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  • 1.
    Augulyte, Lijana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Estimation of Water Sampling Rates and Concentrations of PAHs in a Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant Using SPMDs with Performance Reference Compounds2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 14, p. 5044-5049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were exposed at ten sampling points, each representing a different stage in the treatment process, in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Differences in SPMD uptake kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to variations in conditions at the sampling sites were evaluated by using five performance reference compounds (PRCs) with log Kow values of 4.20 to 6.34. PRC release rate constants (ke,PRC values) were calculated for PRCs for which 50-98% of the initial amounts were lost during the sampling period. The ke,PRC values were high, ranging from 0.08 to 0.11 day-1 for the studied PRCs, at sampling site W1 (raw sewage), the only sampling site where significant amounts of the PRCs with log Kow values >5 were released from the SPMDs. At the other sampling sites, only PRCs with log Kow values between 4.20 and 4.50 were released in significant amounts. The release rates at these sites were lowest (0.04 day-1) at sampling site W9 (the secondary clarifier) and highest (0.18 day-1) at W8 (the active sludge aeration basin). Differences between sampling rates (Rs) obtained using published laboratory-calibrated data and PRC-corrected Rs values were visualized by principal component analysis (PCA). The water concentrations of 24 studied PAHs fell substantially during the course of the sewage treatment process. However, low molecular weight PAHs were more effectively removed than high molecular weight PAHs. Significant deviations between actual and estimated water concentrations may arise unless PRC-corrected Rs values are applied.

  • 2.
    Augulyte, Lijana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kliaugaite, D.
    Racys, V.
    Jankunaite, D.
    Zaliauskiene, A.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chemical and Ecotoxicological Assessment of Selected Biologically Activated Sorbents for Treating Wastewater Polluted with Petroleum Products with Special Emphasis on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 195, no 1-4, p. 243-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical and ecotoxicological assessment of treatment of wastewater that had been polluted with petroleum products using only Activated Sludge (AS) and four biologically activated sorbents (BASs), consisting of activated sludge plus: coal-based activated carbon (-C1), coconut shell-based activated carbon (-C2), zeolite (-Z), and anthracite (-A) were conducted. The efficiency and robustness of the four wastewater treatment systems were evaluated by calculating the reduced total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and the acute ecotoxicity of the effluents. The chemical analysis showed that the combined treatment systems were very effective for reducing the total petroleum hydrocarbon and readily bioavailable PAH contents. The most efficient systems were the BAS-C1 and -C2, which removed 60–88% and 99.5–99.6% of TPH and PAH, respectively. The activated sludge-only treatment was the least effective for purifying the wastewater. Chemical oxygen demand was reduced by >90% by all carbon-based BASs (BAS-C1, BAS-C2 and BAS-A). Shifts in the relative composition of the individual PAHs were identified in samples taken before and after treatment. Algal and bacterial bioassays showed that the toxicities of effluents following treatment by all four systems (except AS for algae) were reduced by more than 80% and 90%, respectively. However, crustacean tests indicated that the carbon-based BASs reduced the toxicity [V tox(50)] only by 19–67%. Our results indicated that the combination of sorption and biodegradation processes have great potential in the treatment of petroleum products polluted wastewater and is less sensitive for inhibitors of the biological process than treatments in which activated sludge alone is used. The assessment of chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints provided valuable information, but contrasting results for one of the assays indicates that further analysis on the capacity of the different treatment systems is warranted.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Jegorova, Ilona
    Kaunelienė, Violeta
    Žaliauskienė, Audronė
    Dissolved Organochlorine and PAH Pollution Profiles in Lithuanian and Swedish Surface Waters2007In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 147-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, knowledge and concern regarding persistent organic pollutants and the environmental hazards they may pose have increased considerably, leading to international agreements such as the United Nations environment program Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), to minimize further release of POPs into the environment (UNECE Protocol, 1979; UNEP Stockholm convention, 2001; UNECE Convention, 1998). National POP monitoring programs should be designed to identify, characterize and address the release of the POPs listed in the Stockholm convention. However, analyses of grab samples only provide crude snapshots of total concentrations at single points in space and time, which may be highly unrepresentative of average concentrations, and fail to account for differences in the POPs’ bioavailability and various other relevant factors. To obtain a better understanding of the fate and availability of pollutants in the environment it is necessary to obtain data regarding their site-specific and regional exposure levels. Exposure levels expressed in terms of total chemical concentrations do not reflect the actual exposure of organisms, and thus may not accurately reflect the true risks posed. Therefore, environmental monitoring programs would be improved by using reliable, integrative sampling methods that would not only allow time-weighted average concentrations of pollutants in the environment to be determined, but also facilitate assessments of the risks these chemicals pose to the environment.

