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  • 1.
    Brännström, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Meeting in a 'free-zone': clinical ethical support in integrated heart-failure and palliative care2019In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 577-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Integrating heart-failure and palliative care combines expertise from two cultures, life-saving cardiology and palliative care, and involves ethically difficult situations that have to be considered from various perspectives. We found no studies describing experiences of clinical ethical support (CES) in integrated cardiology and palliative care teams.

    Objective: Our aim is to describe experiences of CES among professionals after a period of three years working in a multidisciplinary team in integrated heart-failure and palliative homecare.

    Method: The study design was descriptive qualitative, comprising interviews with seven professionals from one integrated heart-failure and palliative care team who received CES over a three-year period. The interview data were subjected to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The CES was found to offer possibilities for meeting in an ethical ‘free-zone’ where the participants could relate to each other beyond their various professional roles and specialties. The trust within the team seemed to increase and the participants were confident enough to express their points of view. Together they developed an integrated understanding, and acquired more knowledge and a comprehensive view of the ethically difficult situation of concern. The CES sessions were considered a means of becoming better prepared to deal with ethical care issues and developing action strategies to apply in practice, from shared standpoints.

    Conclusion: Participating in CES was experienced as meeting in an ethical ‘free-zone’ and seemed to be a means of facilitating integration of palliative and heart-failure care.

  • 2.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Experiences of being in ethically difficult care situations and an intervention with clinical ethics support2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies show that healthcare professionals often experience ethical difficulties in their relations with patients, relatives, and other professionals and in relation to organisational issues, and these can sometimes be difficult to handle. Failing to act or to relate in accordance with one’s values for what is good and right might cause a troubled conscience that is connected to feelings of guilt and ill-being. Ethical issues related to the care of patients with end-stage renal disease have been described, but no studies in this context have been found that explore registered nurses’ (RNs’) and physicians’ experiences of being in ethically difficult situations that give rise to a troubled conscience. The importance of communicating ethical issues in order to understand and handle ethically difficult care situations has been emphasized. Various forms of clinical ethics support (CES) have been described and evaluated, but studies on the communication processes and the organisation of CES interventions are sparse and no study describing a CES intervention based on Habermas’ theory of communicative action has been found.

    Aim: The overall aim was to increase our understanding about being in ethically difficult care situations and about how communication concerning ethical issues in healthcare can be promoted. More specifically, the aim of studies I and II was to illuminate experiences of being in ethically difficult situations giving rise to a troubled conscience among RNs and physicians, while studies III and IV aimed to describe the communication of value conflicts (III) and the organisation and performance of a CES intervention (IV).

    Methods: In studies I and II narrative interviews with ten RNs (I) and five physicians (II), were performed in a dialysis care context. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. In studies III and IV, eight audio- and video-recorded and two audio-recorded sessions of the CES intervention, were conducted and sorted by the data tool Transana and analysed in accordance with a qualitative content analysis (III) and a qualitative concept- and data-driven content analysis (IV).

    Results: The RNs’ narratives (I) resulted in the theme ‘Calling for a deliberative dialogue’. Their narratives expressed feelings of uncertainty, solitude, abandonment, and guilt in complex and ambiguous ethically difficult situations. The narratives concerned the value conflict between preserving life by all means and preserving life with dignity. The physicians’ narratives (II) resulted in the themes ‘Feeling trapped in irresolution’ and ‘Being torn by conflicting demands’. Their narratives expressed feelings of uncertainty, solitude, abandonment and guilt related to the obligation to make crucial decisions and in situations when their ideals and the reality iii clashed. The analysis of the communication of value conflicts during the CES intervention inspired by Habermas’ theory of communicative action (study III) revealed a process of five phases: a value conflict expressed as feelings of frustration, sharing disempowerment and helplessness, revelation of the value conflict, enhancing realistic expectations of the patients and relatives, and seeing opportunities to change the situation instead of obstacles. The CES intervention (study IV) was organised as a framework with a given structure and an openness for variations to facilitate communicative action. Three courses of actions to reach a communicative agreement were identified and concerned the approach to achieve a permissive communication, opening up for extended views, and enhancing mutual understanding (IV).

