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  • 1. Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Workplace skill investments – an early career glass ceiling?: Job complexity and wages among young professionals in Sweden2018In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 368-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programs, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed. Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wage and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs. 

  • 2.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Class and work autonomy in 21 countries: A question of production regime or power resources?2010In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy, or the extent to which employees can control their own work, is a central theme in debates on organizational flexibility and labour market stratification. Predictions of upskilling and autonomy, for manual workers too, have been a striking component in visions of post-Fordism and post-industrialism. The two main comparative labour market theories - the varieties of capitalism school and the power resources approach - suggest that both the level and the distribution of autonomy vary across production contexts, either because of national differences in skill requirements or because of the varying strength of organized labour. The objective of the article, based on the 2004 European Social Survey, is to test these two hypotheses by examining national variation regarding mean levels and class differences in autonomy among 21 countries. The main conclusion is that both mean levels and class differences in autonomy have much more to do with the strength of organized labour than with the skill requirements of production. The analysis also questions a central element of the varieties of capitalism theory, namely the notion of national production strategies based on differences in skill specificity.

  • 3.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Protection of mutual interests?: employment protection and skill formation in different Labour Market regimes2008In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 245-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘varieties of capitalism’ school argues that firm-specific skills are more common in coordinated than in liberal economies and that appropriate training is facilitated by employment protection legislation. We compare the level of firm-specific skills across 21 countries with different capacities for labour market coordination. The data provide very limited support for the thesis, showing large variation among the coordinated countries. The results indicate ‘varieties of coordination’, which have different implications for the incidence and consequences of firm-specific skill. Improved operationalization of the skill concept seems urgent.

  • 4.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den flexibla familjen - en 2000-talsdröm?2008In: Jämställdhetens pris / [ed] Anne Grönlund & Björn Halleröd, Umeå: Boréa bokförlag , 2008, p. 137-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Egenkontroll som friskfaktor och riskfaktor: det gränslösa arbetet i Västeuropa och Sverige2007In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontroll eller inflytande över det egna arbetet har länge betraktats som avgörande när det gäller att förhindra negativ stress. Men i den aktuella debatten tecknas en bild av ett alltmer strukturllöst arbetsliv, där friheten blivit en källa till stress eftersom den gör det svårt att avgränsa och begränsa arbetet. I artikeln testas tesen om det gränslösa arbetet mot data från European Social Survey (n=10 000). resultaten visar att anställda som har en hög kontroll oftare än andra arbetar övertid och upplever en konflikt mellan arbete och familj. Samtidigt är deras psykiska välbefinnande bättre och om analysen begränsas till Sverige framträder inga negativa effekter av en hög kontroll i arbetet.

  • 6.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Employee control in the era of flexibility - a stress buffer or a stress amplifier?2007In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 409-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, employee control has been considered a buffer against stress, but debate about the transformation of work raises new questions. Can individual control really counteract the high demands in downsized organisations? Or does it make flexible work even more difficult to define and delimit, physically and emotionally? This article, based on survey data from 800 Swedish employees, studies the effect of job control on work hours, work-family conflict and psychological wellbeing. The results show that high job demands are associated with longer work hours, more work-family conflict and lower wellbeing, while control has positive effects, even when demands are high.

  • 7.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fleksibel arbejdstid: - en vej til ligestilling?2004In: Arbejdssamfundet: den beslagtagte tid og den splittede identitet / [ed] Michael Hviid Jacobsen & Jens Tonboe, København: Hans Reitzels forlag , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Flexibilitet eller friktion?: om inflytande över arbetstiden och konflikten mellan arbete och familj2004In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible working time, understood as the possibility for employees to adjust the working schedule to their own needs, is portrayed as a way to reduce friction between paid work and family. However, flexibility could also be a source of stress, as the responsibility to synchronize the two spheres is left to the individual. In either case, flexibility might have important effects on gender equality. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of flexible working time on work/family conflict as well as on other aspects of life outside the workplace. Data come from a sample of 'Swedish employees in healthcare, manufacturing and finance (n = 1836). The results show that flexible working hours has positive effects on the ability to meet friends and relatives and to engage in hobbies, but does not reduce work/family conflict. However the degree of flexibility is also important: a high degree of flexibility increases work/family conflict, as this flexibility comes with a higher position and presumes an adjustment of working time to the needs of the organisation. In sum, the beneficial effects of flexible working hours could be called into question as long as flexibility is conditioned on high demands from the organisation.

