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  • 1. Chan, D. K. C.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagger, M. S.
    Inter-item distance changes the predictive power of motivation on health behavior?: a randomised controlled trial2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, p. S237-S237Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 3. Clement, D.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Tranaeus, U.
    Johnson, U.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating the influence of intraindividual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1at the beginning of the season and Time 21month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; M-age=18.39, SD=3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries.

  • 4.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, p. S86-S86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ford, Paul R.
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United .
    Carling, Christopher
    Institute of Sports Performence, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom, and LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Garces, Marco
    Universidad del Futbol y Ciencias del Deporte, Pachuca FC, Pachuca, Mexico, .
    Marques, Mauricio
    PUC Minas/Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), Brazilian School of Football (EBF), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Miguel, Carlos
    Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Farrant, Andrew
    Right to Dream Academy, Accra, Ghana.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Moreno, Jansen
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Le Gall, Franck
    LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salmela, John H.
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Williams, Mark
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom,.
    The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden2012In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 1653-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s ¼ 124.0 h _ year71, in soccer play for 186.0, s ¼ 125.3 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 37.1, s ¼ 28.9 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.3, s ¼ 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s ¼ 184.3 h _ year71, in soccer play for 159.7, s ¼ 195.0 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 66.9, s ¼ 48.8 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.5, s ¼ 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  • 6. Gjesdal, Siv
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    A study of coach-team perceptual distance concerning the coach-created motivational climate in youth sport2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coach-team perceptual distance regarding the coach-created motivational climate related to achievement goal orientations and affective responses. To this end, we used polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology. The sample consisted of 1359 youth soccer players (57.8% male; M-age = 11.81 years, SD = 1.18), belonging to 87 different teams (M-size = 16.47), and 87 coaches (94.6% male, M-age = 42 years, SD = 5.67). Results showed that team perceptions of a coach-created mastery climate were positively related to team-rated task goal orientation and enjoyment, whereas team perceptions of a coach-created performance climate were positively related to team-rated ego goal orientation and anxiety, and negatively related to team-rated enjoyment. When the coach and the team were in perceptual agreement, the outcomes increased as both coach and team perceptions of the climate increased. In situations of perceptual disagreement, the most negative effects were seen when the coach held a more favorable perception of the motivational climate compared to the team. The findings highlight the importance of perceptual agreement between the coach and his/her team, contributing to the literature focusing on the effects of the coach-created motivational climate.

  • 7. Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    et al.
    Zhang, Chun-Qing
    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian
    Si, Gangyan
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 187-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, M-age = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

  • 8. Gustafsson, H.
    et al.
    Sagar, S. S.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2091-2102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 9. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlin, Maicon
    Podlog, Leslie
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 10. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Hill, Andrew
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes can be identified that differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernable groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 male and 113 female aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best.

  • 11.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Linelius Ljungman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyft fram ledarens ljusa sidor2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement (vol 79, pg 151, 2019)2019In: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 80, p. 97-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement2019In: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 79, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness is associated with higher well-being. However, little is known about change or stability in this association over the life span. We therefore investigated changes in the association between well-being and basic psychological need satisfaction in the retirement transition. Data was drawn from four waves of the Health, Aging, and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study (N = 5,074, M (age) = 63.16; 53.61% female). Multi-level models were conducted and the analyses revealed evidence for continuity as well as systematic changes in within- and between-person associations across the retirement transition. Our findings demonstrate the benefits of applying a longitudinal design and a life span perspective on basic psychological need satisfaction.

