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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Jaw-neck dysfunction in whiplash-associated disorders2007In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 404-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports data from recent studies on integrative jaw-neck motor control in healthy subjects and disturbed jaw-neck behaviour in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The results show that neck function is an integral part of natural jaw behaviour, and that neck injury can impair jaw function and therefore disturb eating behaviour. We also show preliminary results from implementation of a new approach for rehabilitation of jaw-neck dysfunction and pain in WAD.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Musculoskeletal Disordes in the Jaw-Face and Neck2005In: Conn´s Current Therapy: Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Jaw-Face and Neck, Saunders Elsevier , 2005, p. 1128-1133Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Because different diseases in the jaw-orofacial region may give rise to similar symptoms, proper examination and diagnosis must precede treatment. Musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face region, generally termed craniomandbular disorders (CMD), are as prevalent as the two major dental diseases, caries and periodontitis, and constitute a signifiant health problem. There is a strong female preponderance among patients seeking care for CMD, and symptoms and signs are more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting in women than in men. Between 65% and 95% of CMD patients who seek care for the first time are reported to improve. A new concept for natural jaw function suggests that ”functional jaw movements” are the result of jointly activated jaw and neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, and cervical spine joints, and that these jaw and head-neck movements have neural commands in common, are preprogammed, and are innate. Accordingly, natural jaw function, by definition, includes integrative jaw-neck behavior. A new explanatory model for the development of pain and dysfunction in the jaw-face in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) proposes because natural jaw actions require a healthy state of the temporomandibular. atlanto-occipital, and cervical spine joints, it can be assumed that an injury to or disease of any of these three joint systems might derange natural jaw motor control. Based on findings of disturbed jaw-neck function in WAD, a new treatment model is suggested for patients with jaw-face pain and dysfunction and WAD. The rationale behind this approach is that intervention of jaw function by definition includes neck function. Results from implementation of this treatment model, showing improvement of magnitude and speed for both mandibular and head-neck movements, are reported. Finally, an appropriate term for the clinical condition comprising both jaw-face and head-neck pain and dysfunction is cervicocraniomandibular disorders (CCMD).

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face and neck: Temporomandibular Disorders2006In: Conn´s Current Therapy, Saunders Elsevier , 2006, p. 1197-1202Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Rehabilitation Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Backén, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Informatics, County Council of Västerbotten, Umeå, Sweden.
    Instant reduction in postural sway during quiet standing by intraoral dental appliance in patients with Whiplash associated Disorders and non-trauma neck pain2019In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 97, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that modulation of jaw sensorimotor control by intraoral dental appliance can reduce postural sway during quiet standing and hence improve standing balance, in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and non-trauma neck pain. Design: Postural sway during quiet standing with feet together was examined in 54 WAD patients (40 females) and 10 non-trauma patients (8 females) using wireless 3D movement recording technique. Recordings were performed alternating without and with intraoral dental appliance, and with closed eyes and open eyes, respectively. In this protocol the participants served as their own controls. A reference group of 30 healthy subjects (17 females) was also recorded. Each recording lasted 120 s, followed by 3-5 min of rest. Speed, acceleration and perimeter of postural sway area were documented. Results: In the patients, but not in the healthy group, the intraoral dental appliance instantly and significantly reduced standing postural sway in recordings with closed and open eyes. Conclusions: The prompt reduction in standing postural sway from intervention by intraoral dental appliance i.e. improved standing balance, suggests a potent effect on the postural control system by modulation of the jaw sensorimotor system, probably involving reflex transmission. The result opens for new insight into mechanisms behind postural control and the pathophysiology of balance disorders, and adds to the knowledge on plasticity of the nervous system. It may help developing new procedures for assessment and management of impaired balance in WAD and non-trauma neck pain patients.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Deranged jaw-neck motor control in whiplash-associated disorders2004In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings of simultaneous and well coordinated head-neck movements during single as well as rhythmic jaw opening-closing tasks has led to the conclusion that functional jaw movements´are the result of activation of jaw as well as neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. It can therefore be assumed that disease or injury to any of these joint systems would disturb natural jaw function. To test this hypothesis, amplitudes, temporal coordination, and spatiotemporal consistency of concomitant mandibular and head-neck movements during single maximal jaw opening-closing tasks were analysed in 25 individuals suffering from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using optoelectronic movement recording technique. In addition, the relative durations for which the head position was equal to, leading ahead of, or lagging behind the mandibular position during the entire jaw opening-closing cycle were determined. Compared with healthy individuals, the WAD group showed smaller amplitudes, and changed temporal coordination between mandibular and head-neck movements. No divergence from healthy individuals was found for the spatiotemporal consistency or for the analysis during the entire jaw opening-closing cycle. These findings in the WAD group of a ´faulty, but yet consistent, jaw-neck behaviour may reflect a basic importance of linked control of the jaw and neck sensory-motor systems. In conclusion, the present results suggest that neck injury is associated with deranged control of mandibular and head-neck movements during jaw opening-closing tasks, and therefore might compromise natural jaw function.

