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  • 1. Botha, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths.2006In: Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Coetzee, A
    et al.
    Linde, B
    Pienaar, Jaco
    The workplace antecedents of the intention to emigrate.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom.
    Rothmann Jr, S
    Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure2013In: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

  • 4. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Rothmann, Jnr., I.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model with a categorical estimator.2012In: Psychological Reports, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 528-544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. De Beer,, L. T.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    2013In: Demands, exhaustion and absenteeism: Comparing management, professionals and administrative occupations., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory2013In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, no 1, article id a1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.

    Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.

    Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593) included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.

    Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.

    Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.

    Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  • 7. De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa2016In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  • 8.
    De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process2016In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. Design: A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Methods: Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Results: Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. Conclusions: The results provided supportive evidence for an “indirect-only” mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  • 9. De Beer, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, I., Jnr
    Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.2015In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. De Beer,, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann,, Jnr., I.
    Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.2014In: South African Journal of Psychology.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    De Waal,, J.J.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital2013In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap) construct.

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data.

    Motivation for the study: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003) were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated.

    Main findings: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1) did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2). Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap.

    Practical/managerial implications: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital.

    Contribution/value-add: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital.

  • 12. De Witte, H
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa.
    De Cuyper, N
    Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?2016In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

    Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

    Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

    Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

  • 13. Jacobs, D
    et al.
    Mostert, K
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Experience of work-life interaction in the mining industry: A phenomenological study. 2008In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Masia, U
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Unraveling safety compliance in the mining industry: Examining the role of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment as antecedents.2011In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 31, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Meyer, R
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Eastern Cape.2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Mostert, K
    et al.
    Cronje, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Job resources, work engagement and the mediating role of positive work-home interaction of police officers in the North West Province.2006In: Acta Criminologica, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 64-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Mostert, K
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Gauché, C
    Jackson, L. T. B.
    Burnout and engagement in university students. A psychometric analysis of the MBI-SS and the UWES-S.2007In: South African Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Pienaar, Jaco
    Research ethics in economic and management sciences: A researcher’s resource.2010In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 177-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Pienaar, Jaco
    Skeleton key or siren song: Is coping the answer to balancing work and wellbeing?2008In: The individual in the changing working life / [ed] K. Näswall, J. Hellgren & M. Sverke, Cambridge University Press , 2008, p. 235-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    De Witte, H.
    Work locus of control and sense of coherence as antecedents of job insecurity2016In: South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5585, E-ISSN 2078-5976, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted various antecedents of job insecurity, both in cross-sectional research and in a recent meta-analysis. A review of this literature indicates that work locus of control actually is the only personality antecedent that has received considerable attention, while sense of coherence may also be an important factor to consider. Data on biographical variables, cognitive and affective job insecurity, work locus of control and sense of coherence were gathered from employees across 3 organisations (N=718), presenting two different sectors (chemical industry and financial services), by means of anonymous surveys. Data were analysed by means of correlations and regression analyses. Results indicate that both work locus of control and sense of coherence play a role in predicting job insecurity, even after controlling for biographical variables. Considering their individual contributions, it is suggested here that sense of coherence may be even more important than work locus of control as a personality antecedent of job insecurity.

  • 21. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    De Witte, H
    Hellgren, J
    Sverke, M
    The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations.2013In: Southern African Business Review, Vol. 17, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Supporting early-career psychologists and social workers: Psychological flexibility moderates between isolation at work and cognitive weariness2018In: , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper falls on ‘new’ employees; more specifically, social workers who start their first position after their studies, and psychologists who start their first position after their one year of practical training, following completion of their studies. This work firstly makes the assumption that both social workers and psychologists are exposed to emotionally demanding situations in their work life – even from early on. Early on in a new chosen career may typically be the time when a new employee experiences the least ability to influence their work – for example whom they work with and what kinds of tasks they work on. Also, this may also very likely be the time such an employee feels most isolated from other professionals in the same occupation – One is typically employed for one’s unique skills, but works with other professionals, with different skills sets. Lastly, how successfully one perceives oneself to have transitioned from academic to professional life may be an influencing factor.

    A postal survey was sent to 5213 (respondents=2514, not target group=103, response rate 49%) psychologists and social workers in Sweden who had graduated within three years of the spring of 2017. In the analysis, psychology students who had not yet reached independent registration as psychologist were also excluded (Final sample=2224: 642 psychologists; 1582 social workers)

    The central hypothesis was that emotional demands, perceived influence at work, and experienced isolation at work may contribute to the burnout (as indicated by the dimensions of cognitive weariness and physical fatigue) of psychologists and social workers. The paper set out to investigate a regression model where work-related variables relates to two dimensions of burnout (physical fatigue and cognitive weariness). Work-related variables to consider were self-rated transition from studies to work, emotional demands, influence at work and professional isolation, and work-related psychological flexibility was considered as a moderator.

    Regarding physical fatigue, the results (34% explained variance) show that females and younger employees scored higher. Working as a psychologist vs. as social worker was not a significant predictor. In terms of the independent variables, a successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), emotional demands, influence at work, isolation at work and psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to physical fatigue. No evidence of moderation was found.

    Regarding cognitive weariness, the results (35% explained variance) show that females scored higher. Age, and whether employees were working as a psychologist vs. as a social worker were not significant. In terms of the independent variables, a successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), emotional demands, influence at work, isolation at work and psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to cognitive weariness. A test of interaction effect showed that there is a positive relationship between cognitive weariness and isolation at work, for individuals who also score low on psychological flexibility.

