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  • 1.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Absence, deviance and unattainable ideals: Discourses on vegetarianism in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies2016In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 676-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five different northern Swedish schools. Method: Fifty-nine students and five teachers were observed, recorded and in some cases video-taped. The resulting data were analysed with a focus on big 'D' Discourses. Results: Results indicated that gendered Discourses of absence, deviance and unattainability restricted some students' access to vegetarian food. The absence of meat was constructed as simultaneously healthy and unhealthy, a lack of cultural familiarity with vegetarian cooking made finding recipes difficult and students perceived the loss of taste as very negative. The vegetarian was seen as deviant, with vegetarianism being conceptually equated with sickness. Access to meat-free food required a commitment to a vegetarian lifestyle, and this was seen as a sacrifice and as too much work, not only for the individual but also for others. Conclusion: To counteract the restricted access to vegetarian food, Home and Consumer Studies teachers can redesign activities in the subject with the help of critical food literacy. For example, cooking could focus on popular plant-based dishes instead of 'empty' vegetarian themes, all students could be allowed to share vegetarian dishes instead of reserving them for vegetarians, the possibly strict rules of vegetarianism could be relaxed for those who do not wish to commit to them and vegetarian food could be deliberately connected to strength and masculinity. However, this presupposes sufficient economic resources and ample food storage space.

  • 2.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Vasa Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "He just has to like ham": the centrality of meat in home and consumer studies2015In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 95, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited timeframes and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.

  • 3.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    'Don't give us an assignment where we have to use spinach!': food choice and discourse in home and consumer studies2016In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe classroom Discourses about vegetables during the planning, cooking, eating and evaluation of meals in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Fifty-nine students and five teachers were recruited from five northern Swedish villages and towns, and then observed, recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons that took place between 2010 and 2012. Based on 56 instances of talk about vegetables, four Discourses were identified and related to the three aspects of Belasco's culinary triangle of contradictions: identity, responsibility and convenience. The results indicated that the identity-based sensory and cultural Discourses sometimes clashed with the more responsibility-oriented health and evaluation Discourses. The health Discourse was only used when there was an element of evaluation, with assignments connected to grades. In all other cases, the sensory and cultural Discourses guided vegetable use. Sometimes different sensory or cultural assumptions could clash with each other, for example when the teacher insisted on the use of a specific recipe regardless of a student's taste preferences. Since these preferences did not always harmonize with curricular demands for responsibility, there might be a risk of basing grades on aspects of students' identity. Alternatively, students might feel constrained to argue against their own identity in order to be favourably evaluated. Then again, if teachers always bow to student tastes, this limits their chances of learning about food and physical health. Viewing the dilemma through the lens of the culinary triangle of contradictions may help teachers and researchers develop teaching methods that take all aspects of food choice into account.

  • 4.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Skolämnet Hem- och konsumentkunskap på 2000-talet: förutsättningar för elevers möjlighet till måluppfyllelse2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People are faced with a variety of consumer choices every day. If they do not have adequate and appropriate knowledge their choices create a greater risk of negative effects for the environment and the economy, and also for the individual's personal health and economic circumstances. Home and Consumer Studies (HC-studies) provides school pupils with educational opportunities on which to base their choice decisions.

    Aim The overall aim of this thesis is to describe and analyze the impact of frame factors such as, for example, teachers’ qualifications, classrooms, lesson time, interdisciplinary work and group work on the educational experience, focusing on pupils' opportunities for goal achievement in an HC-studies context.

    Methods Two different methods were used to obtain data, 1) surveys and 2) classroom observations. One nationwide survey were sent out in 2010 to people working with HC-studies (N=385) and two surveys were sent out in 2014, one to people working with the five subjects HC-studies, Physical Education and Health, Chemistry, Physics and Biology (n=388), and one to head teachers (N=216). All three surveys involved municipal and independent schools. The observations were carried out in four different schools in grades 5, 8 and 9, when pupils worked in the kitchen units and were made using video and audio recording. In total, 44 pupils participated.

    Results The surveys showed that the HC-studies teacher qualifications were higher in municipality schools compared to independent schools (86% vs 39%). Classrooms with 4 – 10 kitchen units were more common in the municipality schools than independent schools (94% vs 71%). Among teachers in the five subjects HC-studies, Physical Education and Health, Chemistry, Physics and Biology, as well as Head teachers, about half stated that the school they worked in, or had the responsibility for, used interdisciplinary teaching in the area of nutrition and health. Regarding barriers to interdisciplinary teaching, teachers and head teachers both considered a lack of planning time and scheduling to be the biggest problems.

    Video and audio recordings showed that lesson time, in combination with the amount of content to be delivered during the lesson, led to stressed and insecure pupils, and both teachers and pupils seemed to have a strong focus on the end result; the meal. Some pupils used a variety of strategies to change the cooking in order to have more chance of completing the process on time. Four different ways in which pupils worked together in the kitchen units emerged: 1) integrated, 2) expert, 3) divided, and 4) parallel group work. Integrated group work seemed to provide opportunities for learning because pupils communicated with each other, discussed how they would divide the cooking within the group, who should do what and how they would work so that everyone could take part in the cooking. The other three types of groups did not seem conductive to learning. Many pupils in these groups did not communicate and were not able to show their skills and creativity. It also emerged that, if they got the chance, pupils chose tasks about which they already had some knowledge.

