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  • 1.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Antivirulent and antibiofilm salicylidene acylhydrazide complexes in solution and at interfaces2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing bacterial resistance against antibiotics creates a limitation for using traditional antibiotics and requests development of new approaches for treatment of bacterial infections. Among the bacterial infections that are most difficult to treat, biofilm-associated infections are one of the most hazardous. Consequently, the prevention of biofilm formation is a very important issue. One of the techniques that are widely investigated nowadays for this purpose is surface modification by polymer brushes that allows generating antifouling antibacterial surfaces. Previously, it was reported that salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) are good candidates as antivirulence drugs targeting the type three secretion system (T3SS). This secretion system is used by several Gramnegative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to deliver toxins into a host cell. Furthermore, the chemical structure of these substances allows formation of complexes with metal ions, such as Fe3+ and Ga3+. The antibacterial activity of Ga3+ is well known and attributed to its similarity to the Fe3+ ion. It has also been shown that Ga3+ ions are able to suppress biofilm formation and growth in bacteria. In this thesis the chemistry of antibacterial and antivirulence Ga3+-Hydrazone complexes in solution was studied. First, to get insights in the solution chemistry, the protonation and the stability constants as well as the speciation of the Ga3+-Hydrazone complexes were determined. Additionally, a procedure for anchoring one of the hydrazone substances to antifouling polymer brushes was optimized, and the resulting surfaces were characterized. Results showed that the complexation with Ga3+ ions stabilizes the ligand and increases its solubility. Ga3+ ion binds to the hydrazone molecule forming a strong chelate that should be stable at physiological conditions. The different biological assays, such as Ga3+ uptake, antivirulence and antibiofilm effects, indicated very complex interaction of these complexes with the bacterial cell. Negatively charged and zwitterionic surfaces strongly reduced protein adsorption as well as biofilm formation. Therefore, the antifouling zwitterionic poly-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-3- sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide (pMEDSAH) brushes were post-modified and successfully functionalized with bioactive substances via a block-copolymerization strategy. However, in order to maintain the availability of the bioactive substance after functionalization, the hydrophobic polyglycidylmethacrylate (pGMA) top block is probably better to functionalize with a lipophilic molecules to reduce diblock copolymer brush rearrangement.

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  • 2.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Barbero, David R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Preparation of Antifouling Polymer Brushes Functionalized with Gallium Salicylidene Acylhydrazide ComplexesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-François
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Proton and gallium(III) binding properties of a biologically active salicylidene acylhydrazide2014In: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, ISSN 0162-0134, E-ISSN 1873-3344, Vol. 138, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial biofilm formation causes a range of problems in our society, especially in health care. Salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) are promising antivirulence drugs targeting secretion systems used during bacterial infection of host cells. When mixed with the gallium ion they become especially potent as bacterial and biofilm growth-suppressing agents, although the mechanisms through which this occurs are not fully understood. At the base of this uncertainty lies the nature of hydrazone-metal interactions. This study addresses this issue by resolving the equilibrium speciation of hydrazone-gallium aqueous solutions. The protonation constants of the target 2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) hydrazone species and of its 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamic acid hydrazide building blocks were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry to achieve this goal. These studies show that the hydrazone is an excessively strong complexing agent for gallium and that its antivirulence properties are predominantly ascribed to monomeric 1:1Ga-ME0163 complexes of various Ga hydrolysis and ME0163 protonation states. The chelation of Ga(III) to the hydrazone also increased the stability of the compounds against acid-induced hydrolysis, making this group of compounds very interesting for biological applications where the Fe-antagonist action of both Ga(III) and the hydrazone can be combined for enhanced biological effect.

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  • 4.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Barbero, David R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Functionalization of zwitterionic polymer brushes, do they remain antifouling?2018In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1001-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer brushes are surface coatings that can be tailored in many ways to suit specific demands including reduction of protein and bacterial fouling of biomaterials. Previously, we reported that antifouling poly (2-(methacryloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-3-sulphopropyl ammonium hydroxide) brushes dramatically reduced formation of bacterial biofilm. We hypothesized that: (1) this brush could be efficiently functionalized with a small molecule (2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide, ME0163, hydrazone) and that (2) the antifouling property would remain also after functionalization. Diblock co-polymer brushes of 2-(methacryloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-3-sulphopropyl ammonium hydroxide and poly (glycidyl methacrylate) were formed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the ME0163 hydrazone was covalently bound to the surface via a ring-opening reaction. Functionalization of the surfaces was followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, reaction time, and reagent concentrations on the immobilization process was investigated. Surfaces with high degree of functionalization could be made in this way. However, the functionalization rendered the surface more hydrophobic, and the antifouling property of the brush was lost, thus, disproving the second of our starting hypotheses but corroborating the first.

