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  • 1.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Thyagarajan, Radha
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Increased expression of TACI on NOD B cells results in germinal centre reaction anomalies, enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production2016Ingår i: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 149, nr 3, s. 297-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells have an important pathogenic role in the development of type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. We have previously reported that NOD mice display an increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells compared with C57BL/6 mice and this trait is linked to chromosomes 1 and 8. In this paper the genetic association of the transmembrane activator, calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) trait was confirmed using double congenic NOD.B6C1/Idd22 mice. TACI ligation by a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) has been shown to influence plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin production and isotype switch. Hence, the functional consequence of the up-regulation of TACI on NOD B cells was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. NOD B cells stimulated with APRIL showed an enhanced plasma cell differentiation and class switch to IgG and IgA compared with B cells from C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, flow cytometry analyses revealed that germinal centre B cells in NOD failed to down-regulate TACI. Availability of the TACI ligand B-cell activating factor (BAFF) has been shown to be a limiting factor in the germinal centre reaction. In line with this, upon immunization with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten-conjugated hen egg lysozyme, NOD mice produced higher titres of low-affinity antibodies compared with C57BL/6 mice. This observation was supported by the detection of increased levels of BAFF in NOD germinal centres after immunization compared with C57BL/6 by immunofluorescence. Our results support the hypothesis that increased TACI expression on NOD B cells contributes to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse.

  • 2.
    Ekici, Rifat
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Thay, Bernard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Enhanced capture of extramembranous IgM and IgG on B cells in the NOD mouse: implications for immune complex trapping2009Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 533-541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Binding of various antibody isotypes to B cells through either FcgammaRs or complement receptors has been attributed to play several roles, e.g. in immune complex (IC) transportation and regulation of B cell receptor signaling. We have revealed a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG which is present in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and is more abundant in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As a consequence, the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared with B6 mice. The effect of this aberration was that all B cells in peripheral blood of (NOD.IgH(a) x B6(IgH(b)))F(1) mice carried both IgM allotypes on their surface. In addition, analysis of IC binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with B6. We hypothesize that this novel Ig-binding receptor is part of the normal immune system function. The aberrant function in the NOD mouse could contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by altering normal B cell functions such as activation, IC transportation and B cell homeostasis.

  • 3.
    Sjöberg, Veronika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Hollén, Elisabet
    Pietz, Grzegorz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa
    Sandström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Högberg, Lotta
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Noncontaminated dietary oats may hamper normalization of the intestinal immune status in childhood celiac disease2014Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 5, artikel-id e58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Life-long, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD). Because there is still uncertainty regarding the safety of oats for CD patients, the aim was to investigate whether dietary oats influence the immune status of their intestinal mucosa.

    METHODS: Paired small intestinal biopsies, before and after >11 months on a GFD, were collected from children with CD who were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind intervention trial to either of two diets: standard GFD (GFD-std; n=13) and noncontaminated oat-containing GFD (GFD-oats; n=15). Expression levels of mRNAs for 22 different immune effector molecules and tight junction proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

    RESULTS: The number of mRNAs that remained elevated was higher in the GFD-oats group (P=0.05). In particular, mRNAs for the regulatory T cell (Treg) signature molecules interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), the cytotoxicity-activating natural killer (NK) receptors KLRC2/NKG2C and KLRC3/NKG2E, and the tight junction protein claudin-4 remained elevated. Between the two groups, most significant differences were seen for claudin-4 (P=0.003) and KLRC3/NKG2E (P=0.04).

    CONCLUSIONS: A substantial fraction of pediatric CD patients seem to not tolerate oats. In these patients, dietary oats influence the immune status of the intestinal mucosa with an mRNA profile suggesting presence of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes and Tregs and a stressed epithelium with affected tight junctions. Assessment of changes in levels of mRNA for claudin-4 and KLC3/NKG2E from onset to after a year on oats containing GFD shows promise to identify these CD patients.

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  • 4.
    Sjöberg, Veronika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Hollén, Elisabeth
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Pietz, Grzegorz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Laurin, Pia
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Holmgren-Peterson, Kajsa
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sandström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Högberg, Lotta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Sweden and Division of Pediatrics in Norrköping, County Council of Östergötland, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Dietary oats may hamper normalization of the intestinal immune status in childhood celiac diseaseManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    B cell deviations and type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are selectively attacked by the immune system. The β-cells are destroyed resulting in a reduced or eliminated insulin production, which in turn lead to a high blood glucose level. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is the most commonly used animal model for human T1D. NOD mice develop diabetes spontaneously through a process that closely resembles the human pathogenesis. In both humans and the NOD mouse, disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In the NOD mouse, more than 30 insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci on 15 chromosomes have been linked to disease susceptibility, however, most of the Idd-regions lack identification of a disease associated gene. B cells are required for T1D development, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully revealed. The aim of this thesis was to dissect B cell-related immune deviations in the NOD mouse, including the underlying genetics of these traits.

