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  • 1. Chan, D. K. C.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hagger, M. S.
    Inter-item distance changes the predictive power of motivation on health behavior?: a randomised controlled trial2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, s. S237-S237Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 666-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 3. Chan, Derwin K. C.
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Yusainy, Cleoputri
    Hikmiah, Ziadatul
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Hagger, Martin S.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Beauchamp, Mark R.
    Consistency tendency and the theory of planned behavior: a randomized controlled crossover trial in a physical activity context2019Ingår i: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined the effects of consistency tendency on the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to physical activity behavior.

    Methods: In this randomized controlled cross-over trial, we recruited 770 undergraduate students from Indonesia who were randomly assigned into two groups. Participants completed physical activity versions of TPB measures at T1 (baseline) and T2 (post 1 week), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at T3 (post 1 month). At T1 and T2, the TPB questions were either presented in ensemble-order (i.e., consistency tendency supressed) or alternate-order (i.e., consistency tendency facilitated).

    Results: The parameter estimates of the model (CFI > .92, TLI > .90, SRMR < .08, RMSEA < .08) aligned with the tenets of TPB. As compared to ensemble-order, a TPB measured in alternate-order yielded stronger cross-sectional relationships, but this pattern did not appear in the prospective relationships in TPB (i.e., intention/perceived behavioral control and behavior).

    Conclusions: Consistency tendency inflated the factor correlations of cross-sectionally measured TPB variables, but the inflation was not observed in the prospective prediction of behavior. Health psychology questionnaires with items presented in ensemble order may represent a viable means of reducing the confounding effect of consistency tendency.

  • 4. Clement, D.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Tranaeus, U.
    Johnson, U.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Investigating the influence of intraindividual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 1461-1466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1at the beginning of the season and Time 21month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; M-age=18.39, SD=3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries.

  • 5.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019Ingår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 444-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 6.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, s. S86-S86Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Halldin, Mats
    Vikstrom, Max
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gigante, Bruna
    de Faire, Ulf
    Leander, Karin
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Physical activity attenuates cardiovascular risk and mortality in men and women with and without the metabolic syndrome - a 20-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of 60-year-olds2020Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of leisure-time physical activity of different intensities at baseline, and cardiovascular disease incidence, cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality in a population-based sample of 60-year-old men and women with and without established metabolic syndrome, for more than 20 years of follow-up. A secondary aim was to study which cardiometabolic factors may mediate the association between physical activity and long-term outcomes.

    Methods: A total of 3693 participants (53% women) underwent physical examination and laboratory tests, completed an extensive questionnaire at baseline 1997–1999 and were followed until their death or until 31 December 2017. First-time cardiovascular disease events and death from any cause were ascertained through regular examinations of national registers.

    Results: Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 23.0%. In metabolic syndrome participants, light physical activity attenuated cardiovascular disease incidence (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50–1.00) compared to sedentary (reference) after multi-adjustment. Moderate/high physical activity was inversely associated with both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, but became non-significant after multi-adjustment. Sedentary non-metabolic syndrome participants had lower cardiovascular disease incidence (0.47; 0.31–0.72) but not significantly different cardiovascular disease (0.61; 0.31–1.19) and all-cause mortality (0.92; 0.64–1.34) compared to sedentary metabolic syndrome participants. Both light and moderate/high physical activity were inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in non-metabolic syndrome participants (p<0.05). There were significant variations in several central cardiometabolic risk factors with physical activity level in non-metabolic syndrome participants. Fibrinogen mediated the protective effects of physical activity in non-metabolic syndrome participants.

    Conclusion: Physical activity of different intensities attenuated cardiovascular risk and mortality in 60-year old men and women with metabolic syndrome during a 20-year follow-up.

