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  • 1.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nordlund, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developing an authentic sex: deconstructing developmental–psychological discourses of transgenderism in a clinical setting2014In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is based on a broader study of the use of discourses of transgenderism among sex-reassignment evaluators in Sweden. In this paper we explore how a developmental–psychological discourse was reproduced by the evaluators in their discursive negotiations of transsexualism. We found that maturity and authenticity are two key concepts that illuminate how the developmental–psychological discourse both clashes with and works together with a medical–pathological discourse of transgenderism. The developmental–psychological discourse can help to produce a definition of transgenderism that is more diverse regarding male/female dichotomies. This in turn can create a wider range of possible subject positions for patients who are seeking help. The developmental–psychological discourse also imposes additional limitations regarding the subject positions available to transgender persons through a demand for maturity and for having gone through all of the steps in the expected identity development process. The developmental–psychological repertoire casts transgenderism as an identity crisis.

  • 2. Kaiser, Niclas
    Att utveckla grupper2014In: Psykologi på jobbet: Handbok för chefer och HR / [ed] Mattias Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2014Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Mental health problems among the Swedish reindeer-herding Sami population: in perspective of intersectionality, organisational culture and acculturation2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the thesis was to investigate aspects of mental health among Swedish Sami reindeer herders and to deepen the understanding of the experience of the living conditions of young Sami reindeer-herding men. Theories of intersectionality, organisational culture and acculturation were used.

    Methods A questionnaire covering different aspects of mental health was distributed to the Sami population, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, selected parts of the Attitudes Towards Suicide questionnaire (ATTS) and the Job Control Questionnaire (JCQ). 15 interviews with young male reindeer-herders were conducted and analysed according to qualitative content analysis.

    Results A higher load of anxiety and depression was found in the Sami population, most evident regarding anxiety and among middle aged reindeer-herding men. Regarding alcohol risk consumption reindeer-herding Sami do not in general drink more than a geographically matched reference population, but reindeer-herding men reported a higher proportion of hazardous drinkers, and of teetotallers and periodic drinkers. The reindeer-herding population reported significantly higher exposure to suicide and suicidal behaviour among significant others. Reindeer-herds also reported higher prevalence of different types of suicidal problems. The main theme that emerged in qualitative analysis was ‘Being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions’, and the five subthemes were ‘Being inside or outside is a question of identity’, ‘There is a paradox between being free/unfree’, ‘An experience of different threats and a feeling of powerlessness’, ‘Specific norms for how a ‘real’ reindeer-herder should be’ and ‘The different impacts and meanings of relations’.

    Conclusions The thesis hypothesizes that the reindeer-herding right as an including, excluding and enclosing historically induced border plays an important part when trying to understand the mental health problems in the group. At present, the situation within reindeer-herding is strained because of practical obstacles and feelings of unfairness and uninfluencability. Furthermore, lack of social support, except from the closest part of the family, and experiences of multi-layered conflicts. This – together with norms of reindeer-herding and reindeer-herders that e.g. say that the reindeer herder is a man who doesn’t show weakness – plays a role in the present mental health problems of the Swedish reindeer-herding population. This applies especially to young and middle-aged reindeer-herding men.

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  • 4. Kaiser, Niclas
    Professionella samtal2014In: Psykologi på jobbet: Handbok för chefer och HR / [ed] Mattias Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2014Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, MattiasUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.Nordin, MariaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.Sandström, AgnetaSemb, OlofUmeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.Westerberg, KristinaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykologi för vårdprofessioner2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordström, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Renberg, Ellinor Salander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hazardous drinking and drinking patterns among the reindeer-herding Sami population in Sweden2011In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1318-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate hazardous drinking among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2007, which included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami were compared with urban and rural reference populations of 1,393 persons. Data were analyzed with regard to population, gender, age group, education, anxiety, depression, and work-related stress. The Sami population did not report a higher prevalence of hazardous drinking compared with the reference groups; however, subgroups of Sami men with symptoms of depression were revealed as at risk, in contrast to Sami women who were not found to be at risk at all. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  • 7.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näckter, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Maria
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Experiences of Being a Young Female Sami Reindeer Herder: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Mental Health and Intersectionality2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 8.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ruong, Terje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Experiences of being a young male Sami reindeer herder: a qualitative study in perspective of mental health2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, no 20926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health.

    Methods. A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18–35 years old.

    Results. The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a) being “inside” or “outside” is a question of identity; (b) a paradox between being free/bound; (c) an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d) specific norms for how a “real” reindeer herder should be; and (e) the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but “bite the bullet or be a failure.”

    Conclusions. Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group.

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  • 9.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Suicidal expressions among the Swedish reindeer-herding Sami population2012In: Suicidology Online, ISSN 2078-5488, E-ISSN 2078-5488, no 3, p. 102-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate suicidal expressions among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. Subjects: A total of 315 reindeer-herding Sami (167 men, 148 women) were compared with geographically matched reference populations comprising 1354 persons (652 men, 702 women). Methods: A questionnaire measuring different aspects of suicidal behaviour, such as exposure to suicide and suicidal ideation in significant others, own suicidal problems and attitudes towards suicide, was distributed to members of Sami villages through community leaders and to the reference group by post. Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, mental health, alcohol use, work strain and formal education. Results: Comparison between groups did not reveal any differences in attitudes towards suicide; however, it did show significantly higher exposure to both suicide and suicidal behaviour in significant others in the Sami group. Compared to the reference group, both Sami women and especially Sami men reported a higher prevalence of various types of suicidal problems, particularly suicidal ideation. In addition, anxiety and alcohol use were associated with suicidal expressions in the Sami group. Conclusion: The study identifies reindeer-herding Sami men and women to be at particular risk for suicidal expressions. Specific attention should be paid to young and middle-aged Sami men with hazardous alcohol consumption and anxiety.

