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  • 1.
    Axia, Giovanna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Prior, Margot
    Department of psychology, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Cross-cultural influences on temperament: A comparison of Italian. Italo-Australian and Anglo-australian toddlers.1992In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, ISSN ISSN 0005-0067, Vol. 27, p. 52-56-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperament of three groups of 1- to 3-year-old children from Italy and Australia was compared using Australian and Italian versions of the Toddler Temperament Scale (Fullard, McDevitt,&Carey,1984). Italians, Australians, and Italo-Australians (Italian parent but living in Australia) differed on Intensity, Threshold, Approach, and Persistence dimensions of temperament, in ways which supported the stereotype of the sociable and “emotional” Italian temperament type. Overall, the Australians and the Italians were most different, with the Italo-Australians in between. Developmental differences in all groups were also observed. Mothers’ overall ratings of the child’s temperament was predicted by similar variables in the two Australian groups, but not in the Italian group. The findings support an interactional view of child temperament in its effects on development.

  • 2.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Effects of interpersonal relationship on children's representations of other people beliefs and intentions.1995In: Theory of mind: Children's comprehension of other people mentale states / [ed] P. Battistelli, Florence: Giunti , 1995, p. 69-109-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Effects of interpersonal relationships on children´s theories of mind.1995In: Italian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 7, p. 321 - 332-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of Psychology, university of Padua, Italy.
    Twins´studies: Main issues and theoretical indications.1986In: Etá Evolutiva, Vol. 23, p. 97-107-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Carelli, Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Development and Construct Validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI).2011In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI;Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). The original version of the ZTPI was extended by including a Future Negative scale, and the psychometric properties of both versions were examined in a sample of 419 adults aged between 18 and 80 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support both for the original five-factor solution proposed byZimbardo and Boyd (1999) in a Swedish sample and for a six-factor solution with the Future Negative scale as an independent factor. These findings extend the original ZTPI and suggest that negative feelings about the future constitute a central dimension of the temporal perspective. The Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) provides a reliable and valid instrument for measuring time perspective in the context of Swedish research and to be beneficial in its application in multiple areas of psychology and related disciplines.

  • 6.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Conoscenza di eventi e sviluppo delle abilitá conversazionali1991Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of  of scripted knowledge and contextual support on children's conversations1999In: Communication & Cognition, Vol. 32, p. 173-188-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Internalization, partecipation, and ethnocentrism1998In: Human Development, ISSN 0018-716X, E-ISSN 1423-0054, ISSN ISSN 0018-716X, EISSN 1423-0054, Vol. 41, p. 355-359-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Timelines of past event: reconstructive retrieval of temporal patterns2011In: Advances in Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 1895-1171, E-ISSN 1895-1171, Vol. 7, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most naturalistic events are temporally and structurally complex in that they comprise a number of elements and that each element may have different onset and offset times within the event. This study examined temporal information processing of complex patterns of partially overlapping stimulus events by using 2 tasks of temporal processing. Specifically, participants observed a pantomime in which 5 actors appeared on the scene for different periods of time. At test, they estimated the duration each actor or reconstructed the temporal pattern of the pantomime by drawing a timeline for each actor. Participants made large errors in the time estimation task, but they provided rather accurate responses by using the timeline as a retrieval support. These findings suggest that temporal processing of complex asynchronous events is a challenging cognitive task, but that reliance on visuo-spatial retrieval support, possibly in combination with other temporal heuristics, may produce functional approximations of complex temporal patterns.

  • 10.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Twins1994In: Dictionary of Developmental Psychology. / [ed] S. Bonino, Turin: Einaudi , 1994, p. 300-305-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Cognitive and linguistic development among twins.1986In: Psyche, Vol. 17, p. 19-31-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Event representation and preschool children's conversational skills1991In: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, Vol. 14, p. 339-356-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Linguistic development among twins.1986In: Etá Evolutiva, Vol. 24, p. 107-116-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Referential communication skills in twin children.1987In: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, Vol. 40, p. 88-89-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Bastoni, Elisa
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy .
    Communicative competence in linguistic development: a comparison between twins, siblings and singletons.1990In: Etá Evolutiva, Vol. 5, p. 26-37-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cusinato, Mario
    Department of psychology University of Padua, Italy.
    Preschool2003In: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, Vol. 1, no 264-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the main important stages in children's cognitive, emotional and moral development during the preschool period.

