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  • 1. Hamidi, Anahita
    et al.
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Itoh, Susumu
    Marcusson, Anders
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    TGF-β promotes PI3K-AKT signaling and prostate cancer cell migration through the TRAF6-mediated ubiquitylation of p85α2017In: Science Signaling, ISSN 1945-0877, E-ISSN 1937-9145, Vol. 10, no 486, article id eaal4186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) is a pluripotent cytokine that regulates cell fate and plasticity in normal tissues and tumors. The multifunctional cellular responses evoked by TGF-β are mediated by the canonical SMAD pathway and by noncanonical pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)–protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. We found that TGF-β activated PI3K in a manner dependent on the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6). TRAF6 polyubiquitylated the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α and promoted the formation of a complex between the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) and p85α, which led to the activation of PI3K and AKT. Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation of p85α on Lys513 and Lys519 in the iSH2 (inter–Src homology 2) domain was required for TGF-β–induced activation of PI3K-AKT signaling and cell motility in prostate cancer cells and activated macrophages. Unlike the activation of SMAD pathways, the TRAF6-mediated activation of PI3K and AKT was not dependent on the kinase activity of TβRI. In situ proximity ligation assays revealed that polyubiquitylation of p85α was evident in aggressive prostate cancer tissues. Thus, our data reveal a molecular mechanism by which TGF-β activates the PI3K-AKT pathway to drive cell migration.

  • 2.
    Hamidi, Anahita
    et al.
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University.
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Marcusson, Anders
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    TGFβ promotes prostate cancer cell migration via TRAF6-mediated ubiquitination of p85α causing activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.In: Science Signaling, ISSN 1945-0877, E-ISSN 1937-9145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Holst, Mikkel Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Vidal-Quadras, Maite
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Larsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hubert, Madlen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Lundborg, Magnus
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis Suppresses Cancer Cell Blebbing and Invasion2017In: Cell reports, ISSN 2211-1247, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1893-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular blebbing, caused by local alterations in cellsurface tension, has been shown to increase the invasiveness of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms balancing cell-surface dynamics and bleb formation remain elusive. Here, we show that an acute reduction in cell volume activates clathrinindependent endocytosis. Hence, a decrease in surface tension is buffered by the internalization of the plasma membrane (PM) lipid bilayer. Membrane invagination and endocytosis are driven by the tension- mediated recruitment of the membrane sculpting and GTPase-activating protein GRAF1 (GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1) to the PM. Disruption of this regulation by depleting cells of GRAF1 or mutating key phosphatidylinositol- interacting amino acids in the protein results in increased cellular blebbing and promotes the 3D motility of cancer cells. Our data support a role for clathrin-independent endocytic machinery in balancing membrane tension, which clarifies the previously reported role of GRAF1 as a tumor suppressor.

  • 4.
    Mu, Yabing
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gao, Linlin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gahman, Timothy
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    TGFβ-induced activation of PKCζ confers invasive prostate cancer growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the hallmarks for aggressivecancer is the capability oftumor cells to become invasive and metastatic. Cancer cells and tumor stromal cells oftenproduce high levels of transforming growth factor b(TGFb) which initiates intracellular signaling pathways in cancer cells in a contextualdependentmanner. Atypical protein kinase C z(PKCz) is a multifunctional protein which maintains cell polarity of normal epithelial cells, while itsaberrantexpression and activation is linked to tumor progression. Tumor necrosisfactor receptor-associated factor6 (TRAF6) is amplified in lung cancer and caninitiate intracellular oncogenic signals. In prostate cancer cellsTRAF6 promotesligand-induced proteolytic cleavage of TGFbtype I receptor(TbRI), and nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain (ICD) to confer invasion of cancer cells. Here we report our novel findingsthat PKCzharboursa TRAF6 consensus binding site and that TRAF6 causes Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of PKCz. TGFb-induced phosphorylationof PKCzis dependent on TRAF6in prostate cancer cells and we have investigated the potential usefulness of twodifferent inhibitors of PKCzas potential novel anti-cancer drugs.

  • 5.
    Song, Jie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Non-canonical TGFb signaling pathways in prostate cancer2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the Western world. Deregulation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is frequently detected in prostate cancer and contributes to tumor growth, migration, and invasion. In normal tissue and the early stages of cancer, TGFβ acts as a tumor suppressor by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In later stages of cancer, TGFβ acts as a tumor promoter by inducing angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and migration. Thus, it is important to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the tumor-promoting effects of TGFβ, which is the topic of this thesis.