  • 6.
    Granberg, I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindell, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Capillary supply in relation to myosin heavy chain fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles2010In: Cells Tissues Organs, ISSN 1422-6405, E-ISSN 1422-6421, Vol. 192, no 5, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capillary supply and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of three different intrinsic tongue muscles was analysed in the anterior and posterior regions of the human tongue with biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Mean capillary density for the whole tongue was 796 ± 82 cap/mm², without regional differences. The overall number of capillaries around each fibre (CAF) was higher in the posterior than in the anterior region (2.5 vs. 2.1, p = 0.009). However, correcting for regional differences in fibre size, CAF per fibre area was higher in the anterior region (4.3 vs. 3.0, p < 0.001). Muscle fibres containing fast MyHCs predominated in the anterior region (78.7%), consisting of MyHCIIa (58.5%), MyHCIIx (1.0%), MyHCIIa+MyHCIIx (11.3%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (7.9%). Fibres containing slow MyHC predominated in the posterior region (65.2%), consisting of MyHCI (45.5%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (19.7%). A minor fibre population (<2%) contained unusual MyHC isoforms, namely MyHC foetal, MyHC slow-tonic, MyHC α-cardiac or MyHC embryonic. The microvascularization of the human tongue was twice as high as in human limb muscles. Regional similarities in capillary supply, but differences in fibre phenotype composition, suggest that human tongue muscle fibres are fatigue resistant independently of MyHC content. High frequency of hybrid fibres, that is fibres co-expressing two or more MyHC isoforms, indicates a wider spectrum of fibre contractile properties than in limb muscles. In conclusion, human intrinsic tongue muscles showed internal specialization in distribution of MyHC isoforms and capillary supply, but not in the expression of unusual MyHCs.

  • 7.
    Häggman Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Grönqvist, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Frequent jaw-face pain in chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) present with frequent pain in the neck, head and shoulder regions but the presence of frequent jaw-face pain is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of jaw-face pain in other regions, and general symptoms in chronic WAD patients. Fifty whiplash-patients  and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were examined by qustionnaire for pain in the jaw-face, pain in other regions and other symptoms.

    In contrast to healthy, a majority of the WAD patients (88%) reported frequent pain in the jaw-face, in addition to frequent pain in the neck (100%), shoulders (94%), head (90%) and back (72%). The WAD patients also reported stiffness and numbness in the jaw-face region, and frequent general symptoms such as balance problems, stress and sleep disturbances.

    The result suggests that frequent pain in the jaw-face can be part of the spectrum of symptoms in chronic WAD. The finding of self-reported numbness in the jaw-face indicates disturbed trigeminal nerve function and merits further investigation. We conclude that assessment of WAD should include pain in the jaw-face region. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation program including dentists, preferably specialized in the area of orofacial pain, should be advocated after whiplash injury.

  • 8.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Head movements during chewing: relation to size and texture of bolus2004In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 864-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinated mandibular and head-neck movements during jaw opening-closing activities suggest a close functional linkage between the jaw and the neck regions. The present study investigated whether size and texture of bolus can influene head-neck behaviour during chewing. Using an optoelectronic 3-D recording technique, we analyzed concomitant mandibular and head-neck movements in 12 healthy adults chewing small (3 g) and large (9 g) boluses of chewing gum and Optosil®. The main finding was a head extension during chewing, the amount of which was related mainly to bolus size. Furthermore, each chewing cycle was accompanied not only by mandibular movements, but also by head extension-flexion movements. Larger head movement amplitudes were correlated with larger size and, to some extent, also with harder texture of the bolus. The results suggest that head-neck behaviour during chewing is modulated in response to changes in jaw sensory-motor input.

  • 9.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load2013In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction.