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  • 8.
    Ford, Paul R.
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United .
    Carling, Christopher
    Institute of Sports Performence, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom, and LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Garces, Marco
    Universidad del Futbol y Ciencias del Deporte, Pachuca FC, Pachuca, Mexico, .
    Marques, Mauricio
    PUC Minas/Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), Brazilian School of Football (EBF), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Miguel, Carlos
    Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Farrant, Andrew
    Right to Dream Academy, Accra, Ghana.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Moreno, Jansen
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Le Gall, Franck
    LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Salmela, John H.
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Williams, Mark
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom,.
    The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden2012Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 30, nr 15, s. 1653-1663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s ¼ 124.0 h _ year71, in soccer play for 186.0, s ¼ 125.3 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 37.1, s ¼ 28.9 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.3, s ¼ 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s ¼ 184.3 h _ year71, in soccer play for 159.7, s ¼ 195.0 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 66.9, s ¼ 48.8 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.5, s ¼ 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  • 9. Gjesdal, Siv
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    A study of coach-team perceptual distance concerning the coach-created motivational climate in youth sport2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 132-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coach-team perceptual distance regarding the coach-created motivational climate related to achievement goal orientations and affective responses. To this end, we used polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology. The sample consisted of 1359 youth soccer players (57.8% male; M-age = 11.81 years, SD = 1.18), belonging to 87 different teams (M-size = 16.47), and 87 coaches (94.6% male, M-age = 42 years, SD = 5.67). Results showed that team perceptions of a coach-created mastery climate were positively related to team-rated task goal orientation and enjoyment, whereas team perceptions of a coach-created performance climate were positively related to team-rated ego goal orientation and anxiety, and negatively related to team-rated enjoyment. When the coach and the team were in perceptual agreement, the outcomes increased as both coach and team perceptions of the climate increased. In situations of perceptual disagreement, the most negative effects were seen when the coach held a more favorable perception of the motivational climate compared to the team. The findings highlight the importance of perceptual agreement between the coach and his/her team, contributing to the literature focusing on the effects of the coach-created motivational climate.

  • 10. Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    et al.
    Zhang, Chun-Qing
    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian
    Si, Gangyan
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach2016Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 187-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, M-age = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

  • 11. Gustafsson, H.
    et al.
    Sagar, S. S.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 2091-2102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 12. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlin, Maicon
    Podlog, Leslie
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, s. 118-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 13. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Hill, Andrew
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 1256-1264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes can be identified that differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernable groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 male and 113 female aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best.

  • 14.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Linelius Ljungman, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lyft fram ledarens ljusa sidor2013Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 4, s. 32-34Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 15. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement (vol 79, pg 151, 2019)2019Ingår i: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 80, s. 97-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement2019Ingår i: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 79, s. 151-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness is associated with higher well-being. However, little is known about change or stability in this association over the life span. We therefore investigated changes in the association between well-being and basic psychological need satisfaction in the retirement transition. Data was drawn from four waves of the Health, Aging, and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study (N = 5,074, M (age) = 63.16; 53.61% female). Multi-level models were conducted and the analyses revealed evidence for continuity as well as systematic changes in within- and between-person associations across the retirement transition. Our findings demonstrate the benefits of applying a longitudinal design and a life span perspective on basic psychological need satisfaction.

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  • 17. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Bielak, Allison A. M.
    Bjälkebring, Par
    Gow, Alan J.
    Kivi, Marie
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Towards an active and happy retirement?: Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition2020Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

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  • 18. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology and AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Isabelle
    Kivi, Marie
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Preretirement Work Motivation and Subsequent Retirement Adjustment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective2019Ingår i: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 189-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research grounded in self-determination theory confirms the importance of different types of work motivation for well-being and job performance. Less is known about the role of work motivation at the end of one's working life and its association with adjustment to retirement. We investigated the association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment in a subsample of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We included participants (n = 572) who retired between two annual waves in this longitudinal study. Retirement adjustment was operationalized as change between waves in satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment varied depending on the subdimension of motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external, or amotivation), type of transition (full vs. partial), and the particular need (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In line with our expectations, low intrinsic work motivation was associated with gains in autonomy satisfaction for full-time retirees, which may be interpreted as a relief from dissatisfying jobs. Among those who continued to work, high intrinsic motivation was related to increases in relatedness satisfaction, that is, retirees who were intrinsically motivated for their work seem to benefit from continuing to work in retirement. In contrast to our expectations, amotivation before retirement was associated with gains in relatedness satisfaction for those continuing to work. Our results highlight the complexity of retirement and the need to study postretirement adjustment as a multifaceted and multidirectional process.