  • 17.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cusinato, Mario
    Department of psychology univeristy of Padua Italy.
    Stages of infancy2003In: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, ISSN ISBN: 0028656725, Vol. 1, p. 253-258-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to summarize the main findings of research in the field of child development during infancy. Infancy refers to the period of child development  that begins at birth and ends at about two years of life. Recent research in ithe field of cognitive, emotional and language development, including  parent-child relationships , attachment and family environment are reviewd and discussed. 

  • 18.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Representation of multiple durations in children and adults2011In: Child Development Research, ISSN 2090-3987, p. 907601-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping track of durations of multiple event attributes with different on set and offset times is a challenging task for both children and adults. In this study, children between 5 and 15 years and young adults observed a puppet show in which three puppets appeared on the scene during overlapping intervals of 30 s to 90 s. At test, participants completed a conventional time estimation task and a timeline task in which they reconstructed the temporal pattern by drawing a timeline for each puppet. For all age groups, the timeline task produced more accurate duration judgments than the time estimation task. Preschoolers’ time estimation was at chance level, but their timeline performance was surprisingly good and age differences were eliminated in some task conditions.

    These findings suggest that the timeline procedure provides an efficient retrieval support for complex temporal events and that even preschool-aged children are able to represent multiple asynchronous durations, possibly by relying on relational event knowledge in combination with visuospatial retrieval support.

  • 19.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sense of time and executive functioning in children and adults2008In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 372-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of patient studies suggest that impairments in frontal lobe functions are associated with disorders in temporal information processing. One implication of these findings is that subjective experience of time should be related to executive functions regardless of etiology. In two experiments, we examined sense of time in relation to components of executive functioning in healthy children and adults. In Experiment 1, children between 8 to 12 years completed six experimental tasks that tapped three components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Sense of time was examined in a duration judgment task in which participants reproduced stimulus durations between 4 to 32 s. In Experiment 2, adult participants completed the time reproduction task under varying concurrent task demands. Both experiments showed selective effects in that time reproduction errors were related to the inhibition and updating, but not to the shifting, components of executive functioning. However, the observed effects were modulated by task demands and age-related differences in cognitive competence. We conclude that individual differences in executive functioning are only weakly related to time reproduction performance in healthy children and adults.

  • 20.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Gender biases in children’s memory for expected and unexpected objects in real-world settings.1997In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, ISSN ISSN 0261-510X, Vol. 15, p. 1-16-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive control in children's time monitoring2004In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, ISSN ISSN 0020-7594, EISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 39, no 5-6, p. 206-207-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined school-aged children's time monitoring in relation to individual differences in executive control functions. The present study involved an individual-difference approach with three latent executive functions - mental shifting, information updating and monitoring, and inhibition of prepotent responses. Children between 8 to 12 years completed a series of experimental tasks that were assumed to tap each target executive function as well as a parallel task of time monitoring. The findings are discussed in relation to the unity and diversity of executive functions and their contribution to children's time monitoring.

  • 22.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Neural correlates of time perspective2015In: Time perspective theory: review, research and application: essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, van Beek, W., Berlin: Springer , 2015, p. 231-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.

  • 23.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time out of mind: temporal perspective in adults with ADHD2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation.

    Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI).

    Results: Although a majority of the ADHD participants were tested under stimulant medication, they showed significant differences in all the six subscales of the S-ZTPI. Logistic regression analysis, with age, education, depression, and response inhibition as covariates, showed that the Future Positive Scale was the primary predictor of ADHD status.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that ADHD is associated with systematic biases in habitual time orientation and that these differences may contribute to functional problems in ADHD.

  • 24.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broadening the TP Profile: Future Negative Time Perspective2015In: Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, 1, p. 87-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the future as an arena for planning, self-regulation and achievement has been of considerable interest in past research. The majority of this research suggests that future-oriented thinking has considerable benefits for psychological adjustment and wellbeing. The future is nevertheless not only a temporal space for goal-setting and positive expectations, it may also be associated with fear, uncertainty and anxiety, which may ultimately have detrimental effects on both mental and physical health. Here we present the outline for the Swedish ZTPI (S-ZTPI) which extends the original ZTPI by separating the Future dimension into two sub-factors: The Future Positive scale and the Future Negative scale. We argue that separating the future into two separate dimensions thus comprehending both a positive and a negative valence of the future, adds important information regarding association between future time perspective and subjective well-being.