  • 23. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Coping strategies in the South African Police Service.2003In: South African Journal of Industrial Psycholog, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Job stress in the South African Police Service2006In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Occupational stress, personality traits, coping strategies and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services.2007In: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 246-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Suicide ideation in the South African Police Service.2005In: South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 58-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Rothmann, J.C
    The evaluation of a self-development programme for managers in a corporate pharmacy group.2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 50-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Sieberhagen, C. F
    Mostert, K
    Investigating turnover intentions by role overload, job satisfaction and social support moderation.2007In: South African Journal of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Van Wyk, D
    Teacher Burnout: Construct equivalence and the role of union membership.2006In: South African Journal of Education, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 541-551Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Pienaar, Jaco
    et al.
    Willemse, S. A.
    Burnout, engagement, coping and general health of service employees in the hospitality industry.2008In: Tourism Management, Vol. 29, p. 1053-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Saayman, A
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    de Pelsmacker, P
    Viviers, W
    Cuyvers, L
    Muller, M. L.
    Jegers, M.
    Competitive intelligence activities at the firm level:  Construct exploration, validation and equivalence.2008In: Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 383-411Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Saayman, M
    et al.
    Van der Merwe, P
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Expenditure based segmentation of tourists to the Kruger National Park.2009In: Acta Academica, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 107-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial Risk and Health Profile Groups Among Early Career Psychologists and Social Workers2018In: 13th EAOHP Conference 2018 - Adapting to rapid changes in today´s workplace: Book of proceedings, EAOHP , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both social workers and psychologists are exposed to emotionally demanding situations in their work life – even from early on. The focus of this paper falls on social workers who start their first position after their studies, and psychologists who start their first position after their one year of practical training, following completion of their studies. Early on in a new career would typically be when a new employee experiences the least ability to influence their work situation – for example whom they work with and what kinds of tasks they work on. Also, this may also very likely be the time such an employee is vulnerable if professionally isolated, at time when crucial skills and competences are formed – One is typically employed for one’s unique skills, but works with other professionals, with different skills sets. Lastly, how successfully one perceives oneself to have transitioned from academic to professional life may be an influencing factor.

    A postal survey was sent to 5213 (respondents=2514, not target group=103, response rate 49%) psychologists and social workers in Sweden who had graduated within three years of the spring of 2017. In the analysis, graduated psychology students who had not yet reached independent registration as psychologist were excluded (Final sample=2224: 642 psychologists; 1582 social workers)

    The central hypothesis was that emotional demands, perceived influence at work, and experienced isolation at work may contribute to burnout-related symptoms (as indicated by the dimensions of cognitive weariness and physical fatigue) among psychologists and social workers in the beginning of their careers. We set out to investigate a regression model where work-related variables relates to two dimensions of burnout (physical fatigue and cognitive weariness). The work-related variables were self-rated transition from studies to work, emotional demands, influence at work and professional isolation, and work-related psychological flexibility was considered as a moderator.

    The results indicate that females and younger employees in general rated higher on physical fatigue (34% explained variance). Working as a psychologist vs. as social worker was not a significant predictor. In terms of the independent variables, a deemed-as-unsuccessful transition between studies and work (self-rated), high emotional demands, low influence at work, experienced isolation at work and lower psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to physical fatigue. No evidence of moderation was found.

    Regarding cognitive weariness, the results (35% explained variance) show that females scored higher. Age and line of work were not significant predictors. In terms of the independent variables, a deemed-as-successful transition between studies and work (self-rated), higher emotional demands, lower influence at work, higher isolation at work and lower psychological flexibility all made significant direct contributions to cognitive weariness. A test of interaction showed that there is a positive relationship between cognitive weariness and isolation at work, for individuals who also score low on psychological flexibility.

    Our results are informative for early career management of psychologists and social workers.

  • 34. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Burnout and engagement of student leaders at a Higher Education institution.2005In: South African Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Els, C
    Management of employee health and wellness in South Africa: Perspectives of employers, service providers and trade unions.2011In: South African Journal of Human Resource Management,, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Sieberhagen, C
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Employment health and wellness in South Africa: The role of legislation and management standards.2009In: Sieberhagen, C., Rothmann, S., & Pienaar, J. (2009). Employment health and wellness in South Africa: The role of legislation and management standards. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(10), 1 – 9., Vol. 7, no 10, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Sverke, M
    et al.
    Hellgren, J
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Lu, C.-Q.
    Falkenberg, H
    What do we feel and do when our organization changes?: Organizational change, down-sizing, job insecurity, employment contracts, part-time, flexible and temporary working.2016In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective (Third Edition). / [ed] Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester: Wiley. , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38. Swanepoel, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in Gauteng Province.2004In: Acta Criminologica, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Van der Merwe, A.S
    et al.
    Rothmann, S
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Coping, stres en selfmoord-denkbeeldvorming in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens in die Vrystaat [Coping, stres and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Freestate].2004In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Van der Merwe, P
    et al.
    Saayman, M
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Expenditure based segmentation of South African biltong hunters.2011In: Expenditure based segmentation of South African biltong hunters., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Van Wyk, M
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Towards a research agenda for job insecurity in South Africa.2008In: Southern African Business Review, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 49-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Van Wyk, Sumarie M
    et al.
    de Beer, Leon T.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, South Africa.
    Schaufeli, Wilmar B
    The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context2016In: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 42, no 1, article id a1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490) was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity) and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity. Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work underload to either work engagement or organisational commitment. Instead, bootstrapping showed that there was an indirect-only relationship from work underload to work engagement and organisational commitment through workplace boredom - indicating full mediation. Practical/managerial implications: Management should not neglect workplace boredom, as results indicate that it may adversely impact work engagement and organisational commitment. Therefore, workplace boredom should be a concern not only for individuals, but also for the organisation at large. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research available on workplace boredom in South Africa by providing evidence of acceptable psychometric properties for a workplace boredom scale.

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