  • 19.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Support and Development, Umeå Municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Youth jobs: young peoples' experiences of changes in motivation regarding engagement in occupations in the Swedish public sector2018Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 36-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the influence of a programme with the purpose of increasing young people’s motivation to engage in professions with labour shortages in the Swedish public sector. The data collection methods used were qualitative and quantitative. The study shows that employment quality (skills, learning opportunities and social interaction) is essential to young people in relation to labour market interventions targeted at professions with labour shortages in the public sector. There appears to be heterogeneity in how young people value different factors. In addition, the motivational profile of young people seems to be an evolving process, but also in what way participation in a programme with focus on professions with labour shortages may contribute to such changes. The results indicate that, when planning a programme aimed at young people, individual differences should be taken into account in order to motivate them to work in professions with labour shortages.

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  • 20.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Talent Development Environment and its Impact on Athletes Motivation2013Ingår i: The 5th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) / [ed] Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in different sports to optimize talent development, and the purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of the environment on psychological aspects of talent development, following the work of Martindale and colleagues (Martindale et al., 2010; Wang, Sproule, McNeill, Martindale, & Lee, 2011). This was done by examining athletes perceptions of key features in their talent development environment with the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire and its’ impact on important factors, such as perceived competence, fear of failure, and motivation. The participants (age 16-19 years) in this study were playing team sports on junior elite level, and were enrolled at Swedish sport academies. The results showed positive relationships between a positive talent development environment, competence, and autonomous motivation, as well as positive relationships between an adverse environment, fear of failure, and controlled motivation. These findings highlight differential effects of environmental factors on athletes’ development.

  • 21.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davidsson, P.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hagström, A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Långström, J.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fallby, J.
    Swedish Football Association.
    The talent development environments in two Scandinavian soccer academies’2012Ingår i: 3rd World Conference on Science and Soccer, 14-16 May 2012, Ghent, Belgium, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on psychological aspects of talent development has tended to focus on individual athletes and their micro-environments. In this study the talent development environments of a Swedish and a Danish soccer academy were examined, each club with a history of successfully producing top-level senior athletes from among its juniors. The aim was to explore and compare the clubs work on individual development within specifically defined areas (managing competition, career transitions, introduction of new players, injuries, challenges and support in life, school and family).

     

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 17 participants: four players and three leaders of the Swedish Club, and three players and seven leaders from the Danish club.

     

    Results and Conclusion: In both the Swedish and Danish club have a specified goal that the youth academy should prioritize individual development before the outcome of the game. Work on the development of the players individual skills are organized in different ways in the Swedish and Danish club. The Danish club has a much clearer structure on how to work with individual development, they use development plans in greater degree, plans which is anchored with the players and a more individualized training plans for the player's position and needs. Both clubs stresses the importance of developing the whole individual, not just play soccer characteristics, but also school work and the wellbeing of the individual player. The combination of soccer practice and school work was one thing that players from both clubs highlighted as challenging and stressful.

  • 22.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johnson, Urban
    Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science and the Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Things We Still Haven't Learned (So Far)2015Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 449-461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher's and Neyman and Pearson's statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the 2010 APA publication manual's clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and to interpret what they all mean in the real world. In addition, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles published over the past three years (2012-2014) in two top-rated sport and exercise psychology journals to determine whether we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about our use and meaningful interpretations of statistics.

