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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Exploring underpinnings of forest conflicts: a study of forest values and beliefs in the general public and among private forest owners in Sweden2012In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1102-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a hierarchical cognitive structure, the aim of this study was to compare forest values and beliefs in the general public and among forest owners in Sweden. Based on questionnaire data (n = 1,805), intergroup differences were identified on different cognitive levels. For example, while the forest owners emphasized production values more than the general public, the difference was smaller regarding more specific beliefs concerning profitability in forestry. In contrast, the general public emphasized recreation more than the forest owners, although the divide was mainly evident for certain recreation activities. While results demonstrated overlapping beliefs concerning owners' right to decide over their forest, larger differences were found regarding the rights of other actors (e.g., the general public). Furthermore, a cluster analysis based on forest values and forest-specific beliefs demonstrated heterogeneous groups cutting across the original group dichotomy. The implications for understanding underpinnings of forest conflicts are discussed.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pro-environmental travel behavior: The importance of attitudinal factors, habits, and transport policy measures2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to study determinants of a readiness for pro-environmental travel behavior in households. Four empirical studies were conducted examining reduction in car use (Study I), acceptability of transport policy measures (Study II and III), and behavioral adaptations in response to travel demand management (TDM) measures (Study IV). In Study I, the aim was to interrupt habitual car use by means of a deliberation intervention and to examine the importance of moral motivation (i.e., personal norm) for car use reduction. Results showed that, as a result of the intervention, car use was mainly reduced among car users with a strong car use habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce car use. The aim of Study II was to examine factors important for the acceptability of three TDM measures: raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, and an information campaign. The results demonstrated the importance of general environmental beliefs (i.e., pro-environmental orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to reduce car use) and policy specific beliefs (i.e., perceived impact on freedom to choose travel mode and own car use, perceived effectiveness, and perceived fairness) for the acceptability of the measures. Furthermore, personal norm was found to be particularly important for the acceptability of raised tax and the information campaign, whereas problem awareness was more important for the acceptability of improved public transport. Following up on Study II, the purpose of Study III was to examine the acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures, more specifically, raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, subsidies of renewable fuel, a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and improved public transport, and a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and subsidies of renewable fuel. General environmental beliefs (i.e., pro-environmental orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to act) and policy specific beliefs (i.e., perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness) were found to be important for the acceptability of the measures. Moreover, personal norm was particularly important for the acceptability of raised tax on fossil fuel and the packages, while problem awareness was more important for the acceptability of improved public transport and subsidies of renewable fuel. The aim of Study IV was to examine the behavioral adaptations, more specifically, the expected car use reduction, in response to three hypothetical TDM measures: raised tax on fossil fuel, improved public transport, and a package of raised tax on fossil fuel and improved public transport. Furthermore, factors important for the expected car use reduction were analyzed. Results showed that a combination of the measures was expected to lead to a larger car use reduction compared to the single measures, and the most commonly chosen reduction strategies were more efficient car use and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm, and the perceived personal impact of the measures were important for expected car use reduction in response to the measures.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Risk Perception and Responses Among Private Forest Owners in Sweden2014In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 483-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest risk management influences economic, recreation, and ecological values in the forest. To improve the understanding of forest risk management among private forest owners, in-depth interviews were carried out with 20 individual private forest owners in Sweden. Within an environmental stress framework, the forest owners' overall perception of a range of risks, or threats, that they perceive may damage their forest or harm them as a forest owner was uncovered. Overall, results revealed that the owners generally were not very concerned about forest risks. Nevertheless, natural hazards, such as storms and fires, and societal processes including political decisions concerning for example environmental regulations were mentioned among the most serious threats. Proactive as well as reactive strategies were used to deal with the risks-for example, insurance and forest management strategies. Because climate change is a potentially new risk that may affect forest owners, the owners' climate change perceptions were explored. The owners emphasised uncertainties and displayed a rather optimistic view of the impacts of climate change on their forests now and in the future. Two dimensions-risk tolerance and perceived control over risks-characterised forest owners' risk perception and responses. In addition, the susceptibility of the forest, previous risk experience, forest values, and the extent to which the owner is dependent on the forest-for example, economically-were relevant for understanding how risks are evaluated.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of threat, strategy, and resource appraisals for long-term proactive risk management among forest owners in Sweden2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 868-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural hazards management, it is important to understand what motivates people to act when they or their property are threatened by natural hazards. Despite the importance of both threat and coping appraisals for responses to threats, less is known about the relations between threat and coping appraisals when risk management is long term. The present study examined appraisals of threat (cognitive and emotional), personal resources (cost and self-efficacy), and strategies (response-efficacy) as predictors of proactive management responses (past behavior and future intention) among forest owners in Sweden by means of a questionnaire (n = 1482). A path analysis revealed that threat appraisals and response-efficacy were direct predictors of past risk management behavior and the intention to respond in the future. Appraisals of resources, including cost and self-efficacy, were indirectly – via forest susceptibility and threat appraisals – related to threat responses. Although the model displayed reasonable fit for both owners more and those less involved in forestry, the cognitive appraisals variable was not a significant predictor of responses among owners less involved in forestry. In the full sample, the examined model explained approximately 50% of the variance in threat appraisals, and 28 and 17% in future intention and past behavior, respectively. Theoretical implications for how threat and coping appraisals are related during long-term risk management, and practical implications for forest risk management, are discussed.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Teaching and Learning (UPC).
