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  • 1.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 19116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality. However, previous research provides an ambiguous picture, with positive association mainly having been found on higher geographical levels. One explanation for this could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings differs between levels of aggregation. 

    Methods: We examine the association between income inequality (using the Gini coefficient) and all-cause mortality in Swedish municipalities in the age group 65-74. A multi-level analysis is applied and we control for e.g. individual income and average income level in the unicipality. The analyses are based on individual register data on all residents born between 1932 and 1941, and outcomes are measured for the year 2006.

    Results: Lower individual income as well as lower average income level in the municipality of residence increased mortality significantly. We found an association between income inequality and mortality with excessive deaths in unequal municipalities even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. The results from the analysis of individual data differed substantially from analyses using aggregate data.

    Conclusions: Income inequality has a significant association with mortality in the age groups 65 to 75 at municipality level. The association is small compared to many other variables, but it is not negligible. Even in a comparatively equal society like Sweden, we need to consider possible effects of income inequality on mortality at the local level. 

  • 2.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 3.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Do unequal societies cause death and disease?: A study of the health effects on elderly of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality (Wilkinson and Pickett 2007; 2009). It is argued that inequality may add to increasing health differentials over the life course. However, previous research provides so far an ambiguous picture. One explanation could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings may differ between levels of aggregation. A hypothesis is that homogeneity is positive on the national or regional level, while on a lower level of aggregation living in homogeneous settings could be detrimental for health, at least in poor neighborhoods.

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of our examination on how residence in unequal versus homogeneous areas is associated with health outcome of elderly people in Sweden. These first results are based on municipality level data on individuals born between 1932 and 1941 and the outcome is measured for the year 2006. Furthermore, we analyze the effect on health of income inequality (measured by Gini-coefficient) as compared to the effect of individual income and the average income level in the area. We analysed the associations both with individual-level and multi-level analysis. Our main finding is that inequality has an independent effect on mortality in the way that unequal municipalities have excessive deaths even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. This result was found not only in the individual-level analysis but also in the multilevel analysis.

  • 4.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sheridan, Scott C
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 4242, USA.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Association between Weather Types based on the Spatial Synoptic Classification and All-Cause Mortality in Sweden, 1991⁻20142019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much is known about the adverse health impact of high and low temperatures. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is a useful tool for assessing weather effects on health because it considers the combined effect of meteorological factors rather than temperature only. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oppressive weather types and daily total mortality in Sweden. Time-series Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between oppressive weather (Dry Polar, Dry Tropical, Moist Polar, and Moist Tropical) and daily deaths over 14 days in the extended summer (May to September), and 28 days during the extended winter (November to March), from 1991 to 2014. Days not classified as oppressive weather served as the reference category. We computed relative risks with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for trends and seasonality. Results of the southern (Skåne and Stockholm) and northern (Jämtland and Västerbotten) locations were pooled using meta-analysis for regional-level estimates. Analyses were performed using the dlnm and mvmeta packages in R. During summer, in the South, the Moist Tropical and Dry Tropical weather types increased the mortality at lag 0 through lag 3 and lag 6, respectively. Moist Polar weather was associated with mortality at longer lags. In the North, Dry Tropical weather increased the mortality at shorter lags. During winter, in the South, Dry Polar and Moist Polar weather increased mortality from lag 6 to lag 10 and from lag 19 to lag 26, respectively. No effect of oppressive weather was found in the North. The effect of oppressive weather types in Sweden varies across seasons and regions. In the North, a small study sample reduces precision of estimates, while in the South, the effect of oppressive weather types is more evident in both seasons.

  • 5.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gendered death risks among disabled individuals in sweden: A case study of the 19th-century Sundsvall region2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 160-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study follows around 500 disabled individuals over their lifespan to examine their risks of dying in 19th-century society, in comparison to a reference group of non-disabled people. The aim is to detect whether people, due to their disability, had a higher probability of meeting an untimely death. We use Sweden’s 19th-century parish registers to identify people the ministers defined as disabled, and to construct a reference group of individuals who were not affected by these disabilities. By combining the deviance theories from sociology studies with demographic sources and statistical methods, we achieve new insight into how life developed for disabled people in past societies. The results suggest that disability significantly jeopardized the survival of individuals, particularly men, but also that the type of disability had an impact. Altogether, we can demonstrate that the disabled constituted a disadvantaged but heterogeneous group of people whose demography and life courses must be further researched.