    Conclusion: The results show that both RNs and physicians expressed feelings of uncertainty abandonment and loneliness in similar ethically difficult situations but from different points of view. They struggled with the same value conflicts and feelings, but they did not share their struggles with each other. The lack of communication and confirmation led to distrust and increased feelings of uncertainty. The CES intervention, inspired by Habermas’ theory of communicative action, offered the possibility of dealing with experiences of ethically difficult care situations. In the permissive atmosphere, the professionals helped each other to balance their ambiguity, frustrations, and powerlessness and came to an agreement about how to handle the value conflicts and how to act. The findings from this CES intervention constitute a step towards a CES method that is clearly described so that leaders can be educated and extended intervention studies with different kinds of data can be conducted in order to further develop knowledge about how to promote an inter-professional dialogue about ethical difficulties.

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  • 3.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Postgraduate nursing students’ experiences of practicing ethical communication2022In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 29, no 7-8, p. 1709-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ethics communication has been described as a pedagogical form, promoting development of ethical competence among nursing students. The ‘one to five method’ was developed by this research group as a tool for facilitating ethical communication in groups among healthcare professionals but has not yet been evaluated.

    Aim: To explore post-graduate nursing students’ experiences of practicing ethical communication in groups.

    Research design: The study design is qualitative.

    Participants and research context: The study comprised 12 nursing students on a post-graduate course for Registered Nurses focusing on palliative care. After education the students engaged as participants and facilitators in ethics communication in groups, with support from the ‘one to five method’. Data were derived from the students written reflections and subjected to thematic analysis.

    Ethical considerations: The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards in the 2013 Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at Umeå University.

    Results: An overall theme was identified, ‘being supported to achieve a democratic dialogue concerning ethical problems’ and five themes, related to each step of the ‘one to five method’. The themes concerned: putting the experience of an ethical dilemma into words; being confirmed by shared emotions; defining the value conflict using ethical principles; expressing virtues of empathy and raised awareness; jointly finding various action approaches.

    Discussion: Regular ethics communication in groups encourages nursing students to actively seek understanding and clarification of ethically difficult situations.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that ethics communication in groups could be a way of developing virtues during education. Interventions using the ‘one to five method’ need to be further studied among student groups from other healthcare contexts.

  • 4.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The Swedish translation and cultural adaptation of the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP)2021In: BMC Medical Ethics, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Moral distress has been described as an emotionally draining condition caused by being prevented from providing care according to one's convictions. Studies have described the impact of moral distress on healthcare professionals, their situations and experiences. The Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) is a questionnaire that measures moral distress experienced by healthcare professionals at three levels: patient, system and team. The aim of this project was to translate and make a cultural adaption of the MMD -HP to the Swedish context.

    METHODS: The questionnaire comprises 27 items, rated according to frequency and intensity on a five-point Likert scale (0-4). The procedure for translating MMD-HP followed WHO guidelines (2020). These entailed a forward translation from English to Swedish, a back translation, expert panel validation, pretesting and cognitive face-to-face interviews with 10 healthcare professionals from various professions and healthcare contexts.

    RESULTS: The Swedish version of MMD-HP corresponds essentially to the concept of the original version. Parts of some items' had to be adjusted or removed in order to make the item relevant and comprehensible in a Swedish context. Overall, the cognitive interviewees recognized the content of the items which generally seemed relevant and comprehensible.

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of MMD-HP could be a useful tool for measuring moral distress among healthcare professionals in a Swedish healthcare context.

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  • 5.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Psychometric testing of the Swedish version of the measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals (MMD-HP)2023In: BMC Medical Ethics, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Moral distress has been described as moral constraints and uncertainty connected with guilty feelings of being unable to give care in accordance with one's values for good care. Various instruments to measure moral distress have been developed. The instrument measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals (MMD-HP) was developed to capture the experience and frequency of moral distress among various healthcare professionals. The MMD-HP has been translated and culturally adapted into the Swedish language and context; however, the translation has not been validated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals (MMD-HP).