    Erhardsson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Teaching and Learning (UPC).
    Grysell, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Teaching and Learning (UPC).
    Examination och lärande på universitet och högskola: Ett arbete från en projektbaserad universitetspedagogisk kurs vid Umeå universitet2008Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures: The importance of environmental and policy specific beliefs2008In: Transportation Research Part A, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 42, p. 1117-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the acceptability of different transport policy measures was examined. Three measures were assessed individually and as packages combining one push measure (a raised tax on fossil fuel) and one pull measure (in Package 1 improved public transport and in Package 2 a subsidy of renewable fuel). To analyze factors important for the acceptability, we proposed a model where the value-belief-norm theory combined with policy specific beliefs (perceived fairness and perceived effectiveness) predicted acceptability. Furthermore, we examined whether problem awareness or personal norm was more important for acceptability. In a questionnaire study conducted in Sweden, a sample of car users (N = 616) assessed the transport policy measures. Results showed that while the pull measures were perceived to be effective, fair, and acceptable, the push measure and the packages were perceived to be rather ineffective, unfair, and unacceptable. The proposed model was supported for the measures and problem awareness was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the pull measures while personal norm was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the push measure and the two policy packages. In addition, perceived fairness and effectiveness were found to be particularly important for acceptability.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Acceptability of travel demand management measures: The importance of problem awareness, personal norm, freedom, and fairness2006In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 10-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where 71 car users were recruited to either an experimental group or a control group. All participants reported car habit strength and moral motivation to reduce car use (i.e. personal norm) by means of a questionnaire, and recorded car use by means of weekly car diaries pre- and post-intervention. Results demonstrate that the intervention did make the choice of travel mode more deliberate since the association between car use and car habit strength were weakened while the relation between car use and personal norm were strengthened after compared to before the intervention. Moreover, as a result of the intervention car users with a strong car habit and a strong personal norm were found to be more likely to reduce car use as compared to those with a weak car habit and a weak personal norm. Hence, a reduction in car use may be facilitated by interrupting habitual car use, specifically if the car user has a strong car habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce personal car use.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Attitudes towards biodiversity conservation and carbon substitution in forestry: a study of stakeholders in Sweden2019In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change has fueled debates on forest use and management, including the need to adapt management to mitigate future risks in forestry. Additionally, forests are important for biodiversity conservation and could be used in climate change mitigation. The opinions of stakeholders towards acceptable forest use deserve consideration. This study examined relations between environmental problem awareness, forest beliefs and environmental management attitudes (biodiversity conservation and carbon substitution) among stakeholders in Sweden, and explored the effect of a local biodiversity versus global climate change frame on attitudes. Stakeholders were recruited from ownership and environmental/recreational interest groups (owner and nature group, respectively) (membership sample) and among students (student sample). Whereas the owner group was more positive towards carbon substitution in forestry, the nature group was more positive towards biodiversity conservation and carbon storage. In the membership sample, awareness of biodiversity loss and eco-social forest beliefs influenced attitudes towards biodiversity conservation. In contrast, positive attitudes towards carbon substitution stemmed from lower awareness of biodiversity loss, less emphasis on openness towards new methods in forestry and greater emphasis on production in forestry. While framing did not influence attitudes, the cognitive hierarchy was useful in providing a nuanced understanding of stakeholders, valuable for policy and practice.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How is setting preference related to intention to engage in forest recreation activities?2013In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban forests provide opportunities for outdoor recreation to many people. Knowledge of the motives for visiting forests is needed for the planning and management of these forests. Since forests are used for a diverse set of recreational activities, however, the motives for different activities are multifaceted. To explore recreational motives, this scene preference study conducted in Sweden examined relations between setting evaluations (i.e., mystery, legibility, valence, and activation), setting preference, general forest perceptions, and intention to engage in forest activities. Two alternative models were examined in relation to five different activities: walking, going on outings, exercising, picking berries or mushrooms, and studying plants and animals. Results revealed that preference mediated between setting evaluations and intention to go on outings, whereas setting evaluations were direct predictors of intention to walk and exercise. However, the models did not describe antecedents of intention to pick berries or mushrooms, or to study plants and animals, satisfactorily. In addition, general forest perceptions, particularly emphasising the restorative qualities of forests, were important for intention to engage in all the examined recreation activities. Results are discussed in relation to landscape preference research and attitude-behaviour theory. In addition, practical implications for encouraging forest recreation are highlighted.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected car use reduction in response to structural travel demand management measures2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, p. 329-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the appropriate travel demand management (TDM) measures aiming to reduce the environmental problems associated with private transportation demands a thorough understanding of the behavioral consequences of different measures. In this scenario based study, the expected car use reduction in response to one push measure (i.e. raised tax on fossil fuel), one pull measure (i.e. improved public transport), and a combination of the two measures were analyzed. The aim was to compare the expected car use reduction in response to the different TDM measures, the car use reduction strategies used to achieve this reduction, and factors important for the expected car use reduction (i.e. background factors, internal motivational factors (general intention and personal norm), and perceived personal impact of the measure). In a two step between-subject design, a sample of car users first answered a pre-questionnaire and subsequently three groups of car users (N = 274) each evaluated one of the TDM measures. Results demonstrated that the combined measure led to larger expected car use reduction compared to the measures evaluated individually and the reduction was mainly expected to be made by means of trip chaining and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm or general intention, and the perceived impact of the measure, were found to be important for the expected car use reduction in response to the TDM measures.