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  • 1.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Salazar Torres, Mariano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    When sex is hardly about mutual pleasure: Dominant and resistant discourses on sexuality and its consequences for young people's sexual health2012In: International Journal of Sexual Health, ISSN 1931-7611, E-ISSN 1931-762X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores gendered discourses about sexuality in Ecuador, the consequences of these discourses for young people's sexual health, and the possibility of the emergence of resistance and challenge. We analyzed and compared individual interviews and focus-group discussions with: young women, youth service providers, ordinary young men, and activist young men. Five interpretative repertoires emerged: (1) becoming sexually respectable women, (2) policing young women's sexuality, (3) men threatening and protecting women, (4) sexual relations (abusing, fooling, or seducing?), and (5) emerging resistance. The repertoires constructed a hierarchy of sexualities in which heterosexual monogamous lifelong coupledom was normative and women's pleasure was absent, but resistance was emerging.

  • 2.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Salazar Torres, Mariano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Morras, Ione
    Medicus Mundi Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Spain.
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Condemning violence without rejecting sexism?: Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men - five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists - and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  • 3.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dahlblom, Kjerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Solórzano, Lucia
    Nicaraguan Natl Autonomous Univ, Ctr Demog & Hlth Res, Leon, Nicaragua.
    Herrera, Andrés
    Nicaraguan Natl Autonomous Univ, Ctr Demog & Hlth Res, Leon, Nicaragua.
    Exposure to intimate partner violence reduces the protective effect that women's high education has on children's corporal punishment: a population-based study2014In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, p. 24774-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that women's education is protective against corporal punishment (CP) of children. However, the effect that women's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has on the association between women's education and children's CP has not been studied.

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how the interaction between women's exposure to IPV and their education level influences the occurrence of children's CP at the household level.

    METHODS: We selected 10,156 women who had at least one child less than 16 years old from cross-sectional data from the 2006-2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey. Children's CP was defined as the punishment of children by slapping them, hitting them with a fist, or hitting them with a rope, belt, stick, or other object. IPV was measured by using a conflict tactic scale. The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the women's mental health. We computed adjusted risk ratios (ARR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator.

    RESULTS: Women's exposure to IPV was associated with a 10-17% increase in the risk of children's CP. IPV and children's CP were associated with impaired women's mental health. Women's lifetime exposure to emotional IPV and controlling behavior by a partner significantly decreased the protective effect from women's high education level on children's CP. When women were exposed to emotional IPV, the protective effect from having a college education decreased from ARR=0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80) to ARR=0.98 (95% CI 0.80-1.19). A similar pattern was found among women exposed to controlling behavior by a partner, the protective effect decreased from ARR=0.71 (95% CI 0.53-0.90) to ARR=0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.06).

    CONCLUSION: This study shows how significant gains in one positive social determinant of children's well-being can be undermined when it interacts with men's violence toward women. Policies that aim to end children's CP must include actions to end women's exposure to IPV.

  • 4.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Nicaraguan Natl Autonomous Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Leon, Nicaragua.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Intimate partner violence and early child growth: a community-based cohort study in Nicaragua2012In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study analyses whether a mother's exposure to different forms of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy was associated with the index child linear growth, and whether these associations were modified by the gender of the child.

    Methods: A pregnancy cohort of 478 women in Leon, Nicaragua, resulted in 461 live births. From this group, 81% (375/461) children were available for anthropometric follow-up at 40 to 46 months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association between IPV and height-for-age Z-scores, adjusting for confounding factors.

    Results: Sixty-three percent (236/375) of the mothers had been exposed to some form of IPV during pregnancy (emotional, physical, sexual or controlling behavior). After adjustment for confounding factors, maternal exposure to any IPV during pregnancy was associated with 0.24 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p = 0.02). A separate analysis of each IPV type showed that emotional, physical or sexual IPV during pregnancy were not significantly associated with lower mean height-for-age Z-scores, whereas ever exposure to controlling behavior by the father of the child was related to 0.29 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p < 0.01) When stratified by gender, these associations remained significant only for young girls.

    Conclusions: This study has contributed to the growing amount of evidence pointing to the pervasive effect of different forms of IPV on child health. Our study highlights the relevance of maternal autonomy for linear child growth, especially for young girls in the Nicaraguan context.

  • 5.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The supportive process for ending intimate partner violence after pregnancy: the experience of nicaraguan women2012In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1257-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This grounded theory study found that Nicaraguan mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy eventually acted to protect their children and themselves. They experienced ending abuse as an empowerment process characterized by a cognitive change in women's attitudes toward partner abuse and the emergence of help-seeking strategies that lead to ending violence with or without ending the relationship. This process was facilitated by a supportive environment that challenged abusive behaviors as well as being asked about abuse during their last pregnancy. Although environmental changes can facilitate ending abuse, Nicaragua's public institutions must be strengthened to reach women in need.