    Methods: Eighty-nine staff from various professions at a hospital in northern Sweden participated in the study. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to check for consistency with the original version of the MMD-HP. To evaluate internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha was calculated for each domain and for the scale as a whole.

    Results: The scale as a whole showed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.96, with a range between 0.84 and 0.90 between the different subscales. A confirmatory factor analysis based on the original four-factor structure showed good fit indices with a χ2/df of 0.67, CFI at 1.00, TLI at 1.02 and NFI at 0.97. RMSEA was at 0.00, and SRMR was at 0.08. A comparison of the total score between three equally large groups of years of experience at the present workplace showed no significant differences (F = 0.09, df = 2, p = 0.912).

    Conclusions: We found that the Swedish version of the MMD-HP has shown validity and reliability for use in a Swedish context for measuring moral distress among health personnel.

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  • 6.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Zingmark, Karin
    The 'one to five' method - A tool for ethical communication in groups among healthcare professionals2021In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 51, article id 102998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare professionals have expressed a wish for facilitated inter-professional communications about ethical difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The introduction of an easily accessible method for facilitating ethical communication in groups may promote its implementation in everyday clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to draw on previous studies and available knowledge in order to develop and describe a method that enables systematic implementation of inter-professional ethical communication in groups. The ‘one-to-five method’ for facilitated ethical communication in groups is theoretically inspired by Habermas's theory of communicative actions and base on previous studies that accords with the Helsinki Declaration (2013). The ‘one to five method’ supports guidance of ethical communication in five steps: telling the story about the situation; reflections and dialogue concerning the emotions involved; formulation of the problem/dilemma; analysis of the situation and the dilemma; and searching for a choice of action or approach. It offers an easily accessible method for teaching healthcare professionals how to facilitate ethics communication groups. Educating facilitators closely connected to clinical work may lead to ethical dialogue becoming a natural part of clinical practice for healthcare professionals.

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  • 7.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Ersta Skondal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Feeling trapped and being torn: Physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience.2011In: BMC Medical Ethics, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 12, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience, as narrated by physicians working in dialysis care.

    METHOD: A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze the transcribed narrative interviews with five physicians who had varying lengths of experience in nephrology.

    RESULTS: The analysis shows that physicians working in hemodialysis care suffered from a troubled conscience when they felt torn by conflicting demands and trapped in irresolution. They faced ethical dilemmas where they were forced to make crucial decisions about life or death, or to prioritize when squeezed between time restraints and professional and personal demands. In these ethical dilemmas the physicians avoided arousing conflicts, were afraid of using their authority, were burdened by moral responsibility and felt devalued and questioned about their way of handling the situation. The findings point to another way of encountering ethical dilemmas, being guided by their conscience. This mean sharing the agony of deciding how to act, being brave enough to bring up the crucial problem, feeling certain that better ways of acting have not been overlooked, being respected and confirmed regarding decisions made.

    CONCLUSION: The meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience in those working in hemodialysis care, indicate the importance of increasing the level of communication within and among various professional groups - to transform being burdened by a troubled conscience into using conscience as a guide - in situations where no way of solving the problem seems to be good.