  • 5.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-François
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Influence of Chelation Strength and Bacterial Uptake of Gallium Salicylidene Acylhydrazide on Biofilm Formation and Virulence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa2016In: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, ISSN 0162-0134, E-ISSN 1873-3344, Vol. 160, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria causes major challenges for our society and has prompted a great need for new and alternative treatment methods for infection. One promising approach is to target bacterial virulence using for example salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones). Hydrazones coordinate metal ions such as Fe(III) and Ga(III) through a five-membered and a six-membered chelation ring. One suggested mode of action is via restricting bacterial Fe uptake. Thus, it was hypothesized that the chelating strength of these substances could be used to predict their biological activity on bacterial cells. This was investigated by comparing Ga chelation strength of two hydrazone complexes, as well as bacterial Ga uptake, biofilm formation, and virulence in the form of production and secretion of a toxin (ExoS) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Equilibrium constants for deprotonation and Ga(III) binding of the hydrazone N′-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzylidene)-2,4-dihydroxybenzhydrazide (ME0329), with anti-virulence effect against P. aeruginosa, were determined and compared to bacterial siderophores and the previously described Ga(III) 2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (Ga-ME0163) and Ga-citrate complexes. In comparison with these two complexes, it was shown that the uptake of Ga(III) was higher from the Ga-ME0329 complex. The results further show that the Ga-ME0329 complex reduced ExoS expression and secretion to a higher extent than Ga-citrate, Ga-ME0163 or the non-coordinated hydrazone. However, the effect against biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa, by the ME0329 complex, was similar to Ga-citrate and lower than what has been reported for Ga-ME0163.

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  • 6.
    Krishnamoorthy, Mahentha
    et al.
    Institute of Bioengineering and School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gautrot, Julien E.
    Institute of Bioengineering and School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom.
    Surface-initiated polymer brushes in the biomedical field: applications in membrane science, biosensing, cell culture, regenerative medicine and antibacterial coatings2014In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 114, no 21, p. 10976-11026Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro
    Swedish Defense Research Institute (FOI), Umeå, Sweden.
    Nygren, Yvonne
    Swedish Defense Research Institute (FOI), Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bucht, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Swedish Defense Research Institute (FOI), Umeå, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boily, Jean-François
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The gallium(III)-salicylidene acylhydrazide complex shows synergistic anti-biofilm effect and inhibits toxin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa2014In: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, ISSN 0162-0134, E-ISSN 1873-3344, Vol. 138, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial biofilms cause a range of problems in many areas and especially in health care. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate with traditional antibiotics and consequently there is a need for alternative ways to prevent and/or remove bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria creates a challenge to find new types of antibiotics with a lower evolutionary pressure for resistance development. One route to develop such drugs is to target the so called virulence factors, i.e. bacterial systems used when bacteria infect a host cell. This study investigates synergy effects between Ga(III) ions, previously reported to suppress biofilm formation and growth in bacteria, and salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) that have been proposed as antivirulence drugs targeting the type three secretion system used by several Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aerugionosa, during bacterial infection of host cells. A library of hydrazones was screened for: Fe(III) binding, enhanced anti-biofilm effect with Ga(III) on P. aeruginosa, and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The metal coordination for the most promising ligand, 2-Oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) with Ga(III) was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy as well as density functional theory. The results showed that Ga(III) chelates the hydrazone with 5- and 6-membered chelating rings, and that the Ga(III)-ME0163 complex enhanced the antibiofilm effect of Ga(III) while suppressing the type three secretion system in P. aeruginosa. The latter effect was not observed for the hydrazone alone and was similar for Ga(III)-citrate and Ga(III)-ME0163 complexes, indicating that the inhibition of virulence was caused by Ga(III).

