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  • 1. Antona-Makoshi, Jacobo
    et al.
    Mikami, Koji
    Lindkvist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Schick, Sylvia
    Accident analysis to support the development of strategies for the prevention of brain injuries in car crashes2018Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 117, s. 98-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    2+ injuries. Belted occupants were at lower risks than unbelted occupants for most brain injury categories, including concussions. After controlling for the effects of age and crash severity, belted female occupants involved in frontal crashes were estimated to be 1.5 times more likely to sustain a concussion than male occupants in similar conditions. Belted elderly occupants were found to be at 10.5 and 8 times higher risks for sub-dural haemorrhages than non-elderly belted occupants in frontal and side crashes, respectively. Adopted occupant protection strategies appear to be insufficient to achieve significant decreases in risk of both life-threatening brain injuries and concussions for all car occupants. Further effort to develop occupant and injury specific strategies for the prevention of brain injuries are needed. This study suggests that these strategies may consider prioritization of life-threatening brain vasculature injuries, particularly in elderly occupants, and concussion injuries, particularly in female occupants.

  • 2. Gavelin, A
    et al.
    Iraeus, J
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Oldenburg, M
    Evaluation of finite element models of seat structures with integrated safety belts using full-scale experiments2010Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 265-280, artikel-id PII 924713450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Any numerical model needs to be evaluated in order to perform as accurately as possible. The aim of the present study is to develop an FE model of a seat structure with integrated safety belts evaluated to full-scale experiments. Simplified seat structures with 3-point integrated safety belt configurations and corresponding FE models were established. The dimension and the material states of the seat back frame were varied. A 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy was used as occupant. A number of biomechanical and mechanical responses of both experiments and simulations were compared and evaluated. The majority of the simulated responses showed good agreement with or slightly underestimated the corresponding experimental responses during belt loading but differed during belt unloading in some cases. Some inadequacies of the FE model were discovered and areas for further development are suggested. The FE model developed and evaluated in the present study may well be used in future studies.

  • 3. Gavelin, A
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Häggblad, H-Å
    Oldenburg, M
    Methodology for mass minimisation of a seat structure with integrated safety belts constrained by biomechanical responses on the occupant in frontal crashes2010Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 343-355, artikel-id PII 927513408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology using finite element (FE) modelling and simulation with a property-based model (PBM) is presented. A generic 3-D FE model of a seat structure with a three-point seat-integrated safety belt configuration was established. A 50th percentile Hybrid III FE dummy model was used as occupant. Metamodelling techniques were used in optimisation calculations performed in two steps. Step 1: Six separate optimisations minimising biomechanical responses of the FE dummy model. Step 2: Four separate optimisations with different start values of the design variables, with the total mass of the seat structure as objective function and with the minimised biomechanical responses from Step 1 as constraint values. Six design variables were used in both Step 1 and Step 2. The four optimisations performed in Step 2 generated four different results of the total mass. Thus, different local minima were found instead of one single global minimum. The presented methodology with a PBM may be used in a concept design phase. Some issues concerning the FE model suggest further improvement.

  • 4. Gavelin, A
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Oldenburg, M
    Modelling and simulation of seat-integrated safety belts including studies of pelvis and torso responses in frontal crashes2007Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 367-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to investigate how the physical properties influence the interaction of the seat back frame and the safety belt. Seat-integrated 3- and 4-point configurations with both non-rigid and rigid seat back frames were compared with common 3-point configurations with anchor points on the car body. The LS-DYNA FE-analysis software was used in order to perform frontal crash simulations with a belted 50th percentile Hybrid III FE-dummy model as occupant. The belt-webbing distribution between the lap and the torso belts via a slip-ring and in combination with a non-rigid seat back frame increases the ride-down efficiency compared to a system with no belt-webbing distribution. No tendencies of pelvis submarining were observed regardless of belt configuration. The dynamic response of the seat back frame has some influence on the ride-down efficiency.

  • 5. Gavelin, A
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Oldenburg, M
    Numerical studies concerning upper neck and head responses in frontal crashes with seat-integrated safety belts2007Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 465-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigation of neck and head injuries is critical in automotive occupant protection. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the physical properties influence the interaction of the seat back frame and the safety belt. Seat integrated 3- and 4-point configurations with both non-rigid and rigid seat back frames were compared with 3-point configurations with anchor points on the car body. The LS-DYNA FE-analysis software was used in order to perform frontal crash simulations with a belted 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy model as occupant. The belt-webbing distribution between the lap and the torso belts via a slip-ring and in combination with a non-rigid seat back frame had an advantageous influence concerning the loads of the upper neck and injury criteria compared to a system with no belt-webbing distribution.