  • 14. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology and AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Isabelle
    Kivi, Marie
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Preretirement Work Motivation and Subsequent Retirement Adjustment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective2019In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research grounded in self-determination theory confirms the importance of different types of work motivation for well-being and job performance. Less is known about the role of work motivation at the end of one's working life and its association with adjustment to retirement. We investigated the association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment in a subsample of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We included participants (n = 572) who retired between two annual waves in this longitudinal study. Retirement adjustment was operationalized as change between waves in satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment varied depending on the subdimension of motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external, or amotivation), type of transition (full vs. partial), and the particular need (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In line with our expectations, low intrinsic work motivation was associated with gains in autonomy satisfaction for full-time retirees, which may be interpreted as a relief from dissatisfying jobs. Among those who continued to work, high intrinsic motivation was related to increases in relatedness satisfaction, that is, retirees who were intrinsically motivated for their work seem to benefit from continuing to work in retirement. In contrast to our expectations, amotivation before retirement was associated with gains in relatedness satisfaction for those continuing to work. Our results highlight the complexity of retirement and the need to study postretirement adjustment as a multifaceted and multidirectional process.

  • 15.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Support and Development, Umeå Municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Youth jobs: young peoples' experiences of changes in motivation regarding engagement in occupations in the Swedish public sector2018In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 36-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the influence of a programme with the purpose of increasing young people’s motivation to engage in professions with labour shortages in the Swedish public sector. The data collection methods used were qualitative and quantitative. The study shows that employment quality (skills, learning opportunities and social interaction) is essential to young people in relation to labour market interventions targeted at professions with labour shortages in the public sector. There appears to be heterogeneity in how young people value different factors. In addition, the motivational profile of young people seems to be an evolving process, but also in what way participation in a programme with focus on professions with labour shortages may contribute to such changes. The results indicate that, when planning a programme aimed at young people, individual differences should be taken into account in order to motivate them to work in professions with labour shortages.

  • 16.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Talent Development Environment and its Impact on Athletes Motivation2013In: The 5th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) / [ed] Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in different sports to optimize talent development, and the purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of the environment on psychological aspects of talent development, following the work of Martindale and colleagues (Martindale et al., 2010; Wang, Sproule, McNeill, Martindale, & Lee, 2011). This was done by examining athletes perceptions of key features in their talent development environment with the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire and its’ impact on important factors, such as perceived competence, fear of failure, and motivation. The participants (age 16-19 years) in this study were playing team sports on junior elite level, and were enrolled at Swedish sport academies. The results showed positive relationships between a positive talent development environment, competence, and autonomous motivation, as well as positive relationships between an adverse environment, fear of failure, and controlled motivation. These findings highlight differential effects of environmental factors on athletes’ development.

  • 17.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagström, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Långström, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fallby, J.
    Swedish Football Association.
    The talent development environments in two Scandinavian soccer academies’2012In: 3rd World Conference on Science and Soccer, 14-16 May 2012, Ghent, Belgium, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on psychological aspects of talent development has tended to focus on individual athletes and their micro-environments. In this study the talent development environments of a Swedish and a Danish soccer academy were examined, each club with a history of successfully producing top-level senior athletes from among its juniors. The aim was to explore and compare the clubs work on individual development within specifically defined areas (managing competition, career transitions, introduction of new players, injuries, challenges and support in life, school and family).

     

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 17 participants: four players and three leaders of the Swedish Club, and three players and seven leaders from the Danish club.

     

    Results and Conclusion: In both the Swedish and Danish club have a specified goal that the youth academy should prioritize individual development before the outcome of the game. Work on the development of the players individual skills are organized in different ways in the Swedish and Danish club. The Danish club has a much clearer structure on how to work with individual development, they use development plans in greater degree, plans which is anchored with the players and a more individualized training plans for the player's position and needs. Both clubs stresses the importance of developing the whole individual, not just play soccer characteristics, but also school work and the wellbeing of the individual player. The combination of soccer practice and school work was one thing that players from both clubs highlighted as challenging and stressful.

  • 18.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnson, Urban
    Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science and the Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Things We Still Haven't Learned (So Far)2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 449-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher's and Neyman and Pearson's statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the 2010 APA publication manual's clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and to interpret what they all mean in the real world. In addition, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles published over the past three years (2012-2014) in two top-rated sport and exercise psychology journals to determine whether we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about our use and meaningful interpretations of statistics.

  • 19. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Johnson, Urban
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several studies have suggested that psychosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation. Objectives The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interventions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention). Methods Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention. Results The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Conclusion The results support the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes.