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  • 8.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Zingmark, Karin
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Managing Ethical Difficulties in Healthcare: Communicating in Inter-professional Clinical Ethics Support Sessions2016In: HEC Forum, ISSN 0956-2737, E-ISSN 1572-8498, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 321-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies show that healthcare professionals need to communicate inter-professionally in order to manage ethical difficulties. A model of clinical ethics support (CES) inspired by Habermas' theory of discourse ethics has been developed by our research group. In this version of CES sessions healthcare professionals meet inter-professionally to communicate and reflect on ethical difficulties in a cooperative manner with the aim of reaching communicative agreement or reflective consensus. In order to understand the course of action during CES, the aim of this study was to describe the communication of value conflicts during a series of inter-professional CES sessions. Ten audio- and video-recorded CES sessions were conducted over eight months and were analyzed by using the video analysis tool Transana and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that during the CES sessions the professionals as a group moved through the following five phases: a value conflict expressed as feelings of frustration, sharing disempowerment and helplessness, the revelation of the value conflict, enhancing realistic expectations, seeing opportunities to change the situation instead of obstacles. In the course of CES, the professionals moved from an individual interpretation of the situation to a common, new understanding and then to a change in approach. An open and permissive communication climate meant that the professionals dared to expose themselves, share their feelings, face their own emotions, and eventually arrive at a mutual shared reality. The value conflict was not only revealed but also resolved.

  • 9.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Moral distress thermometer: Swedish translation, cultural adaptation and validation2023In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Moral distress is a problem and negative experience among health-care professionals. Various instruments have been developed to measure the level and underlying reasons for experienced moral distress. The moral distress thermometer (MDT) is a single-tool instrument to capture the level of moral distress experienced in real-time.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to translate the MDT and adapt it to the Swedish cultural context. R

    esearch design: The first part of this study concerns the translation of MDT to the Swedish context, and the second part the psychometric testing of the Swedish version.

    Participants and research context: 89 healthcare professionals working at a hospital in northern Sweden participated. Convergent validity was tested between MDT and Measure of Moral Distress-Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP), and construct validity was tested by comparing MDT scores among healthcare professionals. MDT was compared with responses to the final questions in MMD-HP. One-way ANOVA, Welch’s ANOVA, Games–Howell post-hoc test and Pearson’s correlation analysis were done.

    Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Swedish Ethics Review Authority (dnr 2020-04120) in accordance with Helsinki Declaration.

    Results: The translated Swedish version of MDT was described as relevant to capture the experience of moral distress. The mean value for MDT was 2.26, with a median of 2 and a mode value of 0. The result showed moderate correlations between the MDT and MMD-HP total scores. There was a significant difference when comparing MDT and healthcare professionals who had never considered leaving their present position with those who had left and those who had considered leaving but had not done so, with the latter assessing significantly higher moral distress.

    Conclusion: The MDT is an easily available instrument useful as an extension to MMD-HP to measure the real-time experience of moral distress among healthcare professionals in a Swedish context.

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  • 10.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Andersson, Lars
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Development, validity and reliability testing the Swedish Ethical Climate Questionnaire2019In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 26, no 7-8, p. 2482-2493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An ethical climate has been described as a working climate embracing shared perceptions about morally correct behaviour concerning ethical issues. Various ethical climate questionnaires have been developed and validated for different contexts, but no questionnaire has been found concerning the ethical climate from an inter-professional perspective in a healthcare context. The Swedish Ethical Climate Questionnaire, based on Habermas’ four requirements for a democratic dialogue, attempts to assess and measure the ethical climate at various inter-professional workplaces. This study aimed to present the construction of and to test the psychometric properties of the Swedish Ethical Climate Questionnaire.

    Method: An expert group of six researchers, skilled in ethics, evaluated the content validity. The questionnaire was tested among 355 healthcare workers at three hospitals in Sweden. A parallel analysis (PA), an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed.

    Ethical considerations: The participants included in the psychometric analysis were informed about the study, asked to participate in person and informed that they could withdraw at any time without giving any reason. They were also assured of confidentiality in the reporting of the results.

    Findings: The parallel analysis (PA) recommended one factor as a solution. The initial exploratory factor analysis with a four-factor solution showed low concordance with a four-factor model. Cronbach’s alpha varied from 0.75 to 0.82; however, since two factors only consisted of one item, alpha could not be reported. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire scale showed good homogeneity (α = 0.86). A confirmatory factory analysis was carried out based on the four requirements and showed a goodness-of-fit after deleting two items. After deletion of these items, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.82.