  • 6.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Opportunities of Work and Family in Young Disabled People’s Lives: A Comparative Study of Disabled and Non-disabled Young Adults in Nineteenth-century Northern Sweden Using Sequence Analysis2016In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II) / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard and Matthias Studer, Lausanne: Université de Lausanne , 2016, p. 93-102Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This study focuses on young adults with disabilities and their pathways towards work and family in past society. The aim is to explore their life trajectories and compare them to a non-disabled group of people who experienced the same time-space context, represented by the 19th-century Sundsvall region, Sweden. We employ sequence analyses on a series of demographic events that were to occur in the life of young adults: first occupation, marriage and parenthood. We also check for the events of death and out-migration. Disability studies show that disabled people were often subject to stigmatization caused by their impairment and prevailing perceptions about normalcy in in society. This would have limited their opportunities of work and family compared to non-disabled persons. Individual-level data consisting of parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden, allow sequence analysis that helps to answer the questions of whether and how disability influenced people’s life trajectories. We obtain a holistic picture of how their life developed that suggests that disability substantially limited people’s opportunities to find job, marry and form a family. This indicates that a stigma was associated with disability beyond the impairment itself and worked to add to disabled individuals’ difficulties in both the labor market and marriage market.

  • 7.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Disabled and unmarried?: Marital chances among disabled people in nineteenth-century northern Sweden2017In: Essays in Economic & Business History, ISSN 0896-226X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 207-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To marry and form a household of one's own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.

  • 8.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Statistics.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Friska, småkrassliga och sjuka2006In: Sjukförsäkring, kulturer och attityder - Fyra aktörers perspektiv, Försäkringskassan , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Individer, attityder och ohälsa2006In: Sjukförsäkring, kulturer och attityder - Fyra aktörers perspektiv, Försäkringskassan , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Localised attitudes matter: a study of sickness absence in Sweden2008In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central issues explored in this article are the importance of geographical location in explaining the attitudes of individuals, and the interplay between these attitudes and overt behaviour. The context is as follows: In the late 1990's, sick-listings in Sweden underwent a substantial increase, causing the public expenses for the general sickness insurance to soar. Moreover, the extent of the usage of the insurance was found to vary significantly across different regions within the country. This development of the sickness insurance generally, and the regional differences specifically, have since been the subject of an intense debate. Differences and/or changes in attitudes toward sick leave within the population have been proposed as possible reasons for the regional variations. Much of the discussion has, however, been based on speculative arguments rather than empirical studies. Using data from a survey conducted in 2005, this research explores whether geographical location influences individual attitudes toward sick leave, and whether these attitudes in turn influence the sickness absence of individuals. The data are analysed using factor analysis, ordinary linear regressions and logistic regressions. The results provide some support for the idea that geographical factors matter to individual attitudes, and that variation in these attitudes is in turn associated with propensity for sickness absence. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 11.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holme, Kirsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Transfereringar och arbete2004Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    SVERIGE2007In: Modelling our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care, Elsevier, Amsterdam , 2007, p. 543-549Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    The SVERIGE spatial micro simulation model2006In: 8th Nordic Seminar on Microsimulation Models, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    A new test for spatial autocorrelation with an application to mortality in Swedish municipalities2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    A test for robust detection of residual spatial autocorrelation with application to mortality rates in Sweden2015In: Spatial Statistics, E-ISSN 2211-6753, Vol. 14, no C, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When analyzing data collected with a geographical dimension it is important to be able to test for spatial autocorrelation. The presence of spatial autocorrelation might unveil ignored explanatory variables or just be a factor necessary to consider when further analyzing the data.

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to propose a new test that works well for detecting spatial autocorrelation, which is robust against heteroscedasticity and useful regardless of the underlying distribution. The new test is then used to investigate if the mortality rates in the aging Swedish population show spatial autocorrelation as an example of its use.

    Methods: We derive such a test assuming the mean function for the model is known and perform simulations for this case and for residuals to investigate its finite sample performance, especially how the nominal rejection size is kept.

