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  • 1.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Trauma - logistics and stress response2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma is a major cause of death and disability. Adverse events, such as prolonged prehospital time, hypoxia, hypotension and/or hyperventilation have been reported to correlate to poor outcome.

    Adequate cortisol levels are essential for survival after major trauma. In hypotensive critically ill patients, lack of sufficient amount of cortisol can be suspected, and a concept of critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency has been proposed. Corticosteroid therapy has many adverse effects in critically ill patients and should only be given if life-saving. Correct measurement of serum cortisol levels is important but difficult in critically ill patients with capillary leakage. Estimation of the free and biologically active cortisol is preferable. In serum less than 10% of cortisol is free and biologically active and not possible to measure with routine laboratory methods. Salivary cortisol can be used as a surrogate for free cortisol, but salivary production is reduced in critically ill patients. Liver resection could reduce cortisol levels due to substrate deficiency.

    Aims: 1. Evaluate the occurrence of early adverse events in patients with traumatic brain injury and relate them to outcome. 2. Assess cortisol levels over time after trauma and correlate to severity of trauma, sedative/analgesic drugs and cardiovascular function. 3. Evaluate if saliva stimulation could be performed without interfering with salivary cortisol levels. 4. Assess cortisol levels over time after liver resection in comparison to other major surgery.

    Results: There was no significant correlation between prehospital time ³60 minutes, hypoxia (saturation <95%), hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), or hyperventilation (ETCO2 <4.5 kPa) and a poor outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-3) in patients with traumatic brain injury. Cortisol levels decreased significantly over time after trauma, but there was no correlation between low (<200 nmol/L) serum cortisol levels and severity of trauma.

    Infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs was the strongest predictor for a low (<200 nmol/L) serum cortisol. The odds ratio for low serum cortisol levels (<200 nmol/L) was 8.0 for patients receiving continuous infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs. There was no significant difference between unstimulated and stimulated salivary cortisol levels (p=0.06) in healthy volunteers. Liver resection was not associated with significantly lower cortisol levels compared to other major surgery.

    Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between early adverse events and outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. Cortisol levels decreased significantly over time in trauma patients. Low cortisol levels (<200 nmol/L) were significantly correlated to continuous infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs. Saliva stimulation could be performed without interfering with salivary cortisol levels. Liver resection was not associated with low cortisol levels compared to other major surgery.

  • 2.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lundberg, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Naredi, Peter
    Kirurgi, Sahlgrenska, Göteborg.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Anestesiologi, Sahlgrenska, Göteborg.
    Liver resection is not associated with decreased cortisol levels.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adrenal hormones are synthesized from cholesterol, produced and stored in the liver. Liver failure has been reported to be associated with adrenal insufficiency. A possible mechanism could be a limited supply of substrate for cortisol synthesis. The aims of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of total serum cortisol <200 nmol/L after major liver resection (≥ 30%) and other major surgery (hemicolectomy) and to assess associations between cholesterol and corti­sol levels after liver resection.

    Methods: Prospective, observational study. 40 patients were included (major liver resection n=15, hemicolectomy n=25). Serum and salivary cortisol were followed from morning before surgery up to five days postoperatively. Sulphated dehy­droepiandrosterone (DHEAS) and lipids (cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides) were obtained in liver resection patients.

    Results: 8/25 (32%, hemicolectomy patients), and 3/15 (20%, liver resection patients) had serum cortisol <200 nmol/L. Neither hemicolectomy nor liver resec­tion was significantly associated with serum cortisol <200 nmol/L, p=0.49. Serum cortisol <200 nmol/L was not significantly associated with lipids below normal limits, (cholesterol; p=1.0 day 1, p=0.46 day 4, LDL; p=0.56 day 1, p=1.0 day 4, and HDL; p=0.27 day 1, p=1.0 day 4). Serum and salivary cortisol correlated sig­nificantly (rs=0.83, p<0.0001, hemicolectomy, rs=0.80, p<0.0001, liver resection).