    Discussion: Based on the exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that the scale should be treated as a one-factor model. The result indicates that the instrument is unidimensional and assesses ethical climate as a whole.

    Conclusion: After testing the Swedish Ethical Climate Questionnaire, we found support for the validity and reliability of the instrument. We found the 10-item version of Swedish Ethical Climate Questionnaire satisfactory. However, we found no support for measuring different dimensions and, therefore, this instrument should be seen as assessing ethical climate as of whole.

  • 11.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Towards a method for clinical ethics support to promote inter-professional communication about ethically difficult care situations: observations of an interventionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Studies show that healthcare professionals need inter-professional clinical ethics support (CES) to communicate and reflect on ethically difficult care situations. Internationally, various CES-interventions have been performed, but the communication process and the organisation of CES are sparsely described in the literature. The CES intervention observed in this study was inspired by Habermas’ theory of communicative action and involved healthcare professionals meeting inter-professionally to discuss value conflicts to achieve a common understanding and arrive in agreement about how to act and relate. The communication of value conflicts during a series of sessions in this CES - intervention has been described in a previous study. To further develop a clearly described theory-based CES-method it is important to increase knowledge about the conditions that can promote communication of value conflicts. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the organisational and communicative conditions of a CES intervention with the intention to promote interprofessional communication about ethically difficult care situations.

    Methods Eight audio- and video-recorded CES sessions were conducted over a period of eight months. The observations were transcribed and sorted by using the video analysis tool Transana and analyzed with concept and data-driven content analysis methods.

    Results The findings show the CES organization as an integrated framework, providing both a given structure and openness for variation, as conditions for facilitating the communication of value conflicts. The structure consisted of both constancy and flexibility. The given structure provided constancy while the openness for variation provided flexibility. The combination of constancy and flexibility generated bot safety, and stability for a free and dynamic dialogue, and opened up for responsiveness and creativity to find proposals for actions. As courses of actions to reach communicative agreement were the approaches of a permissive communication, extended views and mutual understanding found.

    Conclusion The results showed CES as an integrated framework with a given structure and openness for variations as conditions to reach a communicative agreement. The findings constitute a step towards a clearly described CES method based on Habermas theory of communicative action. Extended intervention studies with different kinds of data needs to be conducted in order to fully develop the method and get increased knowledge about how to promote a dialogue about ethically difficulties.

  • 12.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Department of Nursing, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Communicative and organizational aspects of clinical ethics support2019In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 33, no 16, p. 724-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that healthcare professionals need inter-professional clinical ethics support (CES) in order to communicate and reflect on ethically difficult care situations that they experience in their clinical practice. Internationally, various CES interventions have been performed, but the communication processes and organisation of these interventions are rarely described in detail. The aim of this study was to explore communicative and organisational conditions of a CES intervention with the intention of promoting inter-professional communication about ethically difficult care situations. Eight audio- and video-recorded inter-professional CES sessions, inspired by Habermas' theory of communicative actions, were conducted. The observations were transcribed, sorted, and analysed using concept- and data-driven content analysis methods. The findings show three approaches to promoting communicative agreement, which include the CES facilitators' and participants' approaches to promoting a permissive communication, extended views, and mutual understanding. The CES sessions had organizational aspects for facilitating communicative agreement with both a given structure and openness for variation. The dynamic structure of the organization, promoted both safety and stability as well as a creativity and responsiveness, which in turn opened up for a free and dynamic inter-professional dialogue concerning ethically difficult care situations. The findings constitute a step towards a theory-based CES method inspired by Habermas' theory of communicative action. Further research is needed in order to fully develop the method and obtain increased knowledge about how to promote an inter-professional dialogue about ethically difficulties.

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  • 13.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Zingmark, Karin
    County Council of BD, Sweden.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Ethically difficult situations in hemodialysis care: nurses' narratives2015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 711-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Providing nursing care for patients with end-stage renal disease entails dealing with existential issues which may sometimes lead not only to ethical problems but also conflicts within the team. A previous study shows that physicians felt irresolute, torn and unconfirmed when ethical dilemmas arose.