  • 6.
    Iraeus, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. ÅF Industry , Gothenburg.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Analysis of Delta Velocity and PDOF by Means of Collision Partner and Structural Involvement in Real-Life Crash Pulses With Modern Passenger Cars2014Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 56-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In the widely used National Automotive Sampling System (NASS)-Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) database, summary metrics that describe crashes are available. Crash angle or principal direction of force (PDOF) is estimated by the crash examiner and velocity changes (V) in the x- and y-directions are calculated by the WinSMASH computer program using PDOF and results from rigid barrier crash testing combined with deformations of the crashed car. In recent years, results from event data recorders (EDRs) have been added to the database. The aim of this study is to compare both PDOF and V between EDR measurements and WinSMASH calculations. Methods: NASS-CDS inclusion criteria were model-year 2000 through 2010 automobiles, frontal crashes with V higher than 16km/h, and the pulse entirely recorded in the EDR module. This resulted in 649 cases. The subject vehicles were further examined and characterized with regard to frontal structure engagement (large or small overlap) as well as collision properties of the partner (impact location; front, side, or back) or object. The EDR crash angle was calculated as the angle between the lateral and longitudinal V at the time of peak longitudinal V. This angle was compared to the NASS-CDS investigator's estimated PDOF with regard to structural engagement and the collision partner or object. Multiple linear regression was used to establish adjustment factors on V and crash angle between the results calculated based on EDR recorded data and that estimated in NASS-CDS. Results: According to this study, simulation in the newest WinSMASH version (2008) underestimates EDR V by 11 percent for large overlap crashes and 17 percent for small overlap impacts. The older WinSMASH version, used prior to 2008, underestimated each one of these two groups by an additional 7 percentage points. Another significant variable to enhance the prediction was whether the crash examiner had reported the WinSMASH estimated V as low or high. In this study, none of the collision partner groups was significantly different compared to front-to-front impacts. However, with a larger data set a couple of configurations may very well be significantly different. In this study, the crash angle denoted by PDOF in the NASS database underestimates the crash angle calculated from recent EDR modules by 35 percent. Conclusion: On average the V and crash angle are underestimated in NASS-CDS when analyzing the data based on collision partner/object and structural engagement. The largest difference is found in small overlap crashes and the least difference in collision scenarios similar to barrier tests. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file.

  • 7.
    Iraeus, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. ÅF Industry, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Development and validation of a generic finite element vehicle buck model for the analysis of driver rib fractures in real life nearside oblique frontal crashes2016Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 95, s. 42-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Frontal crashes still account for approximately half of all fatalities in passenger cars, despite several decades of crash-related research. For serious injuries in this crash mode, several authors have listed the thorax as the most important. Computer simulation provides an effective tool to study crashes and evaluate injury mechanisms, and using stochastic input data, whole populations of crashes can be studied. The aim of this study was to develop a generic buck model and to validate this model on a population of real-life frontal crashes in terms of the risk of rib fracture.

    Method: The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, real-life validation data were derived by analyzing NASS/CDS data to find the relationship between injury risk and crash parameters. In addition, available statistical distributions for the parameters were collected. In the second phase, a generic parameterized finite element (FE) model of a vehicle interior was developed based on laser scans from the A2MAC1 database. In the third phase, model parameters that could not be found in the literature were estimated using reverse engineering based on NCAP tests. Finally, in the fourth phase, the stochastic FE model was used to simulate a population of real-life crashes, and the result was compared to the validation data from phase one.

    Results: The stochastic FE simulation model overestimates the risk of rib fracture, more for young occupants and less for senior occupants. However, if the effect of underestimation of rib fractures in the NASS/CDS material is accounted for using statistical simulations, the risk of rib fracture based on the stochastic FE model matches the risk based on the NASS/CDS data for senior occupants.

    Conclusion: The current version of the stochastic model can be used to evaluate new safety measures using a population of frontal crashes for senior occupants.

  • 8.
    Iraeus, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. ÅF Industry, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Influence of Vehicle Kinematic Components on Chest Injury in Frontal-Offset Impacts2014Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, nr Supplement 1, s. S88-S95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Frontal crashes in which the vehicle has poor structural engagement, such as small-overlap and oblique crashes, account for a large number of fatalities. These crash modes are characterized by large intrusion and vehicle yaw rotation. Results from previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the importance and effects of these parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate how vehicle yaw rotation, instrument panel intrusion, and the time history of the pulse angle influence chest injury outcomes.