  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kauneliene, Violeta
    Cicenaite, Aurelija
    Jegorova, Ilona
    Katkeviciute, Jolita
    Tentative levels of pops in Lithuanian environment2005In: Environment, technology, resources: proceedings of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Conference on Environment, Technology and Resources, JUN 16-18, 2005 / [ed] Noviks, G, Rezekne: Rezekne higher education institution - Rezeknes Augstskola , 2005, p. 172-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. This study was done in order to evaluate tentative POPs levels in Lithuania. Limited amount of PAHs and PCBs were analyzed in Siauliai air, in two biggest Lithuanian rivers - Nemunas and Neris, and in one of the biggest waste landfill in Lapes. Sampling was done using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The same procedure of sampling and analyses was used to ensure data comparability. In general, POPs pollution levels were compared with results from other studies.

  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Zaliauskiene, Audrone
    Field study considerations in the use of passive sampling devices in water monitoring2007In: Passive Sampling Techniques in Environmental Monitoring / [ed] R. Greenwood, G. Mills and B. Vrana, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive monitors that are being increasingly used by monitoring agencies and wastewater dischargers to measure the contents of lipophilic organic chemicals that may adversely affect water quality. This chapter addresses the most frequently asked questions regarding the use of SPMDs for water monitoring and other questions related to the field application of SPMDs. It provides a sound understanding of the applicability and limitations of SPMDs for obtaining reliable monitoring data. The chapter discusses under field study considerations: pre-exposure considerations; SPMD storage considerations; and precautions/procedures during deployment and retrieval of SPMDs. In environmental monitoring projects using SPMDs, quality control (QC) procedures for sampling and analysis are applied to ensure that the data are of high quality. Appropriate QC samples are prepared to quantify possible sampler contamination during transport, deployment, retrieval, storage, processing, enrichment, fractionation operations and analyte recovery. In general, two groups of quality assurance measures are implemented: replicate QC and sampling device control.

  • 6. Cicenaite, Aurelija
    et al.
    Huckins, James N.
    Alvarez, David A.
    Cranor, Walter L.
    Gale, Robert W.
    Kauneliene, Violeta
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Feasibility of a simple laboratory approachnext term for determining temperature influence on SPMD–air partition coefficients of selected compounds2007In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, p. 2844-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are previous termanext term widely used passive sampling methodology for both waterborne and airborne hydrophobic organic contaminants. The exchange kinetics and partition coefficients of an analyte in previous termanext term SPMD are mediated by its physicochemical properties and certain environmental conditions. Controlled previous termlaboratorynext term experiments are used for determining the SPMD–air (Ksa's) partition coefficients and the exchange kinetics of organic vapors. This study focused on determining previous terma simple approachnext term for measuring equilibrium Ksa's for naphthalene (Naph), o-chlorophenol (o-CPh) and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) over previous termanext term wide range of temperatures. SPMDs were exposed to test chemical vapors in small, gas-tight chambers at four different temperatures (−16, −4, 22 and 40 °C). The exposure times ranged from 6 h to 28 d depending on test temperature. Ksa's or non-equilibrium concentrations in SPMDs were determined for all compounds, temperatures and exposure periods with the exception of Naph, which could not be quantified in SPMDs until 4 weeks at the −16 °C temperature. To perform this study the assumption of constant and saturated atmospheric concentrations in test chambers was made. It could influence the results, which suggest that flow through experimental system and performance reference compounds should be used for SPMD calibration.