    RESEARCH QUESTION: This study, conducted in the same dialysis care unit, aimed to illuminate registered nurses' experiences of being in ethically difficult situations that give rise to a troubled conscience.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: This study has a phenomenological hermeneutic approach.

    PARTICIPANTS: Narrative interviews were carried out with 10 registered nurses working in dialysis care.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University.

    RESULTS: One theme, 'Calling for a deliberative dialogue', and six sub-themes emerged: 'Dealing with patients' ambiguity', 'Responding to patients' reluctance', 'Acting against patients' will', 'Acting against one's moral convictions', 'Lacking involvement with patients and relatives' and 'Being trapped in feelings of guilt'.

    DISCUSSION: In ethically difficult situations, the registered nurses tried, but failed, to open up a dialogue with the physicians about ethical concerns and their uncertainty. They felt alone, uncertain and sometimes had to act against their conscience.

    CONCLUSION: In ethical dilemmas, personal and professional integrity is at stake. Mistrusting their own moral integrity may turn professionals from moral actors into victims of circumstances. To counteract such a risk, professionals and patients need to continuously deliberate on their feelings, views and experiences, in an atmosphere of togetherness and trust.

  • 14.
    Fischer-Grönlund, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Department of Health Science, Division of Nursing, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The 'one to five' method: A tool for ethical communication in groups among healthcare professionals2021In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 51, article id 102998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare professionals have expressed a wish for facilitated inter-professional communications about ethical difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The introduction of an easily accessible method for facilitating ethical communication in groups may promote its implementation in everyday clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to draw on previous studies and available knowledge in order to develop and describe a method that enables systematic implementation of inter-professional ethical communication in groups. The 'one-to-five method' for facilitated ethical communication in groups is theoretically inspired by Habermas's theory of communicative actions and base on previous studies that accords with the Helsinki Declaration (2013). The 'one to five method' supports guidance of ethical communication in five steps: telling the story about the situation; reflections and dialogue concerning the emotions involved; formulation of the problem/dilemma; analysis of the situation and the dilemma; and searching for a choice of action or approach. It offers an easily accessible method for teaching healthcare professionals how to facilitate ethics communication groups. Educating facilitators closely connected to clinical work may lead to ethical dialogue becoming a natural part of clinical practice for healthcare professionals.

  • 15.
    Wälivaara, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fischer Grönlund, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Descriptions of long-term impact from inter-professional ethics communication in groups2023In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 614-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On a daily basis, healthcare professionals deal with various ethical issues and it can be difficult to determine how to act best. Clinical ethics support (CES) has been developed to provide support for healthcare professionals dealing with complex ethical issues. A long-term perspective of participating in inter-professional dialogue and reflective-based CES sessions is seemingly sparse in the literature.

    Research aim: The aim was to describe experiences of impact of Inter-professional Ethics Communication in groups (IEC) based on Habermas' theory of communicative actions, after 6 months from the perspective of an inter-professional team.

    Research design: A qualitative inductive approach was chosen, and individual interviews (n = 13) were conducted. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Participants: The participants, 10 females and two males, represented assistant nurses, registered nurses, physicians, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, welfare officers and psychologists. Each had attended at least four IEC sessions.

    Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå, Sweden, and it has been undertaken in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration.

    Findings: Overall, the descriptions expressed a perceived achievement of a deepened and integrated ethical awareness that increased the participants' awareness of ethically difficult situations as well as their own ethical thinking, actions and approaches in daily work. Perspectives were shared and the team become more welded. They carried the memories of the reflections within them, which was perceived as supportive when encountered new ethically situations.

    Discussion: Putting words to unarticulated thoughts may stimulate repeated reflections, leading to new insights and alternative thoughts.

    Conclusion: The outcome of IEC sessions 6 months following the last session can be described as an incorporated knowledge that enables actions in ethically difficult situations based on an ethical awareness both at a 'We-level' and an 'I-level'.

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