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  • 1.
    Allios, Dominique
    et al.
    Rennes University, France.
    Guermeur, Nominoë
    Rennes University, France.
    Cocoual, Antoine
    Rennes University, France.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Geladi, Paul
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gobrecht, Alexia
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Bendoula, Ryad
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Moura, Daniel
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Jay, Sylvain
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Gardel, Marie-Elise
    Amicale laïque de Carcassonne-LA3M/UMR 7298, France.
    Near infrared spectra and hyperspectral imaging of medieval fortress walls in Carcassonne: a comprehensive interdisciplinary field study2016Inngår i: NIR news, ISSN 0960-3360, E-ISSN 1756-2708, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 16-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive study has been launched in the medieval fortress of Carcassonne involving a cooperation between the universities of Umeå and Rennes, and the research institute of IRSTEA of Montpellier. This study aims to combine several spectroscopic techniques in order to resolve archaeological problems related to which raw materials were used during the city wall construction, and also to improve our understanding of the different phases of construction and use of the city walls. This study was also used for elucidating the different qualities and weak points of the applied field methods.

  • 2.
    Linderholm, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Geladi, Paul
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Field-based near infrared spectroscopy for analysis of Scandinavian Stone Age rock paintings2015Inngår i: Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, ISSN 0967-0335, E-ISSN 1751-6552, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 227-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early autumn of 2014 a field-based near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study was carried out at Swedish and Norwegian StoneAge rock painting sites. This article presents results from one of them, namely Flatruet, Härjedalen, Sweden. Here, field-based NIRmeasurements were conducted using the 908–1676 nm wavelength range to gather 479 spectra: 427 of rock paintings and 52 of locallithology background. The whole dataset was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and four principal components wereextracted explaining 98.5% (PC1), 1.4% (PC2), 0.06% (PC3) and 0.04% (PC4). The PCA results showed that there was a large spread inthe spectra of both background and red paint objects, but also some evidence of clustering could be seen where background and paintingscould be separated. An improvement in separation was achieved with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) usingthe background and paint as categorical variables. The most important components of the PLS-DA model showed a better separation inthe score plot. A small test set of 10 paint and 10 background samples showed that one of the paint samples and two of the backgroundsamples were misclassified. One conclusion is that there is a large spread in background due to varying precipitation of secondary ironoxides. It was also decided to look deeper into local models of painted elks and their pigments alone. This was done using local PCAmodels and soft independent modelling of class analogies showing that some painted elks could be separated from each other whileothers were quite similar, which is important for answering questions about origin, age and weathering.

  • 3.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

    This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

  • 4.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Allios, Dominique
    LAHM University of Rennes 2, France.
    Bendoula, Ryad
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Cocoual, Antoine
    W3DS, Rennes, France.
    Gardel, Marie-Elise
    Amicale Laïque de Carcassonne, France.
    Geladi, Paul
    SLU, Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gobrecht, Alexia
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Gorretta, Natalie
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Guermeur, Nominoe
    LAHM University of Rennes 2, France.
    Jay, Sylvain
    ITAP, Irstea, Montepllier Sup Agro, Université de Montpellier, IRSTEA, France.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    SLU, Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Characterization of building materials by means of spectral remote sensing: the example of Carcassonne's defensive wall (Aude, France)2019Inngår i: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, s. 396-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological and archaeological analysis of stone masonries in standing structures helps reveal information aboutuse of natural resources. At the same time, the study of historical materials is useful for conservators and culturalheritage management. Geochemical and petrographic analysis of building material types is usually done throughdestructive analysis on a few selected samples and can be problematic due to the costs of operations and the sizeof buildings themselves. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral imaging portable NearInfrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy can be useful foranalysing types of raw materials used in distinct construction phases of the inner defensive wall in the citadel ofCarcassonne (Aude, France). Stratigraphic analysis of the architecture, short-range spectral remote sensing andportable ED-XRF measurements were combined in an interdisciplinary approach to classify sandstone elements.The experimental protocol for in situ non-destructive analysis and classification of the masonry types allows theinvestigation of the monument in a diachronic perspective, collecting information to delineate raw materialsvarieties and their use or re-use through time.

  • 5.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Geladi, Paul
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    La Rosa, Lorenza
    Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyperspectral Imaging for Characterization of Lithic Raw Materials: the Case of aMesolithic Dwelling in Northern Sweden2019Inngår i: Lithic Technology, ISSN 2051-6185, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 22-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes a method for the classification of lithic raw materials by means of hyperspectralimaging, a non-destructive fast analytical technique. The information potential of this approach wastested on a dwelling site dated to mid-late Mesolithic (7200–5800 BP) at Lillsjön, Ångermanland,Sweden. A dataset of lithic tools and flakes (2612 objects) made of quartz and quartzite, wasanalyzed using a shortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging system. The classification of the rawmaterials was performed applying multivariate statistical models. A random test set of 55artefacts was selected, classified according to spectral signature and divided into categoriescorresponding to different geological materials. The same test set was analyzed with EnergyDispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED XRF) to validate the classification. The entire dataset of lithicscollected on the site was then classified applying a SIMCA model. The distribution of items onthe site was visualized in a 3D GIS platform according to their geological characteristics tohighlight patterns that could indicate different use of the space and dynamics of raw materialssupply over time.

  • 6.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Geladi, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. SLU.
    Near Infrared imaging spectroscopy for raw materials characterization: the example of a mesolithic dwelling site in Northern Sweden2017Inngår i: The exploitation of raw materials in prehistory: sourcing, processing and distribution / [ed] Telmo Pereira, Xavier Terradas, Nuno Bicho, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017, s. 113-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Roubis, Dimitris
    2IBAM-CNR; Scuola di Specializzazione in Beni Archeologici-Unibas, Matera, Italy.
    Combining Archaeological Surveys and Provenance of Raw Materials by Means of Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy.: the example of Montescaglioso (Basilicata, Italy)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the potentialities of near infrared (NIR) portable spectroscopy in survey activities for in situ non-destructive analysis of stone artefacts. We argue that this method is useful for achieving screening analysis for materials that cannot be moved or sampled. NIR spectra describe the textural and molecular characteristics of the materials and can be matched to classify lithic objects according to their mineral characteristics. We present a case study from the territory of Montescaglioso (Matera, Italy), where we analysed a calcarenite (limestone) quarry in Masseria D’Alessio, which has been exploited since the 6th century BC, as well as artefacts of the same chronology (stone coffins, fortification walls, a stone mortar and amillstone) found in surveys or excavations in the nearby sites of Masseria Lollo, Difes San Biagio and Montescaglioso. The aim was to determine the distribution of the particular calcarenite extracted from the quarry and identify exploitation, production and trade patterns. Documentation of toolmarks and the process of stone working were combined with the spectral signature of the artefacts in order to associate mineral characteristics of the stone types and extraction/carving techniques. The spectral data collected were processed using multivariate statistics to highlight clustering and conduct supervised classification.

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