  • 20.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fallby, Johan
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johnson, Urban
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Borg, Elin
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players' well-being: a person-centered approach2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the predictive ability of perceived talent development environment (TDE) on the well-being of youth elite football players.

    Design: A field-based longitudinal design was employed.

    Method: The participants were 195 Swedish youth elite football players between 13 and 16 years of age enrolled at Swedish football academies. The players responded to questionnaires regarding their perceptions of their TDE, perceived stress, and well-being in the beginning of the competitive season 2012 (T1). On two more occasions, six and 12 months later, the players completed the stress and well-being questionnaires.

    Results: A latent class analysis, based on the TDEQ sub-scale scores at T1, revealed three classes of players with different perceptions of their TDE (one high quality, one moderate quality, and one poor qualityclass). A second-order multivariate latent growth curve model (factor-of-curves model) showed that the class of players perceiving the lowest TDE quality, experienced higher initial level of stress and lower initial level of well-being at T1 compared to the other two classes. Moreover, there were no significant differences in slopes for neither stress nor well-being between classes (the initial difference between the three groups, in well-being, remained stable over time).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that players perceiving their TDE as supporting and focusing on long term development seem to be less stressed and experience higher well-being than other players. Hence, in addition to facilitate sport-specific development and performance among youth athletes, high quality TDEs may be important for youth elite athletes' general well-being.

  • 21. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Johnson, Urban
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 27-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

  • 22. Josefsson, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boroy, Jan
    Mattsson, Emil
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Sevholt, Simon
    Falkevik, Emil
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance.

  • 23. Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Böröy, Jan
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods: Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results: Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC- group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • 24. Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes.

  • 25.
    Lindahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research: a bibliometric review study2015In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 71-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bibliometric methods were used to examine: (1) research themes in sport and exercise psychology articles published between 2008 and 2011; and (2) the intellectual base of the field of sport and exercise psychology, defined as influential literature being cited in these articles. The dataset consisted of 795 articles from five sport and exercise psychology journals and 345 articles obtained through citation-based extension (n = 1140 articles). A cluster analysis yielded 73 clusters showing themes in sport and exercise psychology research. Principal component analysis was used to identify and analyze relationships between 14 highly cited research areas constituting the intellectual base of sport and exercise psychology. Some main findings were: (1) the identification of many re-emerging themes, (2) research related to motivation seems to be extensive, (3) sport psychology and exercise psychology research share theoretical frameworks to some extent, however (4) differences compared to previous reviews indicate that sport psychology and exercise psychology may be regarded as two distinct research fields, rather than one united field, and (5) isolated research areas were identified indicating potential for research integration. Suggestions for future research are provided. The bibliometric approach presented a broad overview of trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research.

  • 26.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    How to measure coach burnout: an evaluation of three burnout measures2014In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although coach burnout has been studied for 30 years, what measure to use in this context has not yet been problematized. This study focuses on evaluating convergent and discriminant validity of three coach burnout measures by using multi-trait/multi-method analysis (CT-C[M-1]) model. We choose Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the two dimensional Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), and a coach version of Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (CBQ). Our analysis shows that MBI and OLBI cover similar definitions of exhaustion and depersonalization/disengagement and that CBQ measures somewhat different dimensions. A problem for OLBI is a lack of discriminant validity due to high correlations between exhaustion and disengagement. For lack of personal accomplishment/reduced sense of accomplishment CBQ measures a somewhat different construct than MBI. Although all three measures have advantages and disadvantages, we promote CBQ since it discriminates between dimensions and covers important aspects of burnout in a sports context that the other two do not cover.