  • 25.
    Cusinato, Mario
    et al.
    Department of psychology University of Padua, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stages of Middle childhood2003In: International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family Relationships, Vol. 1, p. 258-264-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Cusinato, Mario
    et al.
    Department of psychology University of Padua, italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stages of toddlerood2003In: International Encyclopedia of marriage and family relationships, Vol. 1, p. 269- 274-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    do Rego Leite, Umbelina
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Roazzi, Antonio
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Campello de Souza, Bruno
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Brazilian Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Children - ZTPI-C2017In: Proceeding of the 16th International FacetTheory Conference, Netanya, Israel. June 26-29, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to create and validate aversion of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for children based on itemsadapted from the original adult ZTPI scale and the Negative Future Subscale.For that purpose, an instrument containing 69 items, divided into six maincategories (past, present, and future, each with positive and negativeperceptions), was applied to 675 boys and girls aged from 8 to 12 years frompublic and private schools in Brazil. Cluster analyses done on the items ofeach of the six categories, and a total of 27 items were removed due to theirdistance to the centroid. The remaining 42 items were then submitted to an SSAand the resulting diagram partitioned into a polar structure according to the principles of Facet Theory.The specific structure found was interpreted in terms of Zimbardo et al. (1999) time perspective framework as well as  children's temporal knowledge and its development.

  • 28.
    Donati, C.
    et al.
    Italian Institute of Toy Saftey, Como, Italy.
    Benelli, B.
    Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padova, Italy.
    Fabregant, M.
    Pedagogy-Product Department of Technological Institute of Toys, IBI, Alicante, Spain.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coradetti, R.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Snidero, S.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Scarinzi, C.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Morra, B.
    Ear, nose and Throat Department, San Giovanni Battista Hosptal, torino, Italy.
    Gregori, D.
    University of Public Health and Micribiology, University of Torino, Italy.
    Are FPCIs a source of increased risk for children? Results of a multicenter, experimental study comparing children´s behaviour with FPCIs and toys2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Food Products Containing Inedibles (FPCIs) are believed to represent a source of higher choking risk in children. The aim of this study was to set up a controlled study, conducted on children aged 3-6 in a laboratory setting, in order to understand their behavior when interacting with FPCIs (with reference to mouthing activities, double nature recognition, and toy assembling ability). METHOD: The experimental phase was divided into two sessions: a FPCI session and a Toy session, to which 247 children were randomly assigned. During these sessions children were observed in order to catch their mouthing activity according to the two types of objects available to them (FPCIs and Toys). RESULTS: This study shows that: (a) children's behavior with respect to toys contained in FPCIs and toys presented alone is not significantly different; (b) children's ability to distinguish between the edible and non-edible part of the FPCI was very high; and (c) mouthing episodes of the inedible parts were negligible and comparable between FPCIs and toys presented alone. This strongly suggests that, with respect to choking risk, FPCIs are not per se distinguishable from toys containing small parts. IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Restrictions on the sale of FPCIs with small toys exist in the U.S. market. In Europe, FPCIs are allowed to be on sale, under the condition that, in case, they will follow the general regulatory requirements of small toys packaged and sold alone. In this case, they must provide age warnings and labels. Our findings do not justify the different attention that toys in FPCIs are at times afforded by regulators when compared to "stand alone" toys.

  • 29.
    Forman, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time keeping and working memory development in early adolescence: A 4-year follow-up2011In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 170-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal study, we examined time keeping in relation to working memory (WM) development. School-aged children completed two tasks of WM updating and a time monitoring task in which they indicated the passing of time every 5min while watching a film. Children completed these tasks first when they were 8 to 12years old and then 4years later when they were 12 to 16years old. Time keeping in early adolescence showed a different pattern of outcome measures than 4years earlier, with reduced clock checking and increased timing error. However, relative changes in WM development moderated these adverse effects. Adolescents with greater relative gains in WM development were better calibrated than participants with less developing WM functions. We discuss these findings in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive control functions and socioemotionally driven reward seeking.

  • 30.
    Molinari, Luisa
    et al.
    University of Parma, Italy .
    Speltini, Giuseppina
    University of Bologna, Italy .
    Passini, Stefano
    University of Bologna, Italy .
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time perspective in adolescent and young adults: enjoying the present and trusting in a better future2016In: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 594-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time perspective is crucial in adolescence and youth, when individuals make important decisions related to their present and future. The focus of this research was to use the six-factor short version Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) scale in a sample of adolescents and young adults, and to analyse its associations with decision-making, relational styles and engagement. A structural equation model of the effects of S-ZTPI on these variables was computed, and its psychometric properties were found adequate. The results underline that young people’s present orientation is associated with a relational style based on confidence in oneself and others, and with active engagement in terms of responsibility and trust in a better future. Our findings suggest a positive description of adolescents’ views, as they are able to enjoy the time they are living in without giving up their responsibilities for making a better world for the future.