    Method: This study was conducted using kinematic boundary conditions derived from physical crash tests, which were applied on a finite element simulation model of a vehicle interior including a finite element human model. By performing simulations with different levels of simplified boundary conditions and comparing the results to a simulation with a full set of boundary conditions, the influence of the simplifications was evaluated. The injury outcome measure compared between the simulations was the expected number of fractured ribs. The 3 simplifications simulated were (1) removal of vehicle yaw rotation, (2) removal of vehicle yaw rotation plus an assumption of a constant pulse angle between the x- and y-acceleration, and (3) removal of instrument panel intrusion.

    The kinematic boundary conditions were collected from 120 physical tests performed at the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety; 77 were small-overlap tests, and 43 were moderate overlap tests. For each test, the full set of boundary conditions plus the 3 simplifications were simulated. Thus, a total of 480 simulations were performed.

    Results: The yaw rotation influences occupant interaction with the frontal airbag. For the approximation without this kinematic boundary component, there was an average error in injury outcome of approximately 13% for the moderate overlap cases. Large instrument panel intrusion increases the risk of rib fracture in nearside small-overlap crashes. The mechanism underlying this increased fracture risk is a combination of increased airbag load and a more severe secondary impact to the side structure. Without the intrusion component, the injury risk was underestimated by 8% for the small-overlap crashes.

    Conclusion: The approximation with least error was version 2; that is, a model assuming a constant pulse angle, including instrument panel intrusion but no vehicle yaw rotation. This approximation simulates a sled test with a buck mounted at an oblique angle. The average error for this approximation was as low as 2–4%.

  • 9.
    Iraeus, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. ÅF Industry, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Pulse shape analysis and data reduction of real life crashes with modern passenger cars2015Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 535-546Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of computer simulations such as finite element modelling for evaluating passive safety applications has made it possible to simplify and parameterize complex physical processes. Crash pulses derived from laboratory tests have been used in many studies to evaluate and optimize passive safety systems such as airbags and seat belts. However, a laboratory crash pulse will only be representative of the acceleration time history of a specific car crashing into a barrier at a specified velocity. To be able to optimize passive safety systems for the wide variety of scenarios experienced during real-life crashes, there is a need to study and characterize this variation. In this study, crash pulses from real-life crashes as recorded by event data recorders were parameterized, and the influence of vehicle and crash variables was analysed. The pulse parameterization was carried out using eigenvalue analysis and the influence that vehicle and crash variables had on the pulse shape was determined with multiple linear regression. It was shown that the change in velocity, the subject vehicle mass, and the properties of the collision partner were the variables that had the greatest effect on the shape of the crash pulse. The results of this study can be used to create artificial real-life pulses with different crash parameters. This in turn can be used for stochastic computer simulation studies with the intention of optimizing passive safety systems that are robust to the wide variation in real-life crashes.

  • 10.
    Iraeus, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Wistrand, Sofie
    Sibgård, Elin
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    Evaluation of chest injury mechanisms in nearside oblique frontal impacts2013Ingår i: Annals of advances in automotive medicine, ISSN 1943-2461, Vol. 57, s. 183-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the use of seat belts and modern safety systems, many automobile occupants are still seriously injured or killed in car crashes. Common configurations in these crashes are oblique and small overlap frontal impacts that often lead to chest injuries.To evaluate the injury mechanism in these oblique impacts, an investigation was carried out using mathematical human body model simulations. A model of a simplified vehicle interior was developed and validated by means of mechanical sled tests with the Hybrid III dummy. The interior model was then combined with the human body model THUMS and validated by means of mechanical PMHS sled tests. Occupant kinematics as well as rib fracture patterns were predicted with reasonable accuracy.The final model was updated to conform to modern cars and a simulation matrix was run. In this matrix the boundary conditions, ΔV and PDOF, were varied and rib fracture risk as a function of the boundary conditions was evaluated using a statistical framework.In oblique frontal impacts, two injury producing mechanisms were found; (i) diagonal belt load and (ii) side structure impact. The second injury mechanism was found for PDOFs of 25°-35°, depending on ΔV. This means that for larger PDOFs, less ΔV is needed to cause a serious chest injury.

  • 11.
    Lindkvist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Kjaer, Christoffer
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Side Collision Induced Pelvis Fracturers in Modern Cars2014Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, s. S273-S274Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Fatal car crash configurations and injury panorama: with special emphasis on the function of restraint system2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most traffic safety research projects require accurate real world data which is collected in different databases around the world. This is especially important since the results of these projects form the basis for new crash test procedures and standards. In many of these databases the involvement of the frontal structures of the car in frontal crashes is coded by using the SAE J224 practice (Society of Automobile Engineers). There were indications that by using this practice the database would contain an overestimate of the car frontal structure involvement in real world crashes. One purpose of this thesis is therefore to develop a new method for real world crash investigations to better address this issue. One purpose was also to adopt this method in a data collection of fatal crashes in Sweden and examine injury causation mechanisms. Studies shows that the commonly used Hybrid III dummy is not fully reproducing the kinematical behavior observed in frontal sled test with belted PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subject). A human FE-model (Finite Element) might be able to reproduce the behavior evidenced with the PMHS in order to study upper body kinematics in certain types of frontal collision events.