    The TACI receptor binds two ligands, i.e. the cytokines BAFF and APRIL.TACI ligation by APRIL mediates class switch, drives plasma cell differentiation and increases immunoglobulin production. In Paper I, a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait was identified, i.e. the increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing splenic B cells, by comparing NOD mice with non-autoimmune disease prone C57BL/6 mice. To investigate if the described TACI trait was controlled by genes linked to any Idd-region, an Idd-focused linkage analysis was performed. The TACI-trait mapped to regions on chromosome 1 and 8, more specifically to the vicinity of the Idd5.4 and Idd22. Interestingly, the linkage to Idd22 was explained by mice ≥61 days of age, suggesting a temporal genetic regulation of TACI expression possibly influenced by the ongoing autoimmune process. In Paper II, the linkage of the TACI trait to chromosome 1 and 8 was confirmed by analyzing the percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in congenic NOD.C1/Idd22 mice. Moreover, the functional consequence of TACI upregulation was investigated, with the focus on plasma cell development and immunoglobulin production. NOD splenic B cells stimulated with APRIL displayed increased numbers of plasma cells and produced higher amounts of IgG and IgA compared to B cells from C57BL/6 mice. Thus, the TACI upregulation on NOD B cells possibly contribute to a B cell compartment which is more disposed to plasma cell differentiation and isotype switch.

    NOD mice display enhanced and prolonged immune response towards several antigens, including non-self immunoglobulins. In Paper III, the genetic factor(s) controlling the altered immune response against a BALB/c derived monoclonal antibody were dissected. Significant linkage to the Idd1/Idd24, Idd12, and Idd18.1 regions as well as to a proximal region on chromosome 2 (33.5 Mb) was detected. The linkage to Idd1/24 was verified by analyzing a set of H2-congenic NOD and C57BL/6 mice, and the linked region was narrowed down to ~8 Mb. Candidate gene analysis revealed a significant difference in the transcription of the H2-O/DO molecule. This suggests that multiple mechanisms contribute to the loss of immune response control, including an altered MHC class II peptide loading on NOD B cells.

    In Paper IV, a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG was revealed. The receptor appeared to be more abundant in NOD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, as the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared to C57BL/6 mice. In addition, analysis of immune complex binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced capture of immunoglobulins and immune complexes could thus contribute to the development of T1D by altering normal B cell functions such as activation and immune complex transportation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Kappan Mia Sundström
  • 6.
    Sundström, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Banday, Viqar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Increased expression of TACI in the NOD mouse results in enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin productionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells have an important pathogenic role in the development of Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse. We have previously revealed a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait, i.e. an increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in NOD mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. In the NOD mouse the TACI trait is regulated by genes residing on chromosome 1 and 8, more specifically in the vicinity of the Idd5.4 and Idd22 regions. It has previously been demonstrated that TACI ligation by APRIL influences plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin production and isotype switch. In this paper the linkage of the TACI trait to chromosome 1 and 8 was confirmed by analyzing the percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells in congenic NOD.B6C1/Idd22 mice. Moreover, the functional concequence of TACI upregulation, with the focus on plasma cell development and immunoglobulin production, was investigated. NOD B cells stimulated with APRIL showed an increased plasma cell differentiation and enhanced IgM, IgG and IgA production compared to B cells from C57BL/6 mice. This supports the hypothesis that increased TACI expression on NOD B cells could contribute to the B cell involvement in the pathogenesis of T1D in the NOD mouse.

  • 7.
    Sundström, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Idd-linked genetic regulation of TACIhigh expressing B cells in NOD mice2007Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 29, nr 2-3, s. 116-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In NOD mice, B cells play a key role in the initiation of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We have identified a novel NOD-specific B cell-related trait, i.e. the increased percentage of TACI(high)-expressing splenic B cells, by comparing NOD mice with non-autoimmune C57BL/6 mice. Using athymic NOD mice, we determined that this trait was T cell independent. We mapped the loci contributing to the increased proportion of TACI(high) expressing splenic B cells and found that the control of TACI expression was strongly linked to chromosome 1, in a region which includes the insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) 5 loci. Moreover, another locus potentially involved was detected in the vicinity of Idd22 on chromosome 8. Interestingly, when analyzing age-dependent contribution to the obtained LOD scores we observed that the linkage to chromosome 8 was explained solely by mice > or =61 days of age, suggesting a temporal genetic regulation of TACI expression. In addition, analysis of genetic interaction between chromosome 1 and chromosome 8 indicated that the two loci acted in an additive fashion. Our findings corroborate the notion that B cell deviations contribute to type 1 diabetes development, and suggest a temporal regulation of TACI(high) expression, possibly influenced by the ongoing autoimmune process.

  • 8.
    Sundström, Mia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    The prolonged and enhanced immune response in the non-obese diabetic mouse is dependent on genes in the Idd1/24, Idd12 and Idd18 regions2010Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 375-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice B cells are an absolute requirement for T1D development. NOD mice display various B cell related immune deviations when compared to normal mice such as an enhanced and prolonged immune response towards several antigens, including non-self immunoglobulins. We hypothesized that this trait contributes to diabetes pathogenesis, and investigated the genetic factor(s) governing the altered immune response. A (NODxC57BL/6)F(2) cohort (n = 214) were analyzed for its primary immune response against a BALB/c derived monoclonal antibody, and a genome wide linkage analysis was performed. Significant linkage to the Idd1/Idd24, Idd12 and Idd18.1 regions as well as to a proximal region (marker D2Mit367, 33.5 Mb) on chromosome 2 was detected. We verified the observed linkage by analyzing a set of H2 congenic NOD and C57BL/6 mice and narrowed down the region to 8 Mb. Interaction between Idd1/24 and Idd12, as well as the novel locus on chromosome 2 was observed. However, the action by Idd18.1 was not influenced by any of the other loci. In addition to the known H2 I-Aβ(g7) allelic variant of Idd1 in NOD, candidate gene analysis revealed a significant difference in the transcription of the H2-O/DO molecule. We hypothesize that multiple mechanisms contribute to the loss of immune response control, including that peptide loading on MHC class II in B cells of NOD is altered.

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