  • 23. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Johnson, Urban
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017Ingår i: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 353-365Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several studies have suggested that psychosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation. Objectives The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interventions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention). Methods Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention. Results The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Conclusion The results support the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes.

  • 24.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fallby, Johan
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johnson, Urban
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Borg, Elin
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players' well-being: a person-centered approach2015Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 15-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the predictive ability of perceived talent development environment (TDE) on the well-being of youth elite football players.

    Design: A field-based longitudinal design was employed.

    Method: The participants were 195 Swedish youth elite football players between 13 and 16 years of age enrolled at Swedish football academies. The players responded to questionnaires regarding their perceptions of their TDE, perceived stress, and well-being in the beginning of the competitive season 2012 (T1). On two more occasions, six and 12 months later, the players completed the stress and well-being questionnaires.

    Results: A latent class analysis, based on the TDEQ sub-scale scores at T1, revealed three classes of players with different perceptions of their TDE (one high quality, one moderate quality, and one poor qualityclass). A second-order multivariate latent growth curve model (factor-of-curves model) showed that the class of players perceiving the lowest TDE quality, experienced higher initial level of stress and lower initial level of well-being at T1 compared to the other two classes. Moreover, there were no significant differences in slopes for neither stress nor well-being between classes (the initial difference between the three groups, in well-being, remained stable over time).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that players perceiving their TDE as supporting and focusing on long term development seem to be less stressed and experience higher well-being than other players. Hence, in addition to facilitate sport-specific development and performance among youth athletes, high quality TDEs may be important for youth elite athletes' general well-being.

  • 25. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Hoglind, Sten
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Associations between physical activity and core affects within and across days: a daily diary study2020Ingår i: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day. Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity. Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity. Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days. Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors.

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  • 26. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Johnson, Urban
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017Ingår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, s. 27-32Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

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  • 27. Josefsson, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boroy, Jan
    Mattsson, Emil
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Sevholt, Simon
    Falkevik, Emil
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017Ingår i: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 1354-1363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance.

  • 28. Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Böröy, Jan
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019Ingår i: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1518-1529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods: Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results: Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC- group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

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  • 29. Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, s. 164-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes.

  • 30.
    Lindahl, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Umeå universitetsbibliotek (UB).
    Trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research: a bibliometric review study2015Ingår i: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 71-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bibliometric methods were used to examine: (1) research themes in sport and exercise psychology articles published between 2008 and 2011; and (2) the intellectual base of the field of sport and exercise psychology, defined as influential literature being cited in these articles. The dataset consisted of 795 articles from five sport and exercise psychology journals and 345 articles obtained through citation-based extension (n = 1140 articles). A cluster analysis yielded 73 clusters showing themes in sport and exercise psychology research. Principal component analysis was used to identify and analyze relationships between 14 highly cited research areas constituting the intellectual base of sport and exercise psychology. Some main findings were: (1) the identification of many re-emerging themes, (2) research related to motivation seems to be extensive, (3) sport psychology and exercise psychology research share theoretical frameworks to some extent, however (4) differences compared to previous reviews indicate that sport psychology and exercise psychology may be regarded as two distinct research fields, rather than one united field, and (5) isolated research areas were identified indicating potential for research integration. Suggestions for future research are provided. The bibliometric approach presented a broad overview of trends and knowledge base in sport and exercise psychology research.

  • 31.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    How to measure coach burnout: an evaluation of three burnout measures2014Ingår i: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 209-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although coach burnout has been studied for 30 years, what measure to use in this context has not yet been problematized. This study focuses on evaluating convergent and discriminant validity of three coach burnout measures by using multi-trait/multi-method analysis (CT-C[M-1]) model. We choose Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the two dimensional Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), and a coach version of Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (CBQ). Our analysis shows that MBI and OLBI cover similar definitions of exhaustion and depersonalization/disengagement and that CBQ measures somewhat different dimensions. A problem for OLBI is a lack of discriminant validity due to high correlations between exhaustion and disengagement. For lack of personal accomplishment/reduced sense of accomplishment CBQ measures a somewhat different construct than MBI. Although all three measures have advantages and disadvantages, we promote CBQ since it discriminates between dimensions and covers important aspects of burnout in a sports context that the other two do not cover.