    Method: A new data collection method was developed with the purpose to examine actual load paths active in the car front during a frontal crash. An important purpose was to examine if there was a relation between these load paths and injury producing mechanisms. This was done in an examination and analysis of 61 fatally injured occupants in 53 car frontal crashes in a sample area covering 40 % of the population of Sweden. Sample period was one year (1st October 2000 to 30th September 2001). An existing human FE-model was developed and validated with respect to upper body kinematics by using existing frontal belted PMHS tests. This was done by building a FE-model of the seat and seat belt used in the PMHS tests.

    Results: A generic car structure was developed which was used in the data collection methodology. By adopting this new method, Small Overlap (SO) crashes emerged as the most common crash configuration (48 %) among belted frontal fatalities. The injury producing mechanism in SO crashes is characterized by occupant upper body impacts in the side structure (door, a-pillar) of the car. This upper body kinematics is induced by both the crash pulse and the asymmetrical three point belt system. Current crash test procedures are not designed to fully estimate the performance of neither car structures nor restraints in SO crashes. In order to develop a better tool for reproducing this kinematical behavior a FE-model of a human body was refined and validated for belted conditions. This validation was performed with satisfying result.

    Conclusions: This study showed that by adopting new methods of data collecting new areas of traffic safety could be considered. In this study SO (48 %) crashes emerged as the most common crash configuration for belted frontal fatalities. Approximately ¼ of the fatalities occurred in a crash configuration comparable to current barrier crash test procedures. The body kinematics of PMHS in the SO crashes can be replicated and studied by using a FE-model of a human body in the collision load case model. With this tool possible collision counter measures could be evaluated for the SO crash configuration.

  • 13.
    Lindquist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Hall, Andrew
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Car structural characteristics of fatal frontal crashes in Sweden2004Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 587-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Lindquist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Hall, Andrew
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Real world crash investigations: a new approach2003Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 375-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Lindquist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Kirurgi.
    Hall, Andrew R
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Kirurgi.
    Kinematics of belted fatalities in frontal collisions: A new approach in deep studies of injury mechanisms.2006Ingår i: Journal of Trauma, ISSN 0022-5282, E-ISSN 1529-8809, Vol. 61, nr 6, s. 1506-1516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Lindquist, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Iraeus, J
    Gavelin, A
    Multi-scale human FE-model validated for belted frontal collisionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Sui, Bo
    Lindkvist, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Krafft, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Census Study of Real-Life Near-Side Crashes with Modern Side Airbag-Equipped Vehicles in the United States2015Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, nr Supplement 1, s. S117-S124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the crash characteristics, injury distribution, and injury mechanisms for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score (MAIS) 2+ injured belted, near-side occupants in airbag-equipped modern vehicles. Furthermore, differences in injury distribution for senior occupants compared to non-senior occupants was investigated, as well as whether the near-side occupant injury risk to the head and thorax increases or decreases with a neighboring occupant. Method: National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data from 2000 to 2012 were searched for all side impacts (GAD L&R, all principal direction of force) for belted occupants in modern vehicles (model year > 1999). Rollovers were excluded, and only front seat occupants over the age of 10 were included. Twelve thousand three hundred fifty-four MAIS 2+ injured occupants seated adjacent to the intruding structure (near-side) and protected by at least one deployed side airbag were studied. To evaluate the injury risk influenced by the neighboring occupant, odds ratio with an induced exposure approach was used. Result: The most typical crash occurred either at an intersection or in a left turn where the striking vehicle impacted the target vehicle at a 60 to 70 degrees angle, resulting in a moderate change of velocity (delta-V) and intrusion at the B-pillar. The head, thorax, and pelvis were the most frequent body regions with rib fracture the most frequent specific injury. A majority of the head injuries included brain injuries without skull fracture, and non-senior rather than senior occupants had a higher frequency of head injuries on the whole. In approximately 50% of the cases there was a neighboring occupant influencing injury outcome. Conclusion: Compared to non-senior occupants, the senior occupants sustained a considerably higher rate of thoracic and pelvis injuries, which should be addressed by improved thorax side airbag protection. The influence on near-side occupant injury risk by the neighboring occupant should also be further evaluated. Furthermore, side airbag performance and injury assessments in intersection crashes, especially those involving senior occupants in lower severities, should be further investigated and side impact dummy biofidelity and injury criteria must be determined for these crash scenarios.

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