipped with 6 + 6 IR-Traccs (LH and RH) in the thorax/abdomen enabling measurement of bilateral deflection. To differentiate deflection caused by the intrusion, and the deflection caused by the neighboring occupant, time history curves were analyzed. The crash tests were performed with different modern vehicles, equipped with thorax side airbags and inflatable curtains, ranging from a compact car to a large sedan, and in different loading conditions such as car-to-car, barrier, and pole tests. Lateral delta V based on vehicle tunnel acceleration and maximum residual intrusion at occupant position were used as a measurement of crash severity to compare injury measurements.Result: In the 9 vehicle crash tests, thoracic loading, induced by the intruding structure as well as from the far-side occupant, varied due to the size and structural performance of the car as well as the severity of the crash. Peak deflection on the thoracic outboard side occurred during the first 50ms of the event. Between 70 to 150ms loading induced by the neighboring occupant occurred and resulted in an inboard-side peak deflection and viscous criterion. In the tests where the target vehicle lateral delta V was below 30km/h and intrusion less than 200mm, deflections were low on both the outboard (20-40mm) and inboard side (10-15mm). At higher crash severities, delta V 35km/h and above as well as intrusions larger than 350mm, the inboard deflections (caused by interaction to the far-side occupant) were of the same magnitude or even higher (30-70mm) than the outboard deflections (30-50mm).Conclusion: A WorldSID 50th percentile male equipped with bilateral IR-Traccs can detect loading to the thorax from a neighboring occupant making injury risk assessment feasible for this type of loading. At crash severities resulting in a delta V above 35km/h and intrusions larger than 350mm, both the inboard deflection and VC resulted in high risks of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ injury, especially for a senior occupant.

  • 12.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Subit, D
    Pipkorn, B
    Kent, R
    Rate dependent spine motion and chest deflection differences between WorldSID and PMHS under localized constant-speed impactsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Sunnevång, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden .
    Subit, Damien
    Kindig, Matthew
    Lessley, David
    Lamp, John
    Boström, Ola
    Kent, Richard
    Response of the Worldwide Side Impact Dummy (WorldSID) to Localized Constant-Speed Impacts.2011In: Annals of advances in automotive medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Scientific Conference, ISSN 1943-2461, Vol. 55, p. 231-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate WorldSID constant-speed shoulder and thorax impact responses in terms of impact force, external and internal deflection (1D and 2D IR-Tracc response) for two velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), at three impact levels (shoulder, upper thorax and mid thorax) in three impact directions (lateral, +15° posterolateral, -15° anteraolateral). In addition, the impact force and external deflection were compared to previously published cadaver data. Each impact condition was repeated twice. A total of 42 tests were performed. The WorldSID's lowest peak impact force and external deflection were found for impact at shoulder level regardless of impact direction. Maximum force and deflection were found for impact at mid thorax. Comparison between WorldSID and PMHS showed similar external chest deflections for impacts at 3 m/s. The peak impact force response with respect to impact level was found to be reversed for the WorldSID compared to the PMHS, for which shoulder impact resulted in the highest peak force. External time history responses for the WorldSID compared to the one PMHS impacted at 1 m/s in lateral impact direction showed a significant difference in both timing and magnitude. External deflections at upper and mid thorax were approximately twice as high as the internal 1D deflection measured by the IR-Tracc. However, taking into account the rotation of the rib, the calculated 2D deflection response at the posterior impact direction was closer to the external deflection, and thus also to the PMHS deflection response at 3 m/s. These findings emphasize the need of 2D deflection measurement.

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