     

    The tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6) controls non-canonical TGFβ signals due to its enzymatic activity, causing polyubiquitination of the cell membrane–bound, serine/threonine kinase TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) and its subsequent cleavage in the extracellular domain by tumor necrosis factor a–converting enzyme (TACE) in a protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ)-dependent manner. TRAF6 also recruits the active g-secretase complex to the TβRI, resulting in a second cleavage in the transmembrane region and the liberation of the TβRI intracellular domain (TβRI-ICD), which enters the nucleus, where it associates with the transcriptional co-regulator p300. In Paper I, the aim was to elucidate by which mechanisms TβRI-ICD enters the nucleus. We found that the endocytic adaptor protein APPL1 interacts with TβRI and PKCζ. APPL proteins are required for TβRI translocation from endosomes to the nucleus via microtubules in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Moreover, APPL proteins are important for TGFβ-induced cell invasion, and high levels of APPL1 are detected by immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer. Finally, we demonstrated that the APPL1–TβRI complex visualized with the in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) correlates with Gleason score, indicating that it might be a novel prognostic marker for aggressive prostate cancer. In Paper II, the aim was to explore by which mechanisms TGFβ causes activation of the AKT pathway, which regulates migration and therapy resistance of cancer cells. We found that the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 induces Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of p85α upon TGFβ stimulation, resulting in plasma membrane recruitment, Lys63-linked polyubiquitination, and subsequent activation of AKT. Moreover, the TRAF6 and PI3K/AKT pathway were found to be crucial for the TGFβ-induced migration. Importantly, we demonstrated, by PLA, a correlation between Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of p85α and aggressive prostate cancer in tissue sections from patients with prostate cancer. In Paper III, the aim was to investigate the mechanisms for TGFβ-induced activation of PKCζ and the role of PKCζ in tumor regression. We found that TRAF6 caused Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of PKCζ. By using two novel chemical compounds that inhibit PKCζ, we demonstrated that PKCζ is crucial for prostate cancer cell survival and invasion. In Paper IV, the aim was to investigate further the target genes for the nuclear TβRI-ICD-APPL1 complex identified in Paper I. We provide evidence that APPL proteins and the TGFβ signaling pathway are important for cell proliferation. In summary, the results reported in this thesis suggest the potential usefulness of the identified signaling components of the tumor-promoting effects of TGFβ as drug targets and biomarkers for aggressive prostate cancer. 

  • 6.
    Song, Jie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Li, Chunyan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    TGFb type I receptor and endosomal APPL regulate AURKB during mitosis and cytokinesisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cytokine transforming growth factor b(TGFb) suppressescell proliferationand promotesapoptosis1. It signalsvia specific serine/threonine kinase receptors, i.e.TGFbtype I (TbRI) and type II (TbRII) receptors2,3,causing growth arrest of normal epithelial cells. However, TGFbis often overexpressed inadvanced cancers,and promotes proliferation of tumour cells and their invasion. The intracellular domain (ICD) of TbRI is cleaved offin cancer cells,and is translocated to the nucleus in an APPL1/2-dependent manner, drivingan invasiveness program4.The specific mechanism(s) whereby cancer cells escape pro-apoptotic signals induced by TGFbremainspoorly understood. Here, we report that TbRI and APPL1/2 proteins orchestrate this escape via the pro-survival protein survivin and Aurora kinase B (AURKB), a key regulatorof mitosis and chromosomal stability5. We show that TbRI and APPL1/2 control expression of AURKB and that TbRI-ICDand AURKB form a complex during the telophase in PC-3Uprostate cancerand KELLY neuroblastomacells. APPL1/2 and TbRI also form a complex with survivin, a pro-survival protein. The identified TbRI–AURKB-survivinpathwayrepresents a novel function for TbRI to promote survival and cell division of cancer cells.

  • 7.
    Song, Jie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Mu, Yabing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Li, Chunyan
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Miaczynska, Marta
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    APPL proteins promote TGF beta-induced nuclear transport of the TGF beta type I receptor intracellular domain2016In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) is produced by several types of cancers, including prostate cancer, and promote tumour progression in autocrine and paracrine manners. In response to ligand binding, the TGF beta type I receptor (T beta RI) activates Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways. The ubiquitin-ligase tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was recently linked to regulate intramembrane proteolytic cleavage of the T beta RI in cancer cells. Subsequently, the intracellular domain (ICD) of T beta RI enters in an unknown manner into the nucleus, where it promotes the transcription of pro-invasive genes, such as MMP2 and MMP9. Here we show that the endocytic adaptor molecules APPL1 and APPL2 are required for TGF beta-induced nuclear translocation of T beta RI-ICD and for cancer cell invasiveness of human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, APPL proteins were found to be expressed at high levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, and to be associated with T beta RI in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the APPL-T beta RI complex promotes prostate tumour progression, and may serve as a prognostic marker.

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