  • 31.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time monitoring and executive functioning: Individual and developmental differences2006In: Timing the future: The case for time-based prospective memory / [ed] Joseph Glicksohn & Michael S. Myslobodsky, Singapore: World Scientific, 2006, p. 191-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Carelli, Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Time monitoring and executive functioning in children and adults2007In: Journal of ExperimantalChild Psychology, ISSN 0022-0965, no 96, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood:Associations with current g and g in youth.2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

  • 35.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  • 36.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being2017In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

  • 37. Sircova, Anna
    et al.
    van de Vijver, F.J.R
    Osin, E
    Milfont, T.L.
    Fieulaine, N
    Kislali-Erginbilgic, A
    Zimbardo, G
    Djarallah, S
    Seghir Chorfi, M
    do Rego Leite, U
    Lin, H
    Lv, H
    Bunjevac, T
    Tomas, T
    Punek, J
    Vrlec, A
    Matic, J
    Bokulic, M
    Klicperová-Baker, M
    Kost ál, J
    Seema, R
    Baltin, A
    Aposttolidis, T
    Pediaditakis, D
    Griva, F
    Anagnostopoulos, F
    Carmi, N
    Goroshit, M
    Peri, M
    Shimojima, Y
    Sato, K
    Ochi, K
    Kairvs, A
    Liniauskaite, A
    Corral-Verdugo, V
    Przepiorka, A
    Blachnio, A
    Ortuno, V.E.C
    Gamboa, V
    Mitina, O
    Semyenova, N
    Gerasimova, V
    Rawski (Nepryakho), T
    Kuleshova, E
    Polskaya, N
    Tulinov, N
    Romanko, I
    Semina, Y
    Nikitina, E
    Yasnaya, V
    Davydova, I
    Utyasheva, E
    Emeliyanova, I
    Ershova, R
    Nedeljkovic, J
    Díaz Morales, J.F.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boniwell, I
    Linley, P.A
    Boyd, J.N
    A global look at time: a 24-country study of the equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory2014In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, no 4, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we assess the structural equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) across 26 samples from 24 countries (N = 12,200). The ZTPI is proven to be a valid and reliable index of individual differences in time perspective across five temporal categories: Past Negative, Past Positive, Present Fatalistic, Present Hedonistic, and Future. We obtained evidence for invariance of 36 items (out of 56) and also the five-factor structure of ZTPI across 23 countries. The short ZTPI scales are reliable for country-level analysis, whereas we recommend the use of the full scales for individual-level analysis. The short version of ZTPI will further promote integration of research in the time perspective domain in relation to many different psycho-social processes.

  • 38. Sircova, Anna
    et al.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Osin, Evgeny
    Milfont, Taciano L.
    Fieulaine, Nicolas
    Kislali-Erginbilgic, Altinay
    Zimbardo, Philip G
    Carelli, M.G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time perspectives profiles of cultures2015In: Time perspective theory; review, research and application : essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Maciej Stolarski, Nicolas Fieulaine, Wessel van Beek, Cham, Switzeland:: Springer , 2015, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarises some results of the International Time Perspective Research Project, which is a collaborative cross-cultural study of time perspective carried out in 24 countries. The highlights of structural equivalence assessment study are presented, showing the cross-cultural invariance of 36 items of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale. The associations between country-level ZTPI scores and other culture-level indicators, including the Human Development Index and Hofstede cultural dimensions, are presented and discussed. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, five distinct profiles of time perspective were found (future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced, moderately fatalistic, and negative), and significant differences in the prevalence of these profiles across cultures were found. Implications and perspectives for future research are discussed.

  • 39. Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Kubik, Veit
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Spatial offloading in multiple task monitoring2018In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 230-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating multiple tasks requires a high degree of cognitive control, and individuals with limited executive functions often show difficulties in everyday multitasking. We tested the hypothesis that demands on executive control can be alleviated by internally representing the temporal pattern of goals and deadlines as spatial relations. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session by monitoring deadlines of four clocks running at different rates, along with separate tasks of executive functioning and spatial ability. In Experiment 1, individual and gender-related differences in spatial ability (mental rotation) predicted multitasking performance, beyond the contributions of both the updating and inhibition components of executive functioning, and even when spatial cues were eliminated from the layout of the monitoring task. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that concurrent spatial load impaired task monitoring accuracy, and that these detrimental effects were accentuated when spatial abilities were compromized due to fluctuation in female sex hormones. These findings suggest that multiple task monitoring involves working memory-related functions, but that these cognitive control demands can be offloaded by relying on spatial relation processes.