  • 9.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Flexibilitet, jämställdhet och välfärd: 2000-talets gordiska knut?2009Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Flexibilitetens gränser: Förändring och friktion i arbetsliv och familj2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THE TERM FLEXIBILITY has come to be a symbol for a number of grand hopes. An increased flexibility is seen as a key issue for modern organisations and is assumed to pave the way for a more gender equal and family friendly working life. The aim of the thesis has been to confront a number of assumptions about the “flexibilization” of working life with quantitative data from the Swedish labour market. An important goal has been to discuss the effects of flexibility on gender segregation in work and family life. The study focuses on three branches with different gender composition of the work force: manufacturing, health care and finance. The main data consists of a questionnaire that was sent to a representative sample of employees in the three branches (n=1.836) and another that was sent to their workplaces (n=625). Addional data comes from interviews with representatives of labour unions and employer organisations, and reviews of collective agreements and of- ficial statistics.

    The results provide a picture of flexibility in working life that differs from the one depicted in the ongoing debate, both regarding the strategies of organisations and the significance of flexibility to employees. The debate has focused on expanding employers’ room to manoeuvre, especially the possibilities to hire and fire personnel according to shifts in demand. The thesis shows, however, that efforts to create flexibility within the existing work force, through for instance overtime and work rotation, are equally important as the numerical flexibility obtained through termination of personnel, temporary jobs and sub-contracting. The results also challenge the idea that labour market regulation constitutes a decisive obstacle for flexibility. Workplaces that regard regulation as a problem do not adapt staffing to demand any less than others do and in all three branches competence issues pose a greater problem.

    The analyses point to a somewhat ambiguous relationship between gender and flexibility. Women have less employeroriented flexible work hours than men, which could be a result of their greater responsibility for home and children, but despite this responsibility they have less of a possibility to set their own working hours. This is explained by the fact that influence over work hours is an organisational perk associated with a high position and an adaptation to employer needs, rather than a right for the employee. Demands on time from the family in the form of children or a greater responsibility for housework do not affect the possibilities for flexible work schedules.

    The thesis also gives cause to question the idea that flexible work hours make it easier to combine paid work and family. Flexibility does not seem to lessen the conflict between these two spheres, nor does it lead to a more egalitarian division of housework.

    Functional flexibility in the form of work rotation and other forms of varying work tasks leads to job enrichment, but also to an intensification of work This kind of flexibility is not more common among men than women and there is no gender difference regarding its effects on work.

  • 11. Grönlund, Anne
    Glimtar av jämställdhet2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12. Grönlund, Anne
    Livspusslet, familjen och jämställdheten2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    More control, less conflict?: job demand-control, gender and work-family conflict2007In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 476-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between working hours and work-to-family conflict has been established in a number of studies. However, it seems what is important is not only the quantity of work but also its quality, as captured by the job demand–control model. Survey data from 800 Swedish employees show that job demands spill over negatively into family life, while job control reduces work-to-family conflict. Interestingly, women in jobs with high demands and high control — regarded as the prototype for modern, flexible work life — do not experience more work-to-family conflict than men, even when working the same hours. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 14. Grönlund, Anne
    Nyanser av grått, glimtar av ljus2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    On different tracks? Gender, professional strategies and early career wage gaps2017In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 9-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longstanding notion in labor market theory is that women accommodate family responsibilities in their occupational and job choices. Utilizing a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2400), the article explores whether men and women differ in their professional strategies and if such differences produce early career wage gaps. Findings based on OLS regressions show that women express dual commitment to work and family; compared with men, they value ‘family-friendly’ work-conditions higher but do not value wages and career lower. Parenthood is not related to lower levels of career focus, but neutralizes occupational differences in family focus for women. Despite the select sample, women have lower wages than men, but the wage gap is not explained by different prioritization of family/career. The findings suggest that assumptions about gendered skill investments must be empirically scrutinized and theories further developed.