    Conclusions This thesis highlights various conditions shaping pupil opportunity to reach goals in the subject. The study raises many questions about the extent to which pupils around the country have the same opportunity to reach goals in the HC-studies syllabus.

  • 5.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bohm, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Group work interaction among pupils In Home and Consumer Studies in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Home Economics, ISSN 1999-561X, E-ISSN 1999-561X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze different types of group work during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in four Swedish schools, located in two different municipalities. Observations of pupils' practical tasks were carried out in six classrooms, and video/sound recorded. Study participants totaled 44 pupils (11 – 16 years old). Qualitative content analysis of the observations showed four different types of group work; 1) integrated, 2) expert (appointed by the kitchen partner/s and self-appointed), 3) divided, and 4) parallel. The most important finding was that pupils belonging to a self-appointed expert group, a divided group or a parallel group did not have the best conditions for learning. The integrated type appeared more conducive to individual learning than the other three. As a result, teachers have to be aware that non-functioning group work can negatively impact pupils' possibility of achieving the grade-related tasks for the subject. 

  • 6.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Bohm, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    The importance of time frames in Swedish Home and Consumer Studies2016In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 299-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how time frames affect pupils and teachers in cooking activities during lessons of different durations for Home and Consumer Studies, with a specific focus on the pupils’ experiences. To investigate this, classroom observations were carried out in 2011 and 2012, with the help of audio and video recordings in three different schools in Sweden and included altogether 22 pupils (18 girls, 4 boys) in grade 9 (15–16 years). Each class was observed during two separate lessons, lasting between 1 h 50 minutes (110 minutes) and 2 h 20 minutes (140 minutes). The six lessons resulted in 12 hours of video recorded time and 80 hours of sound recordings.

    The study showed that the importance of finishing on time seemed to be ingrained in most pupils in all classes and the end result was perceived as more important than the process of cooking. The study also showed that knowledge of cooking skills and time management seemed important for success in grade-related tasks. Pupils demonstrated different ways of handling the time frames, e.g. using various methods to speed up the cooking process. This study raises important questions about the relationship between national and local time frames and the curriculum aims in Home and Consumer Studies. 

  • 7.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Practical conditions for home and consumer studies in Swedish compulsory education: a survey study2013In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 556-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to map the field of internal and external conditions that Swedish Home and Consumer Studies teachers and pupils have contend with. A questionnaire was constructed and delivered online in November 2010. It contained 27 question covering teacher qualification, quality of premises and equipment, lesson time and collaboration, and the use of national syllabi. A total of 385 persons across the country answered the questionnaire; about 21% of those teaching Home and Consumer Studies in Swedish compulsory school during the school year 2009–2010. These respondents taught in a total of 392 compulsory schools, which equalled about 22% of the schools teaching grades 7–9 in Sweden. Almost a quarter (23%) of the teachers lacked formal training for Home and Consumer Studies. Respondents without an appropriate degree qualification included those trained as nursery school teachers, dietitians and civil engineers. As regards classrooms, while 88% of respondents reported access to fully equipped kitchens with stoves, sinks and work surfaces, 5% used regular classrooms and the remainder were obliged to come up with alternative solutions, such as using portable kitchens in regular classrooms or conducting their lessons in the school restaurant. This study raises many questions about the quality of Home and Consumer Studies provision in a number of schools. The local deficiencies in the nationally decided frame factors for Home and Consumer Studies found by the present study gives us reason to doubt that all pupils achieve the overall learning goals of ‘knowing in practice’ and making informed choices utilizing environmental, economic and health perspectives. This might affect the health and economy of the individuals in the long run, with implications for the national economy and public health. On the basis of these findings, we therefore recommend that current conditions for Home and Consumer Studies and how the subject should operate in schools become a focus for national debate.

  • 8.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Landfors, H.
    Olsson, C.
    Wailing, M.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Interdisciplinary work regarding nutrition and health in Swedish compulsory school: a survey studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Agency for Education state that implementation of education should involve possibilities for pupils to work interdisciplinary and experience knowledge in different ways. The aim of the study was to explore the presence of interdisciplinary work related to the content of nutrition and health in Swedish compulsory school, and factors influencing interdisciplinary work. To investigate this, two web-based nationwide questionnaires were sent out in 2014 to compulsory schools in Sweden. One questionnaire was aimed at teachers in five subjects: Home and Consumer Studies, Physical Education and Health, Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. The second questionnaire was aimed at head teachers. A total of 388 teachers and 216 head teachers answered the respective questionnaires. The study showed that 40% of the teachers and 59% of the head teachers reported that their school worked interdisciplinary regarding nutrition and health. Lack of time for planning and scheduling problems were seen as the main barriers by both teachers and head teachers. A pre-requisite for interdisciplinary work to be successful is that teachers have a chance to meet and plan, and the study indicate that frame factors have a critical impact on what is possible to perform regarding interdisciplinary work in Swedish schools. Improving the interdisciplinary work regarding nutrition and health might increase the potential for schools to achieve the overall goal of pupils gaining knowledge and understanding of the importance of their lifestyle for health, the environment and society.

1 - 8 of 8
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