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beliefs about urban fringe forests among urban residents in Sweden2012In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine predictors of beliefs about urban fringe forests among urban residents in Sweden (n = 586). Based on a cognitive hierarchical model, the study investigated how socio-demographic variables, as well as different values and beliefs, were related to the more specific beliefs urban residents have about urban fringe forests. Results demonstrated that the urban fringe forest was perceived to be essential for personal wellbeing, but preservation and accessibility to the forest were also important. Certain differences between socio-demographic groups were identified; for example, the importance of urban fringe forests for personal wellbeing was emphasized more by women, older people and those with a university degree. However, the importance of socio-demographic variables was modest compared with the influence of people's values and beliefs. More specifically, results showed that urban residents' basic values and ecological worldview, as well as forest values and beliefs (i.e., concerning forest qualities and forest requirements), were important in explaining their beliefs about urban fringe forests. Overall, the study revealed that urban residents are characterized by a heterogeneous set of beliefs concerning urban fringe forests. Recognizing these multiple beliefs in urban fringe forest development processes may help mitigate future conflicts between forest visitors, urban planners, forest owners and forest managers, thus enhancing our way toward good urban living environments.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Recreation in different forest settings: a scene preference study2012In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 923-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreation  activity  preferences  in  forest  settings  were  explored  in  a  scene preference  study.  The  importance  of  type  of  human  intervention   and  the  level  of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking  scenes as for scenes  with traces  of recreation  (e.g., paths),  whereas  social  science  students  preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different  forest  settings  were  furthermore  preferred  for  different  recreation  activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to  exercise  was  stronger  in  low  biodiversity  settings.  Implications  for  future  land  use planning and forest management are discussed.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenk, Tilman
    Department of Geography, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    A study of forest values and management attitudes in the general public in Germany and Sweden: does context matter?2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1412-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the reasoning that contextual variations are important for understanding differences in forest cognitions, this study examined forest values and management attitudes in the general public in Germany (n = 1135) and Sweden (n = 1311) by means of a questionnaire. Results indicated that the public in both countries emphasised similar forest values, and the overall pattern was comparable for different types of forest, although certain differences based on forest type and country were evident. For example, the German public was more ecologically oriented, whereas the Swedish public was more production oriented in its forest values and management attitudes. Furthermore, ecological and various anthropocentric forest values were perceived to be quite compatible, with the Swedish respondents perceiving this to a greater extent than the German. The overall cognitive structure of forest values and management attitudes was similar in both countries, although differences were revealed, particularly regarding attitudes.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    The general public´s support for forest policy in Sweden: a value belief approach2013In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 850-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the legitimacy of the forest policy in Sweden was explored. Based on a value belief approach, the general public's support for forest policy was examined by means of a questionnaire (n=796). Results demonstrated that the respondents believed ecological principles, such as sustaining natural conditions for native plants and animals, were most important in forest policy, but preservation of social values and using the forest efficiently to maintain high market value were also emphasised. Although socio-demographic variables (i.e. gender and age) had some impact on support for the policy, different values and beliefs reflecting ecological, social and economic interests were more important. By considering different values and beliefs, as well as policy support explicitly, the study provides a multifaceted account of the public's viewpoint regarding forest issues.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Where do forest values and forest behavior come from?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17. Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    et al.
    Hopkins, Anna J. M.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Schroeder, Martin
    Lindelow, Ake
    Ronnberg, Jonas
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Kenis, Marc
    Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S223-S234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  • 18.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Gun, Lidestav
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Karppinen, Heimo
    University of Helsinki.
    Haugen, Kataria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual forest owners in context2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Ume: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 57-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, changes that have taken place on an overarching level in society, such as globalisation, supranational agencies, privatisation and restitution, are discussed from the forest owners' perspective. The forces influencing forest owners and forest ownership as described in Chap. 2 in this volume are scrutinised and interpreted here on a micro level. Urbanisation, economic restructuring, demographic change and new ownership constellations are both drivers and consequences of changes in lifestyles, forest owner identity, place attachment and attitudes to the forest resource.

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