  • 16.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    On-the-Job Training-A Mechanism for Segregation?: Examining the Relationship between Gender, Occupation, and On-the-Job Training Investments2012In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 408-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine whether the access to initial on-the-job training differs by gender and to what extent gender differences can be explained by occupational segregation, human capital, and the division of labour in the household. While much research has focussed on formal on-the-job training, I use a measure of initial on-the-job training, or the amount of formal and informal training required to perform a job well. Data come from the Swedish Level of Living Survey 2000 ( n = 2,913) and multilevel regression techniques are used. The results show that occupational segregation has a clear mediating effect on the gender difference in initial on-the-job training. The gender gap is reduced by one third when occupation is controlled for and training is related to the number of women in the occupation. Yet, a considerable gap is found also between men and women in the same occupation. This is not explained by human capital investments, nor by female overeducation in relation to the requirements of the job. The gender gap widens in the ages around 30, but factors such as motherhood, work interruptions, and housework are not related to on-the-job training, and part-time work explains very little of the gender gap.

  • 17.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Organisationerna och flexibiliteten: - behov, hinder och strategier i tre branscher2004In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9696, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet flexibilitet har blivit något av ett mantra i arbetslivsdebatten. I en allt mer föränderlig omvärld måste företagen snabbt och smidigt kunna anpassa produktion och personalstyrka efter svängningar i efterfrågan, vilket antas komma till uttryck i mer kortsiktiga anställningar. Arbetsrätten framställs emellertid ofta som ett hinder i denna strävan efter flexibilitet. I denna artikel granskas dessa teser närmare med fokus på tre branscher: vården, verkstadsindustrin och finansbranschen. Syftet är att undersöka hur svängningar i efterfrågan ser ut, vilka strategier som används för att anpassa bemanningen efter dessa svängningar samt vilka hinder organisationerna upplever.

  • 18.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ulik likestilling i arbeidslivet2017In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 349-352Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Halldén, Karin
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    A Scandinavian success story?: women's labour market outcomes in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current research, the extensive family policies of the Scandinavian countries have been problematized and described as hampering women?s careers. However, mechanisms have been little investigated and the Scandinavian countries are often regarded as a single policy model. Based on an account of institutional variety we study gender gaps in hourly wages and access to authority positions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and explore the importance of segregation, skills and work interruptions. The analysis uses pooled cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (ESS) for 2004 and 2010. The results show that gender gaps vary both in size and regarding the mechanisms producing them. In particular, we find that gender segregation has a radically different impact in the four countries. The analysis suggests that the mechanisms linking family policies to labour market outcomes are more complex than envisaged in the current debate and point to the importance of comparing seemingly similar countries.

  • 20.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Halleröd, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den vackra visionen och den vrånga vardagen2008In: Jämställdhetens pris / [ed] Anne Grönlund & Björn Halleröd, Umeå: Boréa bokförlag , 2008, p. 17-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Halleröd, BjörnUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jämställdhetens pris2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Javornik Skrbinsek, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Great expectations. Dual-earner policies and the management of work–family conflict: the examples of Sweden and Slovenia2014In: Families, Relationships and Societies, ISSN 2046-7435, E-ISSN 2046-7443, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores mechanisms linking family policy to work–family conflict, work demands and gender. The conflict construct has dominated survey-based work–family research; however, both the individual actor and the societal context have been conspicuously absent. In qualitative interviews, including established instruments of work–family conflict, we studied how perceptions of work–family conflict were linked to strategies and use of policy entitlements among working parents in Sweden and Slovenia, two countries with policies promoting the dual-earner family. Our findings imply that such policies contribute to 'have-it-all' aspirations, but collide with practical realities, including norms related to work, parenthood and gender. In Sweden, policy tools and work demands appeared more decisive, especially for women's conflict, whereas in Slovenia, informal care by extended family was important. Based on the analysis, we propose a typology of strategies and perceived conflict that can help develop research on work–family conflict, especially from a comparative perspective.