  • 27.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Henna
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Making it fit: Associations of line managers' behaviours with the outcomes of an organizational-level intervention2018In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers' behaviours are important during implementation of occupational health interventions. Still, little is known about how these behaviours are related to intervention outcomes. This study explored the relationship between line managers' intervention-specific transformational leadership (IsTL), intervention fit (the match between the intervention, persons involved, and the surrounding environment), and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour. Both direct and indirect relationships between IsTL and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were tested. Ninety employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention provided questionnaire ratings at baseline and after 6months. The results showed IsTL to be related to intervention fit and intervention fit to be related to intrinsic motivation. Using intervention fit as a mediator, the total effects (direct and indirect combined) of IsTL on change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were significant. In addition, IsTL had a specific indirect effect on intrinsic motivation. This study is the first to use IsTL as a measure line managers' behaviours. It is also the first to empirically evaluate the association between intervention fit and intervention outcomes. By including these measures in evaluations of organizational-level occupational health interventions, we can provide more informative answers as to what can make interventions successful.

  • 28. Matosic, Doris
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Boardley, Ian David
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sedikides, Constantine
    Linking Narcissism, Motivation, and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 556-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thogersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated directly and indirectly with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

  • 29.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet.
    Judging and regulating force in sports: the psychophysical scale as a tool for putting shots2015In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 6, p. 154-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports it is highly important to attain skills to judge and regulate the perceived force needed for the execution of motor actions. In the present paper it is emphasized that, while more research on these issues is sorely needed, there are psychophysical methods available to handle force. The putting shot in golf is used as an example, and it is shown how one of the psychophysical scales, the Borg CR100 scale®, functions in laboratory as well as field conditions. Detailed recommendations to players, instructors, and sport psychology practitioners are given for how to use the Borg scale in practice and in games, and it is concluded that such a scale is likely to be useful in many other sports as well.

  • 30.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Psychology, Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Regulating force in putting by using the Borg CR100 scale®2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularlyso in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise forceis of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, theBorg CR100 scale® (Borg and Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force aswell as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length of puttingshots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flatand uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distancesputted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale wereobserved between younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 69 years) playersor between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of anexisting instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale®, in order to understand the regulation of forceneeded for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential futurebenefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed.

  • 31. Ntoumanis, N.
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.
    Vlachopoulos, S.
    Lindwall, M.
    Gucciardi, D. F.
    Tsakonitis, C.
    Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: a multilevel growth curve model approach2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 746-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. This was a longitudinal survey study. Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centers and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role-identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a 6month period. Multilevel growth curve modeling examined the role of motivational regulations as within- and between-level predictors of exercise identity, and a model in which exercise identity predicted exercise motivation at the within- and between-person levels. Results showed that within-person changes in intrinsic motivation, introjected, and identified regulations were positively and reciprocally related to within-person changes in exercise beliefs; intrinsic motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in role-identity but not vice versa. Between-person differences in the means of predictor variables were predictive of initial levels and average rates of change in the outcome variables. The findings show support to the proposition that a strong exercise identity (particularly exercise beliefs) can foster motivation for behaviors that reinforce this identity. We also demonstrate that such relations can be reciprocal overtime and can depend on the type of motivation in question as well as between-person differences in absolute levels of these variables.

  • 32.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, Philip
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Martell, Christopher
    Carlbring, Per
    Behavioral activation versus physical activity via the internet: A randomized controlled trial2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major problem today is that only about fifty percent of those affected by depression seeks help. One way to reach more sufferers would be by offering easily accessible internet based treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare/evaluate four therapist supported internet administered treatments.

    Method/results: Two hundred eighty six participants were included. The treatment period lasted twelve weeks, consisting of the following treatments: 1) physical activity without treatment rational, 2) physical activity with treatment rational, 3) behavioral activation without treatment rational and 4) behavioral activation with treatment rational. All groups (including a control-group) showed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. When the treatment groups were pooled and compared to the control group, there were significant differences from pretest to posttest (Hedges gav treatment =1.01, control group =0.47). This held true also when each of the four treatment groups was compared to the control group, with one exception: Physical activity without treatment rationale.

    Limitations: The differences between how many modules the participants completed could indicate that there are other factors than the treatments that caused the symptom reduction, however, the dose-response analysis did not detect any significant differences on account of modules completed.