  • 6.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Valladares, Elliette
    Persson, Lars Åke
    Intimate partner violence, maternal social resources, and early child growth: a community-based cohort study in NicaraguaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study2014In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 14, p. 26-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite an increased use of contraceptive methods by women, unintended pregnancies represent one of the most evident violations of women's sexual and reproductive rights around the world. This study aims to measure the association between individual and community exposure to different forms of violence against women (physical/sexual violence by the partner, sexual abuse by any person, or controlling behavior by the partner) and unintended pregnancies.

    Methods: Data from the 2006/2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey were used. For the current study, 5347 women who reported a live birth in the five years prior to the survey and who were married or cohabitating at the time of the data collection were selected. Women's exposure to controlling behaviors by their partners was measured using six questions from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Area-level variables were constructed by aggregating the individual level exposures to violence into an exposure measurement of the municipality as a whole (n = 142); which is the basic political division in Nicaragua. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

    Results: In total, 37.1% of the pregnancies were reported as unintended. After adjusting for all variables included in the model, individual exposure to controlling behavior by a partner (AOR = 1.28, 95% CrI = 1.13-1.44), ever exposure to sexual abuse (AOR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.03-1.62), and ever exposure to physical/sexual intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.44, 95% CrI = 1.24-1.66) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancies. Women who lived in municipalities in the highest tertile of controlling behavior by a partner had 1.25 times higher odds of reporting an unintended pregnancy than women living in municipalities in the lowest tertile (AOR = 1.25, 95% CrI = 1.03-1.48).

    Conclusions: Nicaraguan women often experience unintended pregnancies, and the occurrence of unintended pregnancies is significantly associated with exposure to different forms of violence against women at both the individual and the municipality level. National policies aiming to facilitate women's ability to exercise their reproductive rights must include actions aimed at reducing women's exposures to violence against women.

  • 8.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Nicaraguan Natl Autonomous Univ, Ctr Demog & Hlth Res, Leon, Nicaragua.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Questions about intimate partner violence should be part of contraceptive counselling: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua2012In: Journal of family planning and reproductive health care, ISSN 1471-1893, E-ISSN 2045-2098, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The study aim was to examine whether exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with reversible contraceptive use in ever-pregnant partnered women. The authors conducted a longitudinal panel study in León municipality, Nicaragua. At baseline (2002-2003), 478 pregnant women were interviewed and 398 were available for questioning about contraceptive use 40-47 months after childbirth. IPV was assessed at baseline and follow-up, with women classified as never abused, ending abuse, continued abuse or new abuse. Reversible contraceptive use was defined as women using any form of contraception apart from sterilisation. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were used to assess the association between reversible contraceptive use, IPV patterns and IPV exposures at follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty percent of the women were not pregnant and with a partner at follow-up. Half were using reversible contraceptives and 28% were sterilised. Women exposed to a continued abuse pattern (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 1.04-5.99), and those exposed to emotional (AOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.32-5.95), physical (AOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.15-11.10) or any IPV at follow-up (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.24-5.40) had higher odds of reversible contraceptive use than those not exposed, even after adjusting for demographic factors. No significant differences in the type of reversible contraceptive used were found between women exposed or not to IPV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: IPV exposure was associated with more reversible contraceptive use. Abuse inquiring at health facilities providing contraceptives should be implemented to identify women exposed to IPV and provide adequate support.

  • 9.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Questions about IPV should be part of contraceptive counseling: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in NicaraguaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Ending intimate partner violence after pregnancy: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua2009In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, p. 350-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV.

    METHODS: A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied.

    RESULTS: Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse.

    CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a referral system to be more effective. Interventions at the community level are crucial to reducing partner violence.

  • 11.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Negotiating Masculinity, Violence, and Responsibility: A Situational Analysis of Young Nicaraguan Men’s Discourses on Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence2015In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This situational analysis study aims to explore the discourses that young Nicaraguan men use in their understanding of male intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual abuse toward women. Six urban and 8 rural focus group discussions including 91 men were conducted. Positional maps were used to articulate the positions taken in the data within 2 continuums of variation representing men’s reasoning around control over women and men's responsibility for IPV and sexual abuse (SA). Nicaraguan men's discourses ranged from challenging gender inequality, IPV, and SA to supporting the patriarchal gender order. A key finding shows that a discourse supporting gender equality and men's full responsibility for IPV and SA is fighting to achieve recognition in this setting.