  • 23.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Devaluation, crowding or skill specificity?: Exploring the mechanisms behind the lower wages in female professions2013In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1006-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conspicuous finding in research on the gender wage gap is that wages are related to the percentage females in an occupation (percent F). Three mechanisms have been suggested to explain this relationship: a devaluation of women’s work, a crowding of women into a limited number of occupations, and a female disadvantage in the accumulation of specific human capital.

    In this analysis, based on data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey of 2000 (n = 2915), we distinguish between these mechanisms using measures of devaluation (Treiman’s prestige scale), crowding (employee dependence on current employer) and specific human capital (on-the-job training).

    The results show that all the indicators are related to percent F, but not in a linear fashion, and that the percent F-effect on wages is overstated and misspecified. Female-dominated occupations stand out with lower wages than both male-dominated and gender-integrated occupations and this is not explained by any of our measures. Thus, if the hypotheses on segregation and wages should be sustained, they must be further specified and new measures must be found to prove their worth.

  • 24.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Do atypical individuals make atypical choices?: Examining how gender patterns in personality relate to occupational choice and wages among five professions in Sweden2018In: Gender Issues, ISSN 1098-092X, E-ISSN 1936-4717, Vol. 5, p. 153-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article provides a close-up picture of gender and personality in relation to the gender composition of occupation and the gender wage gap. Using a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (engineers, lawyers, police officers, social workers and psychologists, n ≈ 2400), we examine (a) if personality traits—measured as Big Five traits, risk-taking and self-esteem—differ between men and women (b) if differences in personality traits are systematically related to the gender composition of the occupation, (c) if individuals who have chosen an occupation dominated by the other gender are gender-atypical in their personalities and, (d) how personality traits are related to wages and the gender wage gap. The results show significant gender differences in agreeableness, emotional stability and perceived risk-taking. The male-dominated occupations score higher on risk-taking than those dominated by females, but the pattern for agreeableness is less clear and the scores on emotional stability are no higher in these occupations. Further we find that individuals who have chosen a gender-atypical occupation tend to display gender atypical personality traits. In line with previous research, we find that risk-taking and self-esteem are positively related to wages but these associations do not account for gender differences in wages. The valuation of personality traits does not vary systematically with the gender composition of the occupations but being agreeable has a more negative wage effect for women than for men.

  • 25.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Family-friendly policies and women's wages - is there a trade-off?: Skill investments, occupational segregation and the gender pay gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK2016In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 91-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that there is a trade-off between the family-friendliness' of jobs, occupations and welfare states on the one hand and women's relative wages on the other. In particular, the extensive family policies found in Scandinavia are thought to harm highly educated women by affecting occupational segregation and workplace skill development. In this article, we use pooled wage data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010 to examine the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap in Germany, Sweden and the UK and compare the situation of high- and low-skilled employees. Our findings show that the gender wage gap among high-skilled employees in Sweden is larger than in the UK, but not larger than in Germany. Also, segregation and work-related training are no more important in Sweden than in the other countries. Another important finding is that the mechanisms behind the gender wage gap differ between high- and low-skilled employees in ways not predicted by the trade-off argument. In particular, the large unexplained wage gap among high-skilled employees provides new theoretical challenges.