    Results: In the simulations we show that our test works well if there is no heteroscedasticity and also under difficult situations such as heteroscedasticity with structure, given that sufficient number of observations are available. This study finds no autocorrelation of mortality rates in Swedish municipalities in the age group 64–75 in year 2006.

  • 16.
    Häggström lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    A comparison between bootstrap methods for generalized linear models1996In: Proceedings of the forth Umeå Wurzburg conference in statistics, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    A frequency model for shopping and recreational trips in Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article a trip frequency model for recreational and shopping

    trips is suggested. The data used comes from a Swedish travel habit

    survey where the observations of trip frequencies of both types on each

    individual are made on the same day. This is likely to introduce a correlation

    structure, which is modeled with a conditional approach where

    the number of recreational trips are assumed to be made conditional

    on the number of shopping trips. A special interest is devoted to the

    effect of travel cost on trip frequencies. As a measure of the sensitivity

    of cost changes, elasticity of demand is calculated. The precision of

    the elasticities are evaluated with simulated confidence intervals.

  • 18.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics. Social and Economic Geography.
    Demografisk mikrosimulering2007In: Qvartilen, ISSN 0283-3654, Vol. 22, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    Measurement errors in Poisson regressions: A simulation study based on travel frequency data2006In: Journal of Transportation and Statistics, vol 9, Nr 1 ., ISSN 1094-8848, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers how measurement errors in the explanatory

    variables affects the analysis of a Poisson regression model for frequencies

    of recreational and shopping trips. Measurement errors can introduce

    bias in the parameter estimates and the effects on this particular

    data set and model is investigated. The structure of the data, with two

    observations on each individual, makes it desirable to test for correlation

    within individual. It is possible that tests of random effects are

    sensitive to measurement error. The properties of tests of random individual

    effects when there are measurement errors are therefore studied

    in the paper. The results of a simulation study show that classical

    measurement errors cause severe bias and Berkson measurement errors

    produce little bias. The tests for random individual effects work

    well both with measurement error and negatively correlated responses

    according to the simulation study.

  • 20.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics. Social and Economic Geography.
    Prognostisering och simulering av turistresor i Sverige: Med fokus på den framtida skidturismen2008Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    Properties of Honda's test of random individual effects in non-linear regression.2002In: Statistical papers, ISSN 0932-5026, Vol. 43, p. 177-196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    Test of random subject effects in heteroskedastic linear models2001In: Statistical Sociaty of Canada. Simon Fraser University, British Clumbia.: The Joint Meetings of the Statistical Society of Canada, 2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The effect of travel cost on frequencies of shopping and recreational trips in Sweden2009In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focus on how the cost of travel affects travel behavior. A trip frequency model for recreational and shopping trips is suggested and used to investigate this. The data that is used comes from a Swedish travel habit survey where the respondents’ trip frequencies of both types of trips on a certain day are recorded. This is likely to introduce a correlation structure, which is incorporated in the model. Special attention is paid to the effect of travel cost on trip frequencies for different regions and income groups. As a measure of the sensitivity of cost changes, elasticity of demand is calculated. The precision of the elasticities are evaluated with simulated p-values.

  • 24.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The effect of Rh-negative disease on perinatal mortality: Some evidence from the Skellefteå Region, Sweden, 1860–19002012In: Biodemography and Social Biology, ISSN 1948-5565, E-ISSN 1948-5573, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 116-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rh-negative gene is a well-known cause of perinatal mortality. In this article, we analyze the possible role of Rh disease in perinatal mortality and stillbirths in a particular historical setting: the Skellefteå region in northern Sweden between 1860 and 1900. The data used for the study cover 23,067 children born to 4,943 women. The exact impact is not possible to establish using historical data, but the typical pattern of the disease allows us to make estimations. The expected levels based on knowledge of blood group distribution, the risk of sensitization from Rh incompatability, and the risk of perinatal mortality in births by sensitized mothers are compared with the observed levels. The results show that Rh disease was important for perinatal mortality and clustering of deaths within families.