  • 10.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Head Immobilization can Impair Jaw Function2006In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 85, no 11, p. 1001-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings that jaw-opening/-closing relies on both mandibular and head movements suggest that jaw and neck muscles are jointly activated in jaw function. This study tested the hypothesis that rhythmic jaw activities involve an active repositioning of the head, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. Concomitant mandiular and head-neck movements were recorded during rhythmic jaw activities in 12 healthy adults, with and without fixation of the head. In four participants, the movement recording was combined with simultaneous registration of myoelectric activity in jaw and neck muscles. The results showed neck muscle activity during jaw opening with and without head fixation. Notably, head fixation led to reduced mandibular movements and shorter duration of jaw-opening/-closing cycles. The findings suggest recruitment of neck muscles in jaw activities, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. The results underline the jaw and neck neuromuscular relationship in jaw function.

  • 11.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Österlund, Caatharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Endurance during chewing in whiplash-associated disorders and TMD2004In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 83, no 12, p. 946-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown an association between neck injury and disturbed jaw function. This stydy tested the hypothesis of a relationship between neck injury and impaired endurance during chewing. Fifty patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) were compared with 50 temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients and 50 healthy subjects. Endurance was evaluated during unilateral chewing of gum for 5 min when participants reported fatigue and pain. Whereas all healthy subjects completed the task, ¼ of the TMD and a majority of the WAD patients discontinued the task. A majority of the WAD patients also reported fatigue and pain. These findings suggest an association between neck injury and reduced functional capacity of the jaw motor system. From the results, we propose that routine examination of WAD patients should include jaw function and that an endurance test as described in this study could also be a useful tool for non-dental professionals.

  • 12. Jung, TTK
    et al.
    Alper, CM
    Roberts, JE
    Casselbrant, ML
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Gravel, JS
    Hellström, Sten O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Hunter, LL
    Paradise, JL
    Park, SK
    Spratley, J
    Tos, M
    Wallace, I
    Complications and sequelae2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Noborisaka, Yuka
    Nakata, Minori
    Crenshaw, Albert G
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Cardiovascular and muscle activity during chewing in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)2010In: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 447-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More intense response to chewing in WAD might indicate pronounced vulnerability to dynamic loading of the jaw-neck motor system with increased autonomic reactivity to the test. Premature termination and autonomic involvement without EMG signs of muscle fatigue may indicate central mechanisms behind insufficient endurance during chewing.

  • 14.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Fiber content and myosin heavy chain composition of muscle spindles in aged human biceps brachii2005In: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, ISSN 0022-1554, E-ISSN 1551-5044, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 445-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated potential age-related changes in human muscle spindles with respect to the intrafusal fiber-type content and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition in biceps brachii muscle. The total number of intrafusal fibers per spindle decreased significantly with aging, due to a significant reduction in the number of nuclear chain fibers. Nuclear chain fibers in old spindles were short and some showed novel expression of MyHC alpha-cardiac. The expression of MyHC alpha-cardiac in bag1 and bag2 fibers was greatly decreased in the A region. The expression of slow MyHC was increased in nuclear bag1 fibers and that of fetal MyHC decreased in bag2 fibers whereas the patterns of distribution of the remaining MyHC isoforms were generally not affected by aging. We conclude that aging appears to have an important impact on muscle spindle composition. These changes in muscle spindle phenotype may reflect an age-related deterioration in sensory and motor innervation and are likely to have an impact in motor control in the elderly.

  • 15.
    Monemi, M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Liu, Jingxia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Myosin heavy chain composition of the human lateral pterygoid and digastric muscles in young adults and elderly.2000In: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, ISSN 0142-4319, E-ISSN 1573-2657, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content in different parts of, two jaw opening muscle, the human lateral pterygoid and the digastric muscles of five young adult and five elderly subjects (mean age 22 and 73 years, respectively) was determined, using gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical methods. The lateral pterygoid of both young and elderly contained predominantly slow MyHC, and fast A MyHC was the major fast isoform. In contrast, the digastric was composed of slow, fast A and fast X MyHCs in about equal proportions in both age groups. About half of the lateral pterygoid fibres contained mixtures of slow and fast MyHCs, often together with alpha-cardiac MyHC. In the digastric, co-existence of slow and fast MyHCs was rare, and alpha-cardiac MyHC was lacking. On the other hand, co-expression of fast A and fast X MyHCs was found more often in the digastric than in the lateral pterygoid. In both age groups about half of the digastric IIB fibres contained solely fast X MyHC. In the lateral pterygoid, type IIB fibres with pure fast X MyHC was found in only one subject. The lateral pterygoid in elderly showed a significant amount of fibres with solely fast A MyHC, which were occasionally found in young adults. In the digastric, no significant differences were found between young and elderly, although the muscles of elderly contained lower mean value of slow MyHC, as compared to that of young muscles. It is concluded that the lateral pterygoid and the digastric muscles differ not only in the MyHC composition but also in modifications of the MyHC phenotypes during aging, suggesting that they have separate roles in jaw opening function.