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  • 10.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sjölander, Per
    Southern Lapland Research Department.
    Edin Liljegren, Anette
    Southern Lapland Research Department.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Depression and anxiety in the reindeer-herding Sami population of Sweden2010In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 383-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate symptoms and predicting factors of depression and anxiety among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. Study design. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami (168 men, 151 women) were compared with urban and rural reference populations comprising 1,393 persons (662 men, 731 women). Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire study on mental health, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, education and work-related stress. Results. The Sami population disclosed higher mean values for both depression and anxiety than the reference groups, with Sami men reporting the highest rates. Work-related stress was associated with anxiety and depression in the Sami group. Conclusions. By comparing Sami men and women with reference groups of men and women living in urban and rural areas in northern Sweden, this study identified that reindeer-herding Sami men require special attention with regard to mental health problems.

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  • 11.
    Semb, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as "studies as usual": a thematic analysis of medical students' reflective writing2014In: Advances in Medical Education and Practice, ISSN 1179-7258, E-ISSN 1179-7258, Vol. 5, p. 491-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students' writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as "Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development" as well as "studies as usual". Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper.

  • 12. Stoor, Jon Petter A.
    et al.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Silviken, Anne
    "We are like lemmings'': making sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among the indigenous Sami in Sweden2015In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, article id 27669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Suicide is a widespread problem among indigenous people residing in the circumpolar Arctic. Though the situation among the indigenous Sami in northern Scandinavia is better than among some other indigenous people, suicide is still regarded as a major public health issue. To adapt prevention strategies that are culturally attuned one must understand how suicide is understood within context. That is, the cultural meaning(s) of suicide.

    Objective. To explore and make sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among Sami in Sweden.

    Design. Open-ended focus group discussions (FGDs) on the topic "suicide among Sami'' were carried out in 5 Sami communities in Sweden, with in total 22 strategically selected Sami participants. FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed through employing content analysis.

    Results. From the FGDs 4 themes emerged including "The Sami are fighting for their culture and the herders are in the middle of the fight,'' "Suicide as a consequence of Sami losing (or having lost) their identity,'' "A wildfire in the Sami world'' and "Difficult to get help as a Sami.''

    Conclusions. Findings indicate that Sami in Sweden make sense of suicide in relation to power and identity within a threatened Sami cultural context. Suicide is then understood as an act that takes place and makes sense to others when a Sami no longer has the power to maintain a Sami identity, resulting in being disconnected from the Sami world and placed in an existential void where suicide is a solution. The findings are useful in development of culturally attuned suicide prevention among Sami in Sweden.

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  • 13.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Semb, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kaiser, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reflekterande skrivande och personligt samtal i läkarutbildningen: Nya moment i psykologikurs bidrog till ökad självkännedom2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 110, article id CA4EArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective writing and personal talks in medical education: New segments in the Medical Psychology course helped to increase self-awareness

    There is a national goal for medical students to gain self-awareness during their training. However, teaching methods and examination procedures supporting this goal are rarely discussed. Two new course segments – weekly newsletters and personal talks – aimed at stimulating self-reflection and self-awareness during the Medical Psychology course are presented, along with a student evaluation and the teachers’ experiences of the segments. The course evaluations and teachers’ comments support the perception that the new segments help to increase self-awareness. The teachers share the experience that the motivation, trust and openness shown by most of the students in their letters and talks are an impetus and important basis for increased self-reflection and self-awareness. For many students, personal talks have been important from a psychosocial point of view. It was possible to capture those in need of support and mediate further contacts when necessary.

  • 14. Waern, Margda
    et al.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Psychiatrists' experiences of suicide assessment2016In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 16, article id 440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical guidelines for suicide prevention often stress the identification of risk and protective factors as well as the evaluation of suicidal intent. However, we know very little about what psychiatrists actually do when they make these assessments. The aim was to investigate psychiatrists' own accounts of suicide assessment consultations, with a focus on their behaviors, attitudes and emotions.

    Method: Semi-structured in depth interviews were carried out with a purposive selection of 15 psychiatrists.

    Results: Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: understanding the patient in a precarious situation, understanding one's own reactions, and understanding how the doctor-patient relationship impacted on risk assessment and management decisions. Emotional contact and credibility issues were common subthemes that arose when the respondents talked about trying to understand the patient. The psychiatrists stressed the semi-intuitive nature of their assessments. Problems related to the use of risk factor assessments and rating scales were apparent. Assessment consultations could evoke physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety, and concerns about responsibility could lead to repressive management decisions. In situations of mutual trust, however, the assessment consultation could kick-start a therapeutic process.

    Conclusion: This study highlights psychiatrists' experiences in clinical suicide assessment situations. Findings have implications for professional development as well as for service delivery.

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