    Conclusion: Serum cortisol levels <200 nmol/L was found in 32% (hemicolec­tomy) and 20% (liver resection) postoperatively. Compared to after hemicolec­tomy, serum cortisol <200 nmol/L was not significantly more common after liver resection. Lipids below normal limits were not associated with serum cortisol <200 nmol/L after liver resection.

    Key words: gastrointestinal surgical procedures, adrenal insufficiency, hydrocortisone

  • 3.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid does not affect salivary cortisol levels2014Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 244-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    In critically ill patients with hypotension, who respond poorly to fluids and vasoactive drugs, cortisol insufficiency may be suspected. In serum over 90% of cortisol is protein-bound, thus routine measures of total serum cortisol may yield 'false lows' due to hypoproteinaemia. Thus, the occurrence of cortisol insufficiency could be overestimated in critically ill patients. Salivary cortisol can be used as a surrogate for free serum cortisol, but in critically ill patients saliva production is decreased, and insufficient volume of saliva for analysis is a common problem. The aim of this study was to investigate if a cotton-tipped applicator with glycerine and citric acid could be used for saliva stimulation without affecting salivary cortisol levels.

    DESIGN:

    Prospective, observational study.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Thirty-six volunteers (six males, 30 females), age 49 ± 9 years, without known oral mucus membrane rupture in the mouth.

    MEASUREMENTS:

    Forty-two pairs of saliva samples (22 paired morning samples, 20 paired evening samples) were obtained before and after saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid. Salivary cortisol was analysed using Spectria Cortisol RIA (Orion Diagnostica, Finland).

    RESULTS:

    The paired samples correlated significantly (P < 0·0001) and there was no significant difference between un-stimulated and stimulated salivary cortisol levels.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Saliva stimulation with a cotton-tipped applicator containing glycerine and citric acid did not significantly influence salivary cortisol levels in healthy volunteers. This indicates that salivary cortisol measurement after saliva stimulation may be a useful complement when evaluating cortisol status in critically ill patients.

  • 4.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Thunberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Sylvan, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Adrenal response after trauma is affected by time after trauma and sedative/analgesic drugs2014Ingår i: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 1149-1155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The adrenal response in critically ill patients, including trauma victims, has been debated over the last decade. The aim of this study was to assess the early adrenal response after trauma. METHODS: Prospective, observational study of 50 trauma patients admitted to a level-1-trauma centre. Serum and saliva cortisol were followed from the accident site up to five days after trauma. Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sulphated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) were obtained twice during the first five days after trauma. The effect of time and associations between cortisol levels and; severity of trauma, infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs, cardiovascular dysfunction and other adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent hormones (DHEA/DHEAS) were studied. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease over time in serum cortisol both during the initial 24 h, and from the 2nd to the 5th morning after trauma. A significant decrease over time was also observed in calculated free cortisol, DHEA, and DHEAS. No significant association was found between an injury severity score >/= 16 (severe injury) and a low (< 200 nmol/L) serum cortisol at any time during the study period. The odds for a serum cortisol < 200 nmol/L was eight times higher in patients with continuous infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs compared to patients with no continuous infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs. CONCLUSION: Total serum cortisol, calculated free cortisol, DHEA and DHEAS decreased significantly over time after trauma. Continuous infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs was independently associated with serum cortisol < 200 nmol/L.

  • 5.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Rodling-Wahlström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Severe traumatic brain injury: consequences of early adverse events2011Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, nr 8, s. 944-951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several factors associated with an unfavourable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been described: prolonged pre-hospital time, secondary referral to a level 1 trauma centre, the occurrence of secondary insults such as hypoxia, hypotension or low end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)). To determine whether adverse events were linked to outcome, patients with severe TBI were studied before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre.

    Methods: Prospective, observational study design. Patients with severe TBI (n = 48), admitted to Umea University Hospital between January 2002 to December 2005 were included. All medical records from the site of the accident to arrival at the level 1 trauma centre were collected and evaluated.

    Results: A pre-hospital time of >60 min, secondary referral to a level 1 trauma centre, documented hypoxia (oxygen saturation <95%), hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), hyperventilation (ETCO(2) <4.5 kPa) or tachycardia (heart rate >100 beats/min) at any time before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre were not significantly related to an unfavourable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-3).