  • 7. Poiger, Thomas
    et al.
    Buser, Hans-Rudolf
    Balmer, Marianne E
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Mülle, Markus D
    Occurrence of UV filter compounds from sunscreens in surface waters: regional mass balance in two Swiss lakes2004In: Chemosphere, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 951-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer care products often contain UV filters, organic compounds which absorb ultraviolet light. These compounds may enter surface waters directly (when released from the skin during swimming and bathing) or indirectly via wastewater treatment plants (when released during showering or washed from textiles). Predicted and measured UV filter concentrations were compared in a regional mass balance study for two Swiss lakes: Lake Zurich, a typical midland lake which is also an important drinking water resource, and Hüttnersee, a small bathing lake. Both lakes are extensively used for recreational activities and considerable direct input of UV filters is thus expected. This input was estimated from the number of visitors at swimming areas around the lakes and a survey of the usage of sunscreen products among these visitors. Possible additional indirect input via wastewater treatment plants was not considered in this study. The quantitatively most important UV filters, as indicated by the survey data, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, and benzophenone-3, all lipophilic compounds, were selected for analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual UV filters in water from Lake Zurich were low, ranging from <2 ng l−1 (detection limit) to 29 ng l−1, and somewhat higher at Hüttnersee, ranging from <2 to 125 ng l−1, with the highest concentrations found in summer, consistent with direct inputs to the lakes during this time. The concentrations were clearly lower than predicted from input estimates based on the surveys. This may be in part due to (i) an overestimation of these inputs (e.g. less than the 50% wash-off of UV filters assumed to occur during swimming), and (ii) some removal of these compounds from the lakes by degradation and/or sorption/sedimentation. UV filters were also detected in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed at Lake Zurich and Greifensee, another midland lake, at concentrations of 80–950 ng SPMD−1, confirming the presence of the compounds in surface waters and indicating a certain potential for bioaccumulation. SPMD-derived water concentrations were in the range of 1–10 ng l−1 and thus corresponded well with those determined in water directly. No UV filters were detected above blank levels in SPMDs deployed at a remote mountain lake used for background measurements.

  • 8. Verta, Matti
    et al.
    Salo, Simo
    Korhonen, Markku
    Assmuth, Timo
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Koistinen, Jaana
    Ruokojärvi, Päivi
    Isosaari, Pirjo
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Vikelsöe, Jörgen
    Larsen, Martin M
    Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea - A survey of existing data2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 67, no 9, p. 1762-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent survey results for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) in Baltic Sea sediments from Finland, Sweden and Denmark were merged with previously published Baltic Sea data. Regional distribution of concentration levels, differences in congener patterns, and temporal changes in sediment profiles were examined. One of the main objectives was to study if any major point sources for different PCDD/F congeners could be identified on a regional scale, based on sediment records. The survey confirmed the impact of chlorophenol production derived highly chlorinated PCDF-congeners on the total toxicity in sediments in the Gulf of Finland near the Kymijoki river estuary. Signatures of other point sources or combined point sources pertinent to specific industry branches or particular production processes (such as pulp bleaching, vinyl chloride production, thermal processes) may be discerned. However, the findings did not support any of the known point sources significantly influencing those congeners that are most abundant in Baltic herring and salmon. Instead, regional distributions in the Baltic Sea indicate that atmospheric deposition may act as a major source for those congeners and especially for 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. There were clear indications of declines in levels in sediment in some areas, but generally the levels of highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland were still high when compared with other areas of the Baltic Sea. Major areas with data gaps cover the south-eastern and eastern coastal regions of the Baltic Proper and the southern Gulf of Finland.

  • 9. Šetková, Lucie
    et al.
    Hajšlová, Jana
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University.
    Kocourek, Vladimír
    Kazda, Radek
    Suchan, Petr
    Fast isolation of hydrophobic organic environmental contaminants from exposed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) prior to GC analysis2005In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1092, no 2, p. 170-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) represent a passive sampling technology that is becoming widely used for monitoring of surface waters pollution. While “classic” procedures employ dialysis to recover target compounds from exposed SPMDs, in the present study analytes were isolated from cut membrane together with sequestering medium (triolein) using hexane as an extraction solvent. This approach allowed us to reduce the time needed for accomplishment of isolation step from 48 h to only 1 h. Automated gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up is employed in the following step to separate triolein from analytes fraction. Musk compounds (MCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and several other persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the respective fraction by GC method employing selective detectors (MSD, ECD). As shown in a series of analyses of SPMDs deployed in various aquatic ecosystems, high recoveries and good repeatability of results together with a possibility to obtain the information on the pollution of sampling site at the day of sample arrival to laboratory make this newly implemented procedure an interesting alternative to time consuming dialysis.

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