  • 16.
    Renault, Valérie
    et al.
    CNRS UMR 7000, Cytosquelette et Développement, F-75 634 Paris.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Center for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute of Working Life, Umeå.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Center for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute of Working Life, Umeå.
    Butler-Browne, Gillian
    CNRS UMR 7000, Cytosquelette et Développement, F-75 634 Paris.
    Mouly, Vincent
    CNRS UMR 7000, Cytosquelette et Développement, F-75 634 Paris, France.
    Regenerative potential of human skeletal muscle during aging2002In: Aging Cell, ISSN 1474-9718, E-ISSN 1474-9726, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated the consequences of aging on the regenerative capacity of human skeletal muscle by evaluating two parameters: (i) variation in telomere length which was used to evaluate the in vivo turn-over and (ii) the proportion of satellite cells calculated as compared to the total number of nuclei in a muscle fibre. Two skeletal muscles which have different types of innervation were analysed: the biceps brachii, a limb muscle, and the masseter, a masticatory muscle. The biopsies were obtained from two groups: young adults (23 +/- 1.15 years old) and aged adults (74 +/- 4.25 years old). Our results showed that during adult life, minimum telomere lengths and mean telomere lengths remained stable in the two muscles. The mean number of myonuclei per fibre was lower in the biceps brachii than in the masseter but no significant change was observed in either muscle with increasing age. However, the number of satellite cells, expressed as a proportion of myonuclei, decreased with age in both muscles. Therefore, normal aging of skeletal muscle in vivo is reflected by the number of satellite cells available for regeneration, but not by the mean number of myonuclei per fibre or by telomere lengths. We conclude that a decrease in regenerative capacity with age may be partially explained by a reduced availability of satellite cells.

  • 17.
    Stål, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Marklund, Susanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    De Paul, R
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles.2003In: Cells Tissues Organs, ISSN 1422-6405, E-ISSN 1422-6421, Vol. 173, no 3, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The muscle fibre composition of three human intrinsic tongue muscles, the longitudinalis, verticalis and transversus, was investigated in four anterior to posterior regions of the tongue using morphological and enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. All three muscles typically contained type I, IIA and IM/IIC fibres. Type I fibres expressed slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC), type II fibres fast MyHC, mainly fast A MyHC, whereas type IM/IIC coexpressed slow and fast MyHCs. Type II fibres were in the majority (60%), but regional differences in proportion and diameter of fibre types were obvious. The anterior region of the tongue contained a predominance of relatively small type II fibres (71%), in contrast to the posterior region which instead showed a majority of larger type I and type IM/IIC fibres (66%). In general, the fibre diameter was larger in the posterior region. This muscle fibre composition of the tongue differs from those of limb, orofacial and masticatory muscles, probably reflecting genotypic as well as phenotypic functional specialization in oral function. The predominance of type II fibres and the regional differences in fibre composition, together with intricate muscle structure, suggest generally fast and flexible actions in positioning and shaping the tongue, during vital tasks such as mastication, swallowing, respiration and speech. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 18.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Österlund, Catharina
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres2015In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 136-156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150years ago. It took, however, another 100years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umea University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei.

  • 19.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Impaired positioning of the gape in whiplash-associated disorders.2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously introduced a new concept for natural jaw function suggesting that "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Thus, jaw function requires a healthy state of both the jaw and the neck motor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the positioning of the gape in space during maximal jaw opening at fast and slow speed in healthy as well as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) individuals. A wireless optoelectronic technique for three-dimensional movement recording was used. Subjects were seated in an upright position, with back support up to the mid-scapular level without headrest. The position of the gape in space was defined as the vertical midpoint position of the gape at maximal jaw opening (MP). In healthy, the MP generally coincided with the reference position at the start of jaw opening. In the WAD group, the MP was significantly lower than the reference position. No sex or speed related differences were found. The results suggest that both the width and orientation of the gape in space relies on coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation and mandibular and head-neck movements. This study also suggests an association between neck pain and dysfunction following trauma, and reduced width and impaired positioning of the gape in space. Finally, the MP seems to be a useful marker in evaluation of the functional state of the jaw-neck motor system

  • 20.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii2012In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 669-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 21.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences2013In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 895-907Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

  • 22.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 4, p. 683-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

  • 23.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 7, p. 1158-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

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