    Conclusion: Early adverse events before arrival at a level 1 trauma centre were without significance for outcome after severe TBI in the trauma system studied.

  • 6.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sundstrom, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Olivecrona, M.
    SECONDARY PEAK OF S-100B IS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMPRESSIVE HEMICRANIECTOMY2016Ingår i: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. A27-A27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    S-100B is a tissue biomarker for brain injury and secondary peak of S-100B (SP) is associated with outcome. Little is known whether SP is associated with decompressive hemicraniectomy (DC).

  • 7.
    Milton, A
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schandl, A
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soliman, I W
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Meijers, K
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van den Boogaard, M
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Larsson, I M
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Östberg, U
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Oxenbøll-Collet, M
    Department of Intensive Care, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Savilampi, J
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Paskins, S
    Department of Intensive Care, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Bottai, M
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sackey, P V
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Development of an ICU discharge instrument predicting psychological morbidity: a multinational study2018Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine, ISSN 0342-4642, E-ISSN 1432-1238, Vol. 44, nr 12, s. 2038-2047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To develop an instrument for use at ICU discharge for prediction of psychological problems in ICU survivors.

    METHODS: Multinational, prospective cohort study in ten general ICUs in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Adult patients with an ICU stay ≥ 12 h were eligible for inclusion. Patients in need of neurointensive care, with documented cognitive impairment, unable to communicate in the local language, without a home address or with more than one limitation of therapy were excluded. Primary outcome was psychological morbidity 3 months after ICU discharge, defined as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) subscale score ≥ 11 or Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist-14 (PTSS-14) part B score > 45.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 patients were included and 78% of patients alive at follow-up responded to questionnaires. Twenty percent were classified as having psychological problems post-ICU. Of 18 potential risk factors, four were included in the final prediction model after multivariable logistic regression analysis: symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.50], traumatic memories (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.82), lack of social support (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.47-7.32) and age (age-dependent OR, peak risk at age 49-65 years). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the instrument was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.81).

    CONCLUSIONS: We developed an instrument to predict individual patients' risk for psychological problems 3 months post-ICU, http://www.imm.ki.se/biostatistics/calculators/psychmorb/ . The instrument can be used for triage of patients for psychological ICU follow-up.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02679157.

  • 8. Milton, Anna
    et al.
    Schandl, Anna
    Soliman, Iwo
    Joelsson-Alm, Eva
    van den Boogaard, Mark
    Wallin, Ewa
    Brorsson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Östberg, Ulrika
    Latocha, Kristine
    Savilampi, Johanna
    Paskins, Stinne
    Bottai, Matteo
    Sackey, Peter
    ICU discharge screening for prediction of new-onset physical disability: A multinational cohort study2020Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Methods to identify patients at risk for incomplete physical recovery after intensive care unit (ICU) stay are lacking. Our aim was to develop a method for prediction of new‐onset physical disability at ICU discharge.

    Methods: Multinational prospective cohort study in 10 general ICUs in Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Adult patients with an ICU stay ≥12 hours were eligible for inclusion. Sixteen candidate predictors were analyzed with logistic regression for associations with the primary outcome; new‐onset physical disability 3 months post‐ICU, defined as a ≥10 score reduction in the Barthel Index (BI) compared to baseline.

    Results: Of the 572 included patients, follow‐up data are available on 78% of patients alive at follow‐up. The incidence of new‐onset physical disability was 19%. Univariable and multivariable modeling rendered one sole predictor for the outcome: physical status at ICU discharge, assessed with the five first items of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool (CPAx) (odds ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81‐0.93), a higher score indicating a lower risk, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61‐0.76). Negative predictive value for a low‐risk group (CPAx score >18) was 0.88, and positive predictive value for a high‐risk group (CPAx score ≤18) was 0.32.

    Conclusion: The ICU discharge assessment described in this study had a moderate AUC but may be useful to rule out patients unlikely to need physical interventions post‐ICU. For high‐risk patients, research to determine post‐ICU risk factors for an incomplete rehabilitation is mandated.

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