    Conclusions: The results support the positive effects of internet administered treatments for depression, and highlights the importance of psychoeducation, which tends to affect both the treatment outcome and the probability of remaining in treatment. These aspects need to be considered when developing and conducting new treatments for depression, since they would increase the likelihood of positive treatment outcomes.

  • 33. Park, Saengryeol
    et al.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fenton, Sally A. M.
    van Zanten, Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen
    Profiles of Physical Function, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior and their Associations with Mental Health in Residents of Assisted Living Facilities2017In: Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, ISSN 1758-0846, E-ISSN 1758-0854, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 60-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The current study used latent profile analyses to identify classes of older participants based on physical health, physical function, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and then examined differences in mental health between these classes.

    Methods: Eighty-five residents (= 77.5 years old, SD = 8.2) from assisted living facilities participated. Light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior were assessed by accelerometers, physical function was measured using different tasks (mobility, grip strength, and spirometry), and body mass index was calculated. Mental and physical health (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, vitality, and subjective mental and physical health) were assessed by questionnaires.

    Results: Latent profile analyses revealed three classes: “Class 1: Low physical function and physical activity with a highly sedentary lifestyle” (27.1%), “Class 2: Moderate physical function and physical activity with a moderate sedentary lifestyle” (41.2%), “Class 3: High physical function and physical activity with an active lifestyle” (31.8%). The results revealed that the latter class reported better mental health than the other two classes.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that health promotion for older adults might benefit from identifying profiles of movement-related behaviors when examining the links between physical activity and mental health. Future study should test the intervention potential of this profiling approach.

  • 34. Quested, Eleanor
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Hancox, Jennie E.
    The need-relevant instructor behaviors scale: development and initial validation2018In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article outlines the development and validation of the Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale (NIBS). Drawing from self-determination theory, the NIBS is the first observation tool designed to code the frequency and the intensity of autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness-relevant behaviors of exercise instructors. The scale also captures the frequency of need-indifferent behaviors.

    Methods: The behaviors of 27 exercise instructors were coded by trained raters on two occasions, before and after they received training in adaptive motivational communication.

    Results: Findings supported the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The scale's sensitivity to detect changes in frequency and intensity of need-relevant behaviors was also evidenced. Conclusions: The NIBS is a new tool that offers a unique, tripartite assessment of need-relevant behaviors of leaders in the physical activity domain.

  • 35.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled "Demands," "Worries/Tension," " Lack of joy," " Conflict," and " Fatigue," respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 36.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Idrottsledarskap: En icke-teoretisk praktik?2013In: Flow : en tidning från Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, ISSN 1654-2533, no 3, p. 13-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sport participation in adolescence: associations with health perceptions and health-related behaviors2011In: People in motion: bridging the local and global / [ed] Tor Söderström, Josef Fahlén and Kim Wickman, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik , 2011, p. 148-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sport participation during adolescence is assumed to have a positive influence on perceived health and health-related behaviors. However, few studies have examined the relationship between sport participation and health among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and several health indicators (well-being, physical activity, psychosomatic symptoms, leisure-time and school-related stress, sedentary behaviors, and substance use) among Swedish junior high and high school students.

    Methods: Data was collected as a part of the LEVA-survey, a large health and lifestyle-survey annually distributed to junior high and high school students in several municipalities in northern Sweden. The current sample consisted of 7665 students categorized as sport participants (n=4700) and non-participants (n=2965). Individual logistic regression analyses were performed for each health indicator with sport participation as predictor variable. Separate analyses were conducted for gender as well as for junior high and high school students.

    Results: Similar patterns with minor differences emerged for gender, junior high and high school students. Overall, sport participants were more likely to report higher levels of well-being and physical activity, and were less likely to report psychosomatic symptoms, sedentary behaviors, and substance use. Only female sport participants in junior high school were less likely to report school-related stress than non-participants, whereas no significant differences were found for alcohol use among high school students.Discussion: Generally, these findings strengthen the assumptions of the positive effects of sport participation during adolescence, but there is a need to more closely examine direct and indirect effects of sport participation on health. The results also corroborate with previous findings of an increased institutionalization of adolescents sport/physical activities.