  • 32.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Henna
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Making it fit: Associations of line managers' behaviours with the outcomes of an organizational-level intervention2018Ingår i: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 163-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers' behaviours are important during implementation of occupational health interventions. Still, little is known about how these behaviours are related to intervention outcomes. This study explored the relationship between line managers' intervention-specific transformational leadership (IsTL), intervention fit (the match between the intervention, persons involved, and the surrounding environment), and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour. Both direct and indirect relationships between IsTL and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were tested. Ninety employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention provided questionnaire ratings at baseline and after 6months. The results showed IsTL to be related to intervention fit and intervention fit to be related to intrinsic motivation. Using intervention fit as a mediator, the total effects (direct and indirect combined) of IsTL on change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were significant. In addition, IsTL had a specific indirect effect on intrinsic motivation. This study is the first to use IsTL as a measure line managers' behaviours. It is also the first to empirically evaluate the association between intervention fit and intervention outcomes. By including these measures in evaluations of organizational-level occupational health interventions, we can provide more informative answers as to what can make interventions successful.

  • 33. Matosic, Doris
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Boardley, Ian David
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sedikides, Constantine
    Linking Narcissism, Motivation, and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes2016Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 556-566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thogersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated directly and indirectly with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

  • 34.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet.
    Judging and regulating force in sports: the psychophysical scale as a tool for putting shots2015Ingår i: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 6, s. 154-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports it is highly important to attain skills to judge and regulate the perceived force needed for the execution of motor actions. In the present paper it is emphasized that, while more research on these issues is sorely needed, there are psychophysical methods available to handle force. The putting shot in golf is used as an example, and it is shown how one of the psychophysical scales, the Borg CR100 scale®, functions in laboratory as well as field conditions. Detailed recommendations to players, instructors, and sport psychology practitioners are given for how to use the Borg scale in practice and in games, and it is concluded that such a scale is likely to be useful in many other sports as well.

  • 35.
    Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Psychology, Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Regulating force in putting by using the Borg CR100 scale®2013Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, nr 82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularlyso in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise forceis of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, theBorg CR100 scale® (Borg and Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force aswell as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length of puttingshots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flatand uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distancesputted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale wereobserved between younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 69 years) playersor between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of anexisting instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale®, in order to understand the regulation of forceneeded for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential futurebenefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed.

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  • 36. Ntoumanis, N.
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.
    Vlachopoulos, S.
    Lindwall, M.
    Gucciardi, D. F.
    Tsakonitis, C.
    Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: a multilevel growth curve model approach2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 746-753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. This was a longitudinal survey study. Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centers and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role-identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a 6month period. Multilevel growth curve modeling examined the role of motivational regulations as within- and between-level predictors of exercise identity, and a model in which exercise identity predicted exercise motivation at the within- and between-person levels. Results showed that within-person changes in intrinsic motivation, introjected, and identified regulations were positively and reciprocally related to within-person changes in exercise beliefs; intrinsic motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in role-identity but not vice versa. Between-person differences in the means of predictor variables were predictive of initial levels and average rates of change in the outcome variables. The findings show support to the proposition that a strong exercise identity (particularly exercise beliefs) can foster motivation for behaviors that reinforce this identity. We also demonstrate that such relations can be reciprocal overtime and can depend on the type of motivation in question as well as between-person differences in absolute levels of these variables.