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  • 8.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ruhal, Rohit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gautrot, Julien
    Barbero, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The surface charge of anti-bacterial coatings alters motility and biofilm architecture2013In: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition, ISSN 0920-5063, E-ISSN 1568-5624, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 589-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial biofilms affect many areas of human activity including food processing, transportation, public infrastructure, and most importantly healthcare. This study addresses the prevention of biofilms and shows that the surface charge of an abiotic substrate influences bacterial motility as well as the morphology and physiology of the biofilm. Grafting-from polymerisation was used to create polymer brush surfaces with different characteristics, and the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was followed using confocal microscopy. Interestingly, two types of biofilms developed on these surfaces: mushroom structures with high levels of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) were found on negatively charged poly (3-sulphopropylmethacrylate) (SPM) and zwitterionic poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-3-sulphoproyl) ammonium hydroxide) (MEDSAH), while flat biofilms developed on glass, positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) (METAC), protein-repellent poly oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) and hydrophobic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The results show that of all the surfaces studied, overall the negatively charged polymer brushes were most efficient in reducing bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the increased level of regulatory c-di-GMP in mushroom structures suggests that bacteria are capable of a quick physiological response when exposed to surfaces with varying physicochemical characteristics enabling some bacterial colonization also on negatively charged surfaces.

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  • 9.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Limanska, Nataliia
    Galkin, Mykola
    Lacoma, Alicia
    Lundquist, Margaretha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sokol, Dmytro
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Prat, Cristina
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterization of clinically relevant model bacterial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for anti-biofilm testing of materials2018In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 76, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great interest in developing novel anti-biofilm materials in order to decrease medical device-associated bacterial infections causing morbidity and high healthcare costs. However, the testing of novel materials is often done using bacterial lab strains that may not exhibit the same phenotype as clinically relevant strains infecting medical devices. Furthermore, no consensus of strain selection exists in the field, making results very difficult to compare between studies. In this work, 19 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from intubated patients in an intensive care unit have been characterized and compared to the lab reference strain PAO1 and a rmlC lipopolysaccharide mutant of PAO1. The adhesion and biofilm formation was monitored, as well as cell properties such as hydrophobicity, zeta potential and motility. Two groups of isolates were observed: one with high adhesion to polymer surfaces and one with low adhesion (the latter including PAO1). Furthermore, detailed biofilm assays in a flow system were performed using five characteristic isolates from the two groups. Confocal microscopy showed that the adhesion and biofilm formation of four of these five strains could be reduced dramatically on zwitterionic surface coatings. However, one isolate with pronounced swarming colonized and formed biofilm also on the antifouling surface. We demonstrate that the biofilm properties of clinical isolates can differ greatly from that of a standard lab strain and propose two clinical model strains for testing of materials designed for prevention of biofilm formation in the respiratory tract. The methodology used could beneficially be applied for screening of other collections of pathogens to identify suitable model strains for in vitro biofilm testing.

    Statement of Significance: Medical-device associated infections present a great challenge in health care. Therefore, much research is undertaken to prevent bacterial colonization of new types of biomaterials. The work described here characterizes, tests and presents a number of clinically relevant bacterial model strains for assessing biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Such model strains are of importance as they may provide better predictability of lab testing protocols with respect to how well materials would perform in an infection situation in a patient. Furthermore, this study uses the strains to test the performance of polymer surfaces designed to repel bacterial adhesion and it is shown that the biofilm formation for four out of the five tested bacterial strains was reduced.

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  • 10.
    Zakrisson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Svenmarker, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Detecting the presence of surface organelles at the single cell level, a novel cell sorting approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Zakrisson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Svenmarker, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiklund, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Zhang, Hanqing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hakobyan, Shoghik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Detecting Bacterial Surface Organelles on Single Cells using Optical Tweezers2016In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 18, p. 4521-4529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial cells display a diverse array of surface organelles that are important for a range of processes such as: intercellular communication, motility and adhesion leading to biofilm formation, infections and bacterial spread. More specifically, attachment to host cells by Gram-negative bacteria are mediated by adhesion pili, which are nm wide and µm long fibrous organelles. Since these pili are significantly thinner than the wavelength of visible light, they cannot be detected using standard light microscopy techniques. At present, there is no fast and simple method available to investigate if a single cell expresses pili while keeping the cell alive for further studies. In this study, we present a method to determine the presence of pili on a single bacterium. The protocol involves imaging the bacterium to measure its size, followed by predicting the fluid drag based on its size using an analytical model, and thereafter oscillating the sample while a single bacterium is trapped by an optical tweezer to measure its effective fluid drag. Comparison between the predicted and the measured fluid drag thereby indicate the presence of pili. Herein, we verify the method using polymer coated silica microspheres and Escherichia coli bacteria expressing adhesion pili. Our protocol, can in real time and within seconds assist single cell studies by distinguishing between piliated and non-piliated bacteria.

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