  • 26. Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Jämställdhetens moment 22?2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Beyond the Mummy Track?: Part-time Rights, Gender, and Career-Family Dilemmas2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statutory rights to part-time work are increasingly discussed and institutionalized, but have been little empirically investigated. On the basis of a survey of Swedish parents (n = 1900), the article explores the usage and usefulness of the right to work hour reductions in relation to career-family dilemmas. The results show that the gender composition of the workplace affects both mothers’ and fathers’ likelihood of reducing work hours. Mothers who reduce work hours experience lower work-family conflict but stronger fears of negative career repercussions. For fathers, the implications of work hour reductions vary with the gender composition of the workplace. Meanwhile, the division of housework is related both to the likelihood of reducing work hours and to its implications. The analysis suggests that even when a statutory right to part-time is provided, workplace norms and men’s participation in housework are crucial for changing gender patterns.

  • 28.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In search of family-friendly careers?: Professional strategies, work conditions and gender differences in work-family conflict2018In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether women in a dual-earner context acquire family-friendly jobs as a strategy to keep work–family conflict down. The analysis is based on a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n ≈ 2400). The sample was stratified by occupation and gender to minimize the influence of factors other than gender. The results show that women are more family-oriented, but also more career-oriented than men in their professional strategies. In their jobs, women have less control over work and schedules than men but a similar level of work demands. However, women face lower requirements for employer flexibility (e.g. frequent over time) and this is related to their professional strategies. Finally, women report a higher level of work–family conflict than men in the same occupation, but this gender difference becomes non-significant when accounting for women's lower level of control. In sum, women in this sample clearly aim for both family and career and do not acquire family-friendly jobs, but aim to avoid 'family-unfriendly' requirements for constant availability. To some extent, this enables them to limit their work–family conflict but due to their lower control over work, women still experience more conflict than men in the same occupation.

  • 29.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Konfliktens ljusa sida2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014, 1, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rethinking work-family conflict: dual-earner policies, role conflict and role expansion in Western Europe2010In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to deepen the understanding of work-family conflict and the impact of social policies by integrating the theoretical perspectives of role conflict and role expansion. First, we present a theoretical model identifying different mechanisms through which policy may affect both role conflict and role expansion, with a particular focus on dual-earner policies. Second, we examine some of its implications, using data from the European Social Survey comprising 10,950 employees in 15 countries. In contrast to traditional theories presenting conflict and expansion as mutually exclusive, we find that work—family conflict and experiences of role expansion, measured with indicators of life satisfaction and psychological well being, may go hand in hand. The results also indicate that such a balance is more common in countries with dual-earner policies than in other countries. Women committing as strongly to work as men experience more work-family conflict, but also high levels of well being and satisfaction. The findings largely support our theoretical arguments and imply that future research should examine the conflict-expansion nexus rather than focussing on either of the two. In this context, both gender and policy need to be considered.

  • 31.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The gender-job satisfaction paradox and the dual-earner society: are women (still) making work-family trade-offs?2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 535-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite their disadvantaged labour market position, women consistently report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Researchers have attributed women's higher job satisfaction to their lower expectations, arguing that gender differences will fade away as women's labour market prospects improve. Others, however, argue that women are more contented than men because their jobs satisfy a need for family adaptions.

    Objective: In this article, we put the hypotheses of transitions and trade-offs to a strong test, by comparing men and women with comparable human capital investments living in a country where women's employment is strongly supported by policies, practices and social norms.

    Methods: The relationship between gender and job satisfaction is analysed with stepwise OLS regressions. The analysis is based on a survey to newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2 450).

    Results: First, we show that, after controlling for a range of job characteristics, women report a higher level of job satisfaction than men. Second, although the paradox appears to be surprisingly persistent, it cannot be attributed to work-family trade-offs.

    Conclusions: Future research should consider job satisfaction more broadly in the light of gender role socialization and persistent gender inequalities.

  • 32.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Halleröd, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Norberg-Schönfeldt, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nyman, Charlott
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vi kan inte bortse från jämställdhetens baksida2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 32 of 32
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