  • 37. Ntoumanis, Nikos
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. University of Otago; University of Gothenburg.
    Quested, Eleanor
    Nikitaras, Nikitas
    Olson, Jenny
    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Self-Compassion and Need Frustration Moderate the Effects of Upward Appearance Comparisons on Body Image Discrepancies2020Ingår i: Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0022-3980, E-ISSN 1940-1019Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing from diverse theoretical frameworks, we examined predictors of discrepancy between current and ideal body image in a sample of 396 Greek adolescents. The participants completed assessments of the frequency of comparing oneself with someone of perceived better appearance, appearance evaluations, frustration of basic psychological needs, and appearance self-compassion. We found that upward appearance comparisons negatively predicted appearance evaluation, which in turn was a negative predictor of body image discrepancy. Moderated mediation analyses showed that appearance self-compassion buffered, whereas psychological need frustration augmented the negative effects of upward comparisons on appearance evaluation. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on body image discrepancies in adolescence by examining moderating factors that amplify or buffer such discrepancies, hence identifying viable intervention pathways.

  • 38.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjöström, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Martell, Christopher
    Carlbring, Per
    Behavioral activation versus physical activity via the internet: A randomized controlled trial2017Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, s. 85-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major problem today is that only about fifty percent of those affected by depression seeks help. One way to reach more sufferers would be by offering easily accessible internet based treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare/evaluate four therapist supported internet administered treatments.

    Method/results: Two hundred eighty six participants were included. The treatment period lasted twelve weeks, consisting of the following treatments: 1) physical activity without treatment rational, 2) physical activity with treatment rational, 3) behavioral activation without treatment rational and 4) behavioral activation with treatment rational. All groups (including a control-group) showed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. When the treatment groups were pooled and compared to the control group, there were significant differences from pretest to posttest (Hedges gav treatment =1.01, control group =0.47). This held true also when each of the four treatment groups was compared to the control group, with one exception: Physical activity without treatment rationale.

    Limitations: The differences between how many modules the participants completed could indicate that there are other factors than the treatments that caused the symptom reduction, however, the dose-response analysis did not detect any significant differences on account of modules completed.

    Conclusions: The results support the positive effects of internet administered treatments for depression, and highlights the importance of psychoeducation, which tends to affect both the treatment outcome and the probability of remaining in treatment. These aspects need to be considered when developing and conducting new treatments for depression, since they would increase the likelihood of positive treatment outcomes.

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  • 39. Park, Saengryeol
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Fenton, Sally A. M.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    van Zanten, Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    A Person-Centered Analysis of Motivation for Physical Activity and Perceived Neighborhood Environment in Residents of Assisted Living Facilities2019Ingår i: The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, ISSN 0091-4150, E-ISSN 1541-3535, Vol. 89, nr 3, s. 257-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to identify profiles of individual, social, and perceived neighborhood environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) and to explore differences between the identified profiles in PA. Residents of assisted living facilities (N = 87, M age = 77.57 years) were recruited for the cross-sectional study. Participants reported their perceived support from important others for PA, basic psychological need satisfaction and motivation for PA, and perceived neighborhood environment around the assisted living facilities. Engagement in light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA was measured by accelerometers over 1 week. We identified three profiles using latent profile analysis: 'low self-determined and minimally supported', 'moderately self-determined and supported', and 'highly self-determined and supported'. Results showed participants in the highly self-determined and supported profile engaged in higher levels of light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA than participants from other profiles. Findings showed perceptions of the neighborhood environment should be taken into account with motivation regarding PA.

  • 40. Park, Saengryeol
    et al.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fenton, Sally A. M.
    van Zanten, Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen
    Profiles of Physical Function, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior and their Associations with Mental Health in Residents of Assisted Living Facilities2017Ingår i: Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, ISSN 1758-0846, E-ISSN 1758-0854, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 60-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The current study used latent profile analyses to identify classes of older participants based on physical health, physical function, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and then examined differences in mental health between these classes.

    Methods: Eighty-five residents (= 77.5 years old, SD = 8.2) from assisted living facilities participated. Light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior were assessed by accelerometers, physical function was measured using different tasks (mobility, grip strength, and spirometry), and body mass index was calculated. Mental and physical health (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, vitality, and subjective mental and physical health) were assessed by questionnaires.