  • 40.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    DIS Copenhagen.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balanced time perspective: developing empirical profile and exploring its stability over time2017In: Time perspective: theory and practice / [ed] Aleksandra Kostić, Derek Chadee, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 63-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balanced time perspective (BTP) is characterized by flexible switching between a person's past, present and future time orientations, depending on situational demands, personal resources, experiences, and social evaluations. The present study aimed to explore the psychological characteristics of people with a BTP profile and attain a deeper understanding of the BTP construct. Seven people with BTP profiles were investigated using in-depth interviews, self-report instruments, and a projective test. By testing the participants on two occasions within an 18-month interval, we investigated the stability of BTP. Analyses showed that participants were aware of the "now" and had a synchronicity between the present and the past, and also between the present and the future. Results indicated a degree of temporal stability in the BTP profile and that people's interpretations and interactions within the surrounding context of events influences their time perspectives.

  • 41.
    Wiberg, Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A qualitative and quantitative study of seven persons with balanced time perspective (BTP) according to S-ZTPI2012In: 1st international conference on time perspective and research: converging paths in psychology time theory and research / [ed] Maria Paula Paixao, Victor E.C. Ortuno, Pedro Cordeiro, Rute David, ESPACOBRANCO , 2012, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical notion of balanced time perspective (BTP) has been suggested by a number of authors and some attempts to operationalize BTP (Boniwell, 2005; Drake, Duncan, Sutherland, Abernethy & Henry, 2008; Sircova & Mitina, 2008; Boniwell, Osin, Linley & Ivanchenko, 2010) has been done. The aim of the present study was to get a deeper understanding of the BTP-concept by studying seven BTP-persons with both interviews and self-rating scales (e.g. SCL-90, Life Events scale, Scales of Psychological Well-Being (C. Ryff) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (E.Diener) at two occasions. Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) (Carelli, Wiberg & Wiberg, 2011) was administered in order to study the stability and change in BTP-level. The results showed a great stability in the BTP-level (Wiberg, Sircova, Wiberg& Carelli, in press), although a small change was observed. The 14 interviews were analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The result shows a consciousness about the "now" among the participants and a synchronicity between the present and the past and also between the present and the future. The results give strength to a holistic present scale (Zimbardo & Boyd, 2008) and an "extended now".

  • 42.
    Wiberg, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Operationalizing balanced time perspective in a Swedish sample2012In: The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, ISSN 2094-0734, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that biases in temporal orientation may have systematic effects ongoal-directed behavior and that physical and mental well-being is associated with balanced time perspective (BTP, Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999). The aim of this study was to examine different operationalizations of the BTP, and to present an alternative proposal in which BTP is measured as a multidimensional, rather than a binary, construct. Two versions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) were administered to a sample of 502 individuals. The proposed operationalization shows important advantages in terms of ecological validity of the multidimensional definition, sample independency and possibility to adjust for country differences. Our proposal may also have practical implications both for individuals and groups, e.g. in working teams, psychological counseling, psychotherapy and when recruiting personal forleading positions.

  • 43. Zajenkoswski, M
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledzinska, M
    Cognitive processes in Time perspective2015In: Time perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: New York: Springer , 2015, p. 243-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that future-oriented individuals tend to have higher general abilities. Further, we present the data, proving that risk taking is negatively correlated with the future positive scale. Another finding discussed here is that working memory development is a strong predictor of temporal orientation. Children who have efficient working memory updating functions in early school age exhibit higher tendency toward future positive when they are adolescents. Finally, our studies indicate, that time perspectives tend to correlate with meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and experiences, suggesting that the temporal orientation influences meta-cognition.

  • 44.
    Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of psychology Bologna university.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults2018In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

  • 45. Zambianchi, M.G
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relevance of time perspective for attitudes toward technologies in old age2014In: II International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland, 29 th July,-1th August, Warsawa, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Zani, Bruna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Department vof Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Benelli, Beatrice
    Department of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
    Cicognani, Elvira
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Communicative skills in childhood: The case of twins.1991In: Discourse processes, ISSN 0163-853X, E-ISSN 1532-6950, ISSN ISSN 0163-853X, EISSN 1532-6950, Vol. 14, p. 339-356-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 48.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, A
    Wiberg, Marie
    Time perspective, time stimation and time reproduction in anxiety.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seif, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 52
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