  • 39.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coaches play a central role in shaping the sport environment for young athletes. This thesis is focused on the leadership process in sports and how coaches’ autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles longitudinally are related to young athletes’ motivation and ill- and well-being. The aim is also to examine psychometric multidimensionality in measures of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles. Questionnaire data from young athletes were used in the empirical studies. In Study 1, we examined an adaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being). The results showed that within-person changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being were all positively correlated. Higher self-determined motivation and well-being early in the season longitudinally predicted higher levels of perceived autonomy support from the coach. Higher self-determined motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in perceived autonomy support and well-being over the season. In Study 2, we examined a maladaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between coaches’ controlling behaviors, controlled motivation, and ill-being). The findings demonstrated that athletes who perceived their coach as more controlling reported higher controlled motivation at the end of the season and that higher controlled motivation early in the season predicted higher ill-being at the end of the season. Controlled motivation was also a positive predictor of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors at the within-person level. Study 1 and 2 suggest that individual factors (e.g., motivation and well-being) seemed to function as important determinants of how athletes perceived their coach and future research should explore the underlying mechanisms through which these processes occur. In Study 3, we examined psychometric multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive (Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale-Coach [ISS-C]) and controlling (Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale [CCBS]) interpersonal styles. The analyses indicated that the ISS-C is not multidimensional; it appears to comprise a single factor. Three of the four subscales of the CCBS appear to share a common core, whereas the fourth subscale (i.e., controlling use of rewards) seems to represent a slightly different aspect of a controlling interpersonal style. These results bring into question the multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ interpersonal styles. Neither measure displayed a coherent multidimensional pattern, indicating a need for better alignment between theory and measurement.

  • 40.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Träningsaktiviteter och fotbollstränares beteenden på ungdoms- och juniorelitnivå: Hur, varför och är vi på rätt väg?2013In: Årsbok: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, SIPF / [ed] Johansson, M., Wagnsson, S., & Gustafsson, H., Stockholm: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF) , 2013, p. 60-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canberra, Faculty of Health.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes2014In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 720-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery- avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes’ anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes’ well-being and performance.

  • 42.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey2014In: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to consequences of differences in chronological age among individuals within age-grouped cohorts. RAEs advantage relatively older players and have consistently been found in male ice hockey, but research in women’s ice hockey is scarce. This study examined RAEs in Swedish women’s elite (N = 688) and junior elite (N = 399) ice hockey and a moderator of RAEs, playing position. RAEs were also examined in the entire population of youth female ice hockey players (N = 2811). Chi-square analyses showed significant RAEs (p < .05) in all three samples. The elite and junior elite sample showed RAEs among defenseman and forwards, but not among goalies. In the youth sample, RAEs were evident in all age groups. RAEs were present in all age groups, from the youngest players (5-6 years) to the elite players. Despite a weak depth of competition, RAEs were displayed in Swedish women´s ice hockey, indicating that other mechanisms seem to influence RAEs.

  • 43.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Talangjakt = talangslakt?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Approach-avoidance goals in team sport athletes’: the predictive ability of the motivational climate2011In: New horizons from a world heritage city / [ed] N. Tim Cable and Keith George, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The motivational climate is an important determinant of athletes’ achievement goals. The relationship between the motivational climate and athletes’ achievement goals is also well examined within the dichotomous achievement goal framework. However, the relationship between the motivational climate and athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals (Elliot, 1999) is still an unexplored area in competitive sports. The only study to date in competitive sports included the higher order dimensions, mastery and performance climate, not the six underlying dimensions (Morris & Kavussanu, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine whether motivational climate dimensions can predict team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals.

     Methods: 319 team-sport athletes’ (males=156, females=163, mean age=20 years, SD=3.6) completed measures of the perceived motivational climate (PMCSQ-2) and approach-avoidance achievement goals (AGQ-S). Hierarchal regression analyses for each of the four achievement goals were performed, while controlling for the effect of age and gender. Two sets of analyses were performed: (1) using the higher order dimensions as predictors; and (2) using the six underlying dimensions as predictors.