    Results: Latent profile analyses revealed three classes: “Class 1: Low physical function and physical activity with a highly sedentary lifestyle” (27.1%), “Class 2: Moderate physical function and physical activity with a moderate sedentary lifestyle” (41.2%), “Class 3: High physical function and physical activity with an active lifestyle” (31.8%). The results revealed that the latter class reported better mental health than the other two classes.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that health promotion for older adults might benefit from identifying profiles of movement-related behaviors when examining the links between physical activity and mental health. Future study should test the intervention potential of this profiling approach.

  • 41. Quested, Eleanor
    et al.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Hancox, Jennie E.
    The need-relevant instructor behaviors scale: development and initial validation2018Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 259-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article outlines the development and validation of the Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale (NIBS). Drawing from self-determination theory, the NIBS is the first observation tool designed to code the frequency and the intensity of autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness-relevant behaviors of exercise instructors. The scale also captures the frequency of need-indifferent behaviors.

    Methods: The behaviors of 27 exercise instructors were coded by trained raters on two occasions, before and after they received training in adaptive motivational communication.

    Results: Findings supported the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The scale's sensitivity to detect changes in frequency and intensity of need-relevant behaviors was also evidenced. Conclusions: The NIBS is a new tool that offers a unique, tripartite assessment of need-relevant behaviors of leaders in the physical activity domain.

  • 42.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 592-598Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled "Demands," "Worries/Tension," " Lack of joy," " Conflict," and " Fatigue," respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 43.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists
  • 44. Solstad, Bård Erlend
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Wold, Bente
    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe
    Sarrazin, Philippe
    Castillo, Isabel
    Cruz, Jaume
    Hall, Howard
    Papaioannou, Athanasios
    Duda, Joan L.
    Initial psychometric testing of the coach-adapted version of the empowering and disempowering motivational climate questionnaire: a Bayesian approach2020Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 626-643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of the coach-adapted version of the Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) using Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM). The sample included 780 (M-age = 36.4; SD = 10.8; males n = 698; females n = 54; 28 participants did not report sex) youth sport coaches representing five European countries (i.e., England, France, Greece, Norway, and Spain). The results did not support a 34-item five-factor, hierarchical, a two-factor BSEM, or a bifactor BSEM model across the participating countries. However, the results supported a reduced 19-item first-order, two-factor BSEM model that largely showed approximate metric invariance, but not approximate scalar invariance across the five countries. The pool of items constituting empowering and disempowering motivational climates should be refined to further enhance the empirical operationalisation of the coach-adapted version of the EDMCQ. Advancing the quality of translation-back-translation procedures across cultures and conducting multi-national pilot testing seems warranted as well. These recommendations may help to identify the distinctive aspects of each underlying sub-dimension of the EDMCQ, where coaches are the respondents, and pave the way for further examination of the proposed hierarchical multidimensional factor structure and the cross-cultural equivalence of the EDMCQ for this population.

  • 45.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Idrottsledarskap: En icke-teoretisk praktik?2013Ingår i: Flow : en tidning från Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, ISSN 1654-2533, nr 3, s. 13-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sport participation in adolescence: associations with health perceptions and health-related behaviors2011Ingår i: People in motion: bridging the local and global / [ed] Tor Söderström, Josef Fahlén and Kim Wickman, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik , 2011, s. 148-148Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sport participation during adolescence is assumed to have a positive influence on perceived health and health-related behaviors. However, few studies have examined the relationship between sport participation and health among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and several health indicators (well-being, physical activity, psychosomatic symptoms, leisure-time and school-related stress, sedentary behaviors, and substance use) among Swedish junior high and high school students.