  • 25.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    The effect of the Rh negative disease on perinatal mortality: Evidence from Skellefteå 1840-19002010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Rh-negative gene is a well known cause of perinatalmortality especially before there were any effective treatment. The Rh disease, that is caused by a Rh positive foetus carried by a Rh negativemother, leads to typical patterns of perinatal mortality with an increaseof mortality with parity and mortality clustered in families. This effecthas been largely neglected in earlier papers trying to explain mortalitypatterns in historic data.

    Objectives: This paper highlights the role of this gene in causing these patterns and tries to quantify the effect in a society with a large group of Rh-negative persons and no access to treatment.

    Methods: The risks of the Rh disease is approximately known from the medical literature. Knowing family sizes and the approximate share of Rh negative genes the ”theoretical” patterns of perinatal mortality can becalculated and simulated. Comparing these figures with observed patterns of perinatal deaths the relative importance of Rh factor can be estimated.We have used data from 1840-1900 in the Swedish parish of Skellefteå where we have data on all births and their outcomes as well as good estimates of the Rh negative gene frequency.

    Results: The results show that the Rh gene is likely to have had an important role in perinatal mortality and the patterns with more dead at high parities and clustering explaining a relatively large part of these phenomenon in high Rh negative gene societies.

    Conclusions: The paper shows that the Rh-disease is an important fac-tor in understanding mortality patterns. Its great effect on the patterns makes it necessary to take it into account when analysing other factors that can affect perinatal mortality patterns.

  • 26.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics. Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Social and Economic Geography.
    Spatial dynamic micro-simulation of demographic development2007In: 1st General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association: Celebrating 50 Years of Microsimulation, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of changing demographical patterns, tools for keeping track of these changes are of great importance. Different regions are in different stages of the demographic transition and are affected differently of migration patterns. A tool to project the demographic development at a regional level is therefore of great importance. This article we discusses the demographic development in the county Västerbotten in Sweden and in that context why and how a micro simulation model can be used for these purposes.

  • 27.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    Laitila, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Statistics.
    Test of random subject effects in heteroskedastic linear models2002In: Biometrical Journal, ISSN 0323-3847, Vol. 44, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Statistik i geografi: Slutrapport av pedagogiskt projekt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistik ingår som ett viktigt hjälpämne i andra akademiska ämnen som använder kvantitativa data, till exempel kulturgeografi. Kulturgeografi har vidare betydande inslag av användning av Geografiska informationssystem (GIS), där det finns stora beröringsytor med statistik. En integrering av områdena geografi och statistik kan således ge studenterna stort mervärde. Det innebär ofta en pedagogisk utmaning att förmedla statistisk kunskap till studenter som i huvudsak har sin bakgrund inom ämnen som innehåller lite kontakt med statistiska tankegångar. Detta projekts huvudsyfte har varit att utveckla en pedagogisk ansats som är lämplig i denna situation. Projektet har i första hand genomförts inom ramen för en kurs på avancerad nivå, där statistik och geografi integrerats och lärts ut med en casebaserad ansats.

  • 29.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sander, Nikola
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Samir, K.C.
    Prospects for later-life migration in urban Europe2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Aims:Later life migration among the baby boomer generation will have far-reachingimplications of economic development and for planning strategies to ensure adequatehealth, housing and welfare in the right place at the right time. However, much of thecurrent debate about the future trajectory of this type of human mobility has been basedon speculation. The goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of later lifemigration and the likely future trajectory of the retired baby boomers in Europe.The need for more accurate forecasts of future migration flows has increased withthe relative importance of migration vis-à-vis other components of population dynamics.Although forced international migration has been given considerable research attentionin recent years, also other migration types, in particular later-life migration, becomeincreasingly important. In the coming decade, the large baby boom generation will reachretirement age.Methodology/ Results / Findings / Conclusion:The objective of this report is to focus on the effects of an ageing population interms of urban development and retirement migration. The report discusses the regionalpopulation projections and its social impacts. An analysis on the impacts of urbanizationand differential ageing across regions will be given.Moving beyond the simple assumption of a continuation of current trends, anumber of alternative scenarios are explored to simulate the likely future trajectories ofthe baby boomers. Potential impacts on retirement migration caused by changes inaverage retirement age, altered lifestyle preferences and the large size of the baby boomergeneration are considered.