     Results: The first set of analyses showed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by a mastery climate; mastery-avoidance goals were positively predicted by a performance climate and also influenced by age and gender; performance-approach goals were positively predicted by a mastery climate and a performance climate; and performance-avoidance goals were positively predicted by a performance climate and also influenced by age. The second set of analyses showed that mastery-approach goals were positively predicted by Effort/Improvement; mastery-avoidance goals were positively predicted by Punishment for Mistakes and also influenced by age and gender; performance-approach goals were positively predicted by Intra-Team Member Rivalry; whereas performance-avoidance goals were only influenced by age. Discussion: These findings indicate differential relationships between the motivational climate dimensions and competitive athletes’ approach-avoidance goals. The cross-over effects from social-environmental to individual achievement goals (e.g., that a performance climate predicted mastery-avoidance goals) highlight the need for future research to develop measures addressing both approach and avoidance aspects of the motivational climate.

  • 45.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Hassmen, Peter
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

  • 46.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches’ interpersonal styles2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.

  • 47.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science and the Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling in Sport and Exercise Psychology2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.

  • 48.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Cross-lagged structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling2016In: An introduction to intermediate and advanced statistical analyses for sport and exercise scientists / [ed] Nikos Ntoumanis & Nicholas D. Myers, John Wiley & Sons, 2016, p. 131-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sport and exercise psychology research, a variety of different methods that are more or less suitable are used to analyze data from studies with repeated measure designs depending on the research question of interest. The purpose of this chapter is to (a) discuss the importance of appropriately addressing and analyzing change, (b) demonstrate how to apply a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) and latent growth curve modeling (LGM), and (c) discuss how CLPM and LGM can be used in sport and exercise science. To illustrate the procedure of conducting CLPM and LGM analyses, we use data from a longitudinal cohort design study with Swedish adolescents. Online supplemental material (Mplus data and input files) are provided (see Appendix 7.1 to 7.11).

  • 49.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    The only constant is change: analysing and understanding change in sport and exercise psychology research2017In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 230-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to examine within-person change is essential to test process-based theories in sport and exercise psychology. Longitudinal data, whether experimental or observational, are prerequisites to be able to examine change processes, but most longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology focus solely on between-person/group differences, not on within-person change. In this review, we (1) provide researchers in the sport and exercise psychology field with a framework for longitudinal research that focuses on within-person change; (2) provide an overview of how researchers in sport and exercise psychology currently analyse longitudinal data, which showed that most longitudinal studies focus on between-person/group differences; and (3) provide examples of statistical models for analysing longitudinal data that correspond to the framework for longitudinal research. In the examples, we focus on latent variable modelling, such as latent growth-curve modelling and latent change-score modelling, which capture within-person change. We argue that there is a need for stronger emphasis on the match among theory of change, temporal design, and statistical models when designing longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology.

  • 50.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Changes in Perceived Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, Motivation, and Well-Being in Young Elite Athletes2015In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 4-stage motivational sequence was investigated, in line with self-determination theory (perceived autonomy support from the coach → need satisfaction → motivation → psychological well-being). More specifically, we examined level–change associations and relations between intraindividual changes in these variables over the course of an athletic season. Young elite skiers (109 females, 138 males) enrolled at sport high schools in Sweden responded to questionnaires assessing perceived autonomy support from the coach, need satisfaction, motivation, and psychological well-being at 2 time points separated by approximately 5 months. A latent difference score model were used to analyze the data. Initial level of need satisfaction at Time 1 negatively predicted change in perceived autonomy support, motivation, and well-being, and initial level of motivation at Time 1 positively predicted change in perceived autonomy support and change in well-being. Correlations between intraindividual changes in the study variables were estimated and the variables were all positively correlated. These results indicate that the relations between these variables are complex, dynamic, and that more attention should be given to potential reciprocal effects between the variables in this motivational sequence.

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