    Methods: Data was collected as a part of the LEVA-survey, a large health and lifestyle-survey annually distributed to junior high and high school students in several municipalities in northern Sweden. The current sample consisted of 7665 students categorized as sport participants (n=4700) and non-participants (n=2965). Individual logistic regression analyses were performed for each health indicator with sport participation as predictor variable. Separate analyses were conducted for gender as well as for junior high and high school students.

    Results: Similar patterns with minor differences emerged for gender, junior high and high school students. Overall, sport participants were more likely to report higher levels of well-being and physical activity, and were less likely to report psychosomatic symptoms, sedentary behaviors, and substance use. Only female sport participants in junior high school were less likely to report school-related stress than non-participants, whereas no significant differences were found for alcohol use among high school students.Discussion: Generally, these findings strengthen the assumptions of the positive effects of sport participation during adolescence, but there is a need to more closely examine direct and indirect effects of sport participation on health. The results also corroborate with previous findings of an increased institutionalization of adolescents sport/physical activities.

  • 47.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Coaches play a central role in shaping the sport environment for young athletes. This thesis is focused on the leadership process in sports and how coaches’ autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles longitudinally are related to young athletes’ motivation and ill- and well-being. The aim is also to examine psychometric multidimensionality in measures of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles. Questionnaire data from young athletes were used in the empirical studies. In Study 1, we examined an adaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being). The results showed that within-person changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being were all positively correlated. Higher self-determined motivation and well-being early in the season longitudinally predicted higher levels of perceived autonomy support from the coach. Higher self-determined motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in perceived autonomy support and well-being over the season. In Study 2, we examined a maladaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between coaches’ controlling behaviors, controlled motivation, and ill-being). The findings demonstrated that athletes who perceived their coach as more controlling reported higher controlled motivation at the end of the season and that higher controlled motivation early in the season predicted higher ill-being at the end of the season. Controlled motivation was also a positive predictor of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors at the within-person level. Study 1 and 2 suggest that individual factors (e.g., motivation and well-being) seemed to function as important determinants of how athletes perceived their coach and future research should explore the underlying mechanisms through which these processes occur. In Study 3, we examined psychometric multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive (Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale-Coach [ISS-C]) and controlling (Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale [CCBS]) interpersonal styles. The analyses indicated that the ISS-C is not multidimensional; it appears to comprise a single factor. Three of the four subscales of the CCBS appear to share a common core, whereas the fourth subscale (i.e., controlling use of rewards) seems to represent a slightly different aspect of a controlling interpersonal style. These results bring into question the multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ interpersonal styles. Neither measure displayed a coherent multidimensional pattern, indicating a need for better alignment between theory and measurement.

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  • 48.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Träningsaktiviteter och fotbollstränares beteenden på ungdoms- och juniorelitnivå: Hur, varför och är vi på rätt väg?2013Ingår i: Årsbok: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, SIPF / [ed] Johansson, M., Wagnsson, S., & Gustafsson, H., Stockholm: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF) , 2013, s. 60-92Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. University of Canberra, Faculty of Health.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes2014Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 720-729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes’ approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery- avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes’ anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes’ well-being and performance.

  • 50.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey2014Ingår i: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 31-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to consequences of differences in chronological age among individuals within age-grouped cohorts. RAEs advantage relatively older players and have consistently been found in male ice hockey, but research in women’s ice hockey is scarce. This study examined RAEs in Swedish women’s elite (N = 688) and junior elite (N = 399) ice hockey and a moderator of RAEs, playing position. RAEs were also examined in the entire population of youth female ice hockey players (N = 2811). Chi-square analyses showed significant RAEs (p < .05) in all three samples. The elite and junior elite sample showed RAEs among defenseman and forwards, but not among goalies. In the youth sample, RAEs were evident in all age groups. RAEs were present in all age groups, from the youngest players (5-6 years) to the elite players. Despite a weak depth of competition, RAEs were displayed in Swedish women´s ice hockey, indicating that other mechanisms seem to influence RAEs.

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