  • 30.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Terämä, Emma
    Demographic projections at local level for case study regions: Report for Peri-urban land use relationships (PLUREL), Module 1, EU sixth framework programme2008Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Modelling mortality using life trajectories of disabled and non-disabled individuals in nineteenth-century Sweden2018In: Sequence analysis and related approaches: innovative methods and applications / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard, Matthias Studer, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 69-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lena, Karlsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Season of birth, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in Sweden: the Sami and non-Sami population, 1800–18992019In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1629784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal patterns of neonatal mortality and stillbirths have been found around the world. However, little is known about the association between season of birth and infant mortality of pre-industrial societies in a subarctic environment. In this study, we compared how season of birth affected the neonatal and stillbirth risk among the Sami and non-Sami in Swedish Sápmi during the nineteenth century. Using digitised parish records from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, we applied logistic regression models for estimating the association of season of birth with stillbirths and neonatal mortality, respectively. Higher neonatal mortality was found among the winter- and autumn-born Sami, compared to summer-born infants. Stillbirth risk was higher during autumn compared to summer among the Sami, whereas we found no seasonal differences in mortality among the non-Sami population. We relate the higher neonatal mortality risk among winter-born Sami to differences in seasonality of living conditions associated with reindeer herding.

  • 33.
    Lena, Karlsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The association between cold extremes and neonatal mortality in Swedish Sápmi from 1800–18952019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1623609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies in which the association between temperature and neonatal mortality (deaths during the first 28 days of life) is tracked over extended periods that cover demographic, economic and epidemiological transitions are quite limited. From previous research about the demographic transition in Swedish Sápmi, we know that infant and child mortality was generally higher among the indigenous (Sami) population compared to non-indigenous populations.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between extreme temperatures and neonatal mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population in Swedish Sápmi (Lapland) during the nineteenth century.

    Methods: Data from the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, were used to identify neonatal deaths. We used monthly mean temperature in Tornedalen and identified cold and warm month (5th and 95th) percentiles. Monthly death counts from extreme temperatures were modelled using negative binomial regression. We computed relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for time trends and seasonality.

    Results: Overall, the neonatal mortality rate was higher among Sami compared to non-Sami infants (62/1,000 vs 35/1,000 live births), although the differences between the two populations decreased after 1860. For the Sami population prior 1860, the results revealed a higher neonatal incidence rate during cold winter months (< -15.4 °C, RR=1.60, CI 1.14–2.23) compared to infants born during months of medium temperature). No association was found between extreme cold months and neonatal mortality for non-Sami populations. Warm months (+15.1 °C) had no impact on Sami or non-Sami populations.

    Conclusions: This study revealed the role of environmental factors (temperature extremes) on infant health during the demographic transition where cold extremes mainly affected the Sami population. Ethnicity and living conditions contributed to differential weather vulnerability.

  • 34.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Analyzing Socio-Economic Impacts of Large Investments by Spatial Microsimulation2007In: 1st General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association: Celebrating 50 Years of Microsimulation, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a nuclear waste repository will be located in either Östhammar or Oskarshamn, two Swedish municipalities. This is a major investment that is likely to have socio-economic implications at the local level for several decades. In order to analyze the indirect local effects of such large investments, a spatial and dynamic microsimulation model (SVERIGE 3) has been constructed. The model simulates demographic events (e.g., fertility and migration) as well as education and the labor market. In this study, the simulation model is utilized to evaluate a number of scenarios comprising various potential investments in Östhammar, one of which is the nuclear waste repository. As part of the study, the direct local effect of the investments was estimated. When running the model, the estimated direct local effects function as exogenous economic input to concerned labor market sectors. The results of the simulations indicate that investments such as the nuclear waste repository will have some economic and demographic effects. However, infrastructure projects that increase accessibility seem to generate more profound and long-lasting effects at the local level. A municipality such as Östhammar, located close the Stockholm metropolitan area, may be especially likely to benefit by such infrastructure investments.

  • 35.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Micro-Simulation Modeling of Domestic Tourism Travel Patterns in Sweden2004In: The Second International Conference on: Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Modeling Domestic Tourism in Sweden2007In: Tourism Analysis, Vol. 11, pp 349-366., ISSN 1083-5423, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 349-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a microsimulation model based on TDB-data (Swedish Tourist Database provided by Marknadsfakta, Åre, Swe¬den) can be used to estimate the number of trips, choice of activity and choice of destination for domestic overnight trips in Sweden using individual micro data from Statistics Sweden. It is argued that this modeling on the micro-level accounts for changes in population structure and geography to a far greater extent than conventional models because of its focus on individual behavior in relation to individual socio-economic characteristics. Thus, changes in the supply of tourism results in changing travel patterns. Also changes in the population and its spatial distribution are mirrored directly in the resulting travel pattern.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Colorado State University, College of Applied Human Sciences, Department of Occupational Therapy, Fort Collins, CO.
    The Reationship between Engagement in Leisure Activities and Self-Rated Health in Later Life2017In: Activities, Adaptation & Aging, ISSN 0192-4788, E-ISSN 1544-4368, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 175-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine leisure engagement among people in later life and the potential relationship between leisure engagement and self-rated health. A population-representative sample of 5,435 persons between 65 and 80 years of age, living in northern Sweden and Finland were included. Data were collected by a posted questionnaire survey. Results revealed that levels of leisure engagement decreased progressively between the youngest and the oldest age groups. A significant relationship was found between leisure engagement and self-rated health. The relationship between leisure engagement and health as well as implications for developing health promotion programs are discussed.

  • 38.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sequence analysis of how disability influenced life trajectories in a past population from the nineteenth-century Sundsvall region, Sweden2017In: Historical Life Course Studies, ISSN 1570-1522, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 4, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    First a job, and then a family?: Impacts of disabilities on young people's life courses in a nineteenth-century Swedish region2017In: Disability Studies Quarterly (DSQ), ISSN 1041-5718, E-ISSN 2159-8371, Vol. 37, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers the life courses of young men and women with and without disabilities in the Sundsvall region of Sweden during the nineteenth century. It aims to ascertain how disability and gender shaped their involvement in work and their experience of family in order to assess the extent of their social inclusion. Through the use of Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we examine 8,874 individuals observed from 15 to 33 years of age to investigate whether obtaining a job, getting married and having children were less frequent events for people with disabilities. Our results reveal that this was the case and particularly for those with mental disabilities, even if having an impairment did not wholly prevent people from finding a job. However, their work did not represent the key to family formation and for the women it implied a higher rate of illegitimacy. We argue that the lower level of inclusion in work and family was not solely the outcome of the impairment itself, but differed in relation to the particular attitudes towards men and women with disabilities within the labour market and society more generally in this particular context.

  • 40.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå Universitet.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ett annorlunda liv?: Följder av funktionsnedsättningar i 1800-talets Sverige2019In: Funktionsnedsättning i arbetsliv och välfärd: rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 16–17 januari 2019, Försäkringskassan, Analys och prognos , 2019, p. 15-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad innebar funktionsnedsättningar för människors delaktighet i 1800-talets samhälle? Studien besvarar frågan genom att undersöka över 35,000 unga personers chanser att hitta ett första jobb där levnadsbanan för 15-åringar följs upp närmare. Funktionsnedsättningar medförde svårigheter på både arbets- och partnermarknaden även om det inte var omöjligt att skaffa jobb, gifta sig och bilda familj. Det vittnar om att nedsatt funktionsförmåga innebar ett annorlunda liv och möjligen socialt utanförskap, men inte alltid. Följderna varierade beroende på typ av nedsättning där omgivningens attityder till olika funktionsnedsättningar och könsbundna förväntningar tycks ha spelat roll. Fysiska nedsättningar hade inte lika negativa effekter för arbete, giftermål och överlevnad som psykiska nedsättningar. Resultaten bygger på kyrkböcker digitaliserade av Demografiska Databasens (DDB), Umeå Universitet, där prästerna noterade funktionsavvikelser och händelser i församlingsbornas liv (t.ex. yrke, giftermål, barnafödande). Studien belyser hur levnadsvillkor och möjligheter till delaktighet i samhället via arbete gestaltade sig för individer i historisk tid till följd av funktionsnedsättningar – förhållanden som dröjer sig kvar än idag.

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