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  • 1.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Productivity: should we include bads?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the interaction between economic and environmental performance. Applying the directional output distance function approach, the purpose is to compare estimates of Luenberger total factor productivity indicators, including and excluding bad outputs. Specifically, based on unique firm level data from Swedish manufacturing covering the period 1990 to 2008, we explore to what extent excluding bad outputs leads to erroneous productivity measurement. The main conclusion is that bad outputs should not only be included in the estimations, but also reduction in bad outputs should be credited. From this point of view the directional output distance function approach and the Luenberger indicator serves as an appropriate basis of productivity measurement.

  • 2.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Oregon State University and SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). SLU.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Which bad is worst?: An application of Johansen's capacity model2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of desirable (good) outputs is frequently accompanied by unintended production of undesirable (bad) outputs. If two or more of these undesirable outputs are produced as byproducts, one may ask: ‘Which bad is worst?’ By worst we mean which bad inhibits the production of desirable outputs the most if it is regulated. We develop a model based on Leif Johansen’s capacity framework by estimating the capacity limiting effect of the bads. Our model resembles what is referred to as the von Liebig Law of the Minimum, familiar from the agricultural economics literature. To illustrate our model we apply our approach to a firm level data set from the Swedish paper and pulp industry.

  • 3.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to significantly decrease carbon dioxide emissions has become one of the largest challenges faced by modern society. The standard recipe prescribed by most economists is to put a price on carbon, either through a tax or through emissions trading. Such measures can reduce emissions cost-effectively and create incentives for technological development. There is, however, a growing concern that the carbon prices generated through the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have been too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide tax and the EU ETS have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. How the policy measures affect TFP is assessed using a system generalized method of moments estimator. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it has been negative. The price on fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the carbon dioxide tax have been too low.

  • 4.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish industry: a data envelopement analysis2015Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Firm performance and the role of environmental management2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203, p. 330-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment. Main results show that energy efficiency and environmental performance are integrated, and energy efficiency and productivity positively reinforce each other, signifying the cost saving property of more efficient use of energy. Hence, increasing energy efficiency, as advocated in many of today's energy policies, could capture multiple benefits. The results also show that improved environmental performance and environmental investments constrain next period productivity, a result that would be in contrast with the Porter hypothesis and strategic corporate social responsibility; both concepts conveying the notion that pro-environmental management can boost productivity and competitiveness.

  • 7.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish Industry: A firm-level data envelopment analysis2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 55, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency.

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