  • 12.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Who is using the morning-after pill?: Inequalities in emergency contraception use among ever partnered Nicaraguan women; findings from a national survey2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 61-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionFew studies have described the inequalities in hormonal emergency contraception (HEC) use in developing countries. Thus, the main aim of this manuscript is to study socio-demographic inequalities in HEC use among Nicaraguan women, and to study if inequalities in HEC use arise from exposure to different forms of intimate partner violence (IPV).MethodsData from a national cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 was used. This study included data from 8284 ever partnered, non-sterilized women. Separate multivariate logistic regressions with each form of IPV were conducted to study how different forms of IPV were associated with HEC. Women¿s age, residency, education, socioeconomic status, parity, and current use of reversible contraception were included in the multivariate logistic regressions to obtain adjusted odds ratios showing inequalities in HEC use.ResultsSix percent of the women had ever used HEC (95% CI 5.1-6.9). Multivariate analyses showed that urban residency, higher education, and higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher odds of ever using HEC, and age was associated with decreased odds of HEC use. A key finding of this study is that after controlling for socio-demographic factors, the odds of using HEC were higher for those women ever exposed to emotional IPV (AOR 1.58, 95%CI 1.16-2.00), physical IPV (AOR 1.82, 95%CI 1.30-2.55), sexual IPV (AOR 1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.52), and controlling behavior by partner (AOR 1.51 95%CI 1.13-2.00) than those not exposed.ConclusionsThis study provides sound evidence supporting the hypothesis that there are inequalities in HEC use even in countries where inequalities in use to other forms of contraceptive technology has been reduced. HEC use among Nicaraguan women is strongly influenced by individual factors such as age, residency, educational level, socioeconomic status, and exposure to different forms of IPV. It is paramount that actions are taken to diminish these gaps.

  • 13.
    Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Intimate partner violence in Nicaragua: studies on ending abuse, child growth, and contraception2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive, worldwide public health problem and one of the most common violations of human rights. The aim of this thesis were twofold: (i) to study the process and factors related to ending of IPV of Nicaraguan women and (ii) to examine to what extent IPV exposure is associated with the child linear growth and women’s contraceptive use after pregnancy.

    Methods: Data were collected from a panel study which followed 398 women who were inquired about their IPV exposure during pregnancy and at follow-up a median of 43 months after delivery. Three hundred seventy five of their children were available for anthropometric assessment. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women exposed to physical/sexual IPV during pregnancy but not at follow-up. For analysis both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used.

    Results: Women experienced four patterns of abuse: never abused, ending abuse, continued abuse, and new abuse. Of the women who experienced any IPV before or during pregnancy, 59% (95% CI 52-65%) reported no abuse at follow-up (135/229).  Women exposed to a continued abuse pattern and those exposed to any IPV, emotional or physical IPV at follow-up had higher odds of reversible contraceptive use. Further, exposure to any IPV and controlling behavior by a partner during pregnancy impaired the index child linear growth. Girls whose mothers had low social resources during pregnancy were the most affected. Women felt that being inquired about IPV while pregnant contributed to process of ending the abuse.

    Ending IPV was experienced as a process with three phases: “I came to a turning point,” “I changed,” and the “Relationship ended or changed.” Successful strategies to ending abuse mainly involved utilizing informal networks. Ending IPV did not always mean ending the relationship. IPV awareness, severity of the abuse, and economic independence were individual factors associated with ending of abuse. At the relationship level, diminishing or no exposure to controlling behavior by their partner was a key element. At the community level, a supportive and less tolerant to IPV environment as well as exposure to IPV inquiry during pregnancy facilitated the process of ending abuse.

    Conclusion: The study found that IPV exposure is associated with the children’s linear growth and women’s reversible contraceptive use. In addition, it is clear that gender norms regarding IPV are not static and that they play an important role in facilitating the process ending the abuse by increasing abused women’s access to emotional and material support. Our results emphasize the relevance of improving public services response to IPV.

  • 14. Schmeer, Kammi K.
    et al.
    Piperata, Barbara A.
    Herrera Rodriguez, Andres
    Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Centro de Investigación en Demografía y Salud (CIDS), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua – León (UNAN-León), León, Nicaragua.
    Centeno Cardenas, Francisco Jose
    Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua2015In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 18, no 16, p. 2915-2924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Design: Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in Leon, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (P<0.05) of maternal resources with household, adult-specific and child-specific food insecurity. Setting: Municipality of Leon, Nicaragua. Subjects: Households with children aged 3-11 years in rural and urban Leon. Results: Only 25 % of households with young children were food secure, with 50 % mildly food insecure and 25 % moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34 % lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60 % lower when mothers managed household money, 48 % lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65 % higher among single mothers and 16 % lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult-and child-specific food insecurity. Conclusions: This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  • 15.
    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Center for Demography and Health Research, Nicaraguan National Autonomous University, León, Nicaragua.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing.

    OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW).

    DESIGN: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men.

    RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf