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  • 1.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Cardiothoracic Surgery Division, Heart Center.
    Smulter, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Surgery Division, Heart Center.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Surgery Division, Heart Center.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Nursing, The Strategic Research Programme in Care Sciences, Umeå University and Karolinska Institutet, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Orthopedic Surgery, University of Umeå.
    Validation of the Swedish version of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale used in patients 70 years and older undergoing cardiac surgery2013In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 22, no 19-20, p. 2858-2866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Validation of the Swedish version of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale as a screening tool for nurses to use to detect postoperative delirium in patients 70 years and older undergoing cardiac surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is common among old patients after cardiac surgery. Underdiagnosis and poor documentation of postoperative delirium is problematic, and nurses often misread the signs.

    DESIGN: A prospective observational study.

    METHODS: Patients (n = 142) scheduled for cardiac surgery were assessed three times daily by the nursing staff using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Nursing Delirium Screening Scale was compared with the Mini Mental State Examination and the Organic Brains Syndrome Scale, evaluated day one and day four postoperatively. Delirium was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV-TR criteria.

    RESULTS: A larger proportion of patients were diagnosed with delirium according to the Mini Mental State Examination and Organic Brains Syndrome Scale compared with the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale, both on day one and day four. The Nursing Delirium Screening Scale protocol identified the majority of hyperactive and mixed delirium patients, whereas several with hypoactive delirium were unrecognised.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish version of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale was easily incorporated into clinical care and showed high sensitivity in detecting hyperactive symptoms of delirium. However, in the routine use by nurses, the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale had low sensitivity in detecting hypoactive delirium, the most prevalent form of delirium after cardiac surgery. Nursing Delirium Screening Scale probably has to be combined with cognitive testing to detect hypoactive delirium.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses play a key role in detecting delirium. The Nursing Delirium Screening Scale was easy incorporated instrument for clinical practice and identified the majority of hyperactive and mixed delirium, but several of the patients with hypoactive delirium were unrecognised. Training of assessment and cognitive testing seems to be necessary to detect hypoactive delirium.

  • 2.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Smulter, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindahl, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dementia after postoperative delirium in older people who have undergone cardiac surgery: a longitudinal cohort studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Smulter, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Cardiothoracic Surgery Division, Heart Center.
    Lindahl, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Preoperative Cognitive Performance and Postoperative Delirium Are independently Associated With Future Dementia in Older People Who Have Undergone Cardiac Surgery: A Longitudinal Cohort Study2017In: Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 0090-3493, E-ISSN 1530-0293, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1295-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate if postoperative delirium was associated with the development of dementia within 5 years after cardiac surgery.

    Design: Longitudinal cohort study.

    Setting: Cardiothoracic Division, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.

    Patients: Patients aged 70 years old or older (n = 114) scheduled for routine cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass without documented dementia were enrolled in 2009.

    Intervention: Structured assessments were performed preoperatively, 1 and 4 days after extubation, and 1, 3, and 5 years postoperatively.

    Measurements and Main Results: Patients were assessed comprehensively, including cognitive and physical function, coexisting medical conditions, demographic characteristics, and medications. Diagnoses of delirium, depression, and dementia were made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria. During the 5-year period, 30 of 114 participants (26.3%) developed dementia. Postoperative delirium had occurred in 87% of those who later developed dementia. A multivariable logistic regression model showed a lower preoperative Mini-Mental State Examination score (p < 0.001; odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54–0.84) and the occurrence of postoperative delirium (p = 0.002; odds ratio, 7.57; 95% CI, 2.15–26.65) were associated with dementia occurrence.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that older patients with reduced preoperative cognitive functions or who develop postoperative delirium are at risk of developing dementia within 5 years after cardiac surgery. Cognitive functions should be screened for preoperatively, those who develop postoperative delirium should be followed up to enable early detection of dementia symptoms, and management should be implemented.

  • 4.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Smulter, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindahl, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Experiences of undergoing cardiac surgery among older people diagnosed with postoperative delirium: one year follow-up2015In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is common among old people and many undergo cardiac surgery. Scientific knowledge is available on cardiac surgery from several perspectives. However, we found few studies focusing on older patients' experiences of cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of undergoing cardiac surgery among older people diagnosed with postoperative delirium, a one year follow-up.

    METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 49 participants (aged ≥70 years) diagnosed with delirium after cardiac surgery. Data were collected in Sweden during 2010 through individual, semi-structured interviews in participants' homes one year after surgery. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Four themes with sub-themes were formulated: Feeling drained of viability includes having a body under attack, losing strength and being close to death. Feeling trapped in a weird world describes participants having hallucinations, being in a nightmare and being remorseful for their behavior. Being met with disrespect includes feeling disappointed, being forced, and feeling like cargo. On the other hand, Feeling safe, including being in supportive hands and feeling grateful, points to participants' experiences of good care and the gift of getting a second chance in life.

    CONCLUSIONS: Even one year after cardiac surgery, participants described in detail feelings of extreme vulnerability and frailty. They also had felt completely in the hands of the health care professionals. Participants described experiences of hallucinations and nightmares during hospitalization. Cardiac surgery was a unique, fearful, traumatic and unpleasant experience yet could also include pleasant or rewarding aspects. It seems that health care professionals need deeper knowledge on postoperative delirium in order to prevent, detect and treat delirium to avoid and relieve the suffering these experiences might cause.

  • 5.
    Smulter, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Delirium after cardiac surgery: risk factors, assessment methods and costs2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiac surgery is considered safe, but postoperative delirium (POD) remains frequently reported. Delirium is characterised by fluctuations in consciousness and cognition, and can be subdivided into disturbed psychomotoric activity (hyperactive and hypoactive) and psychiatric symptom profiles (psychotic and emotional). Delirium has an underlying cause that can be prevented and treated, provided the condition is detected. Undetected delirium could lead to serious consequences for the patient.

    Aim: This thesis aims to understand the underlying risk factors of delirium, to compare different assessment methods and documentation, and to understand its effects on hospitalisation costs after cardiac surgery.

    Methods: Two cohorts of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Heart Centre, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden were analysed. Cohort-A (Studies I-IV) enrolled 142 patients, ≥70 years of age, scheduled in 2009 for surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). POD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed, text rev (DSM-IV-TR), based on repetitive assessments with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) scale. This method was considered as reference. Predisposing and precipitating risk factors were explored (Study I), and a separate analysis was conducted with focus on CPB parameters (Study II). Patients were also assessed for POD with the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), which was validated versus the reference method (Study III). Additionally in Study IV, data about how nurses assessed patients for POD symptoms using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) were analysed together with information extracted from the clinical database. Moreover, discharge summaries from both nurses and physicians were retrospectively reviewed for key words and expression associated with delirium. Cohort-B (Study V) included 1879 routine cardiac surgery patients (2014-2017) retrospectively extracted from the clinical database with concomitant Nu-DESC scoring. The association between the Nu-DESC and postoperative hospitalization costs was analysed.

    Results: In cohort-A, 54.9% (78/142) patients developed POD. Both predisposing and precipitating risk factors were significantly associated with POD, of which the ‘volume load during operation’ had the strongest predictive influence (Study I). Among CPB variables the ‘duration of mixed-venous oxygen saturation <75%’ predicted POD (Study II). Hypoactive was more common than hyperactive delirium. Those with hypoactive delirium were less likely to be detected by the CAM method (Study III), an observation also demonstrated from information found in the clinical database and in discharge summaries. Nu-DESC did not detect all patients with POD, but significantly increased the detection rate (Study IV). The major hospitalisation costs associated with Nu-DESC ≥2 occurred in the ICU and independently of the surgical procedure performed. There were no significant differences in costs among patients with Nu-DESC ≥2, between age groups (70-year cut-off) or genders (Study V).

    Conclusions: Both predisposing and precipitating risk factors contributed to POD and should be considered in future guidelines to prevent delirium after cardiac surgery. Hypoactive delirium was most common, but was the most difficult to detect without screening scales. Systematic assessment with Nu-DESC improved the detection rate of POD. Delirium after cardiac surgery has consequences on healthcare and is associated with increased costs.

  • 6.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Delirium after cardiac surgery: incidence and risk factors2013In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 790-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Delirium after cardiac surgery is a problem with consequences for patients and healthcare. Preventive strategies from known risk factors may reduce the incidence and severity of delirium. The present aim was to explore risk factors behind delirium in older patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    METHODS: Patients (≥70 years) scheduled for routine cardiac surgery were included (n = 142). The patients were assessed and monitored pre-/postoperatively, and delirium was diagnosed from repeated assessments with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Variables were analysed by uni-/multivariable logistic regression, including both preoperative variables (predisposing) and those extracted during surgery and in the early postoperative period (precipitating).

    RESULTS: Delirium was diagnosed in 78 patients (54.9%). Delirium was independently associated with both predisposing and precipitating factors (P-value, odds ratio, upper/lower confidence interval): age (0.036, 1.1, 1.0/1.2), diabetes (0.032, 3.5, 1.1/11.0), gastritis/ulcer problems (0.050, 4.0, 1.0/16.1), volume load during operation (0.001, 2.8, 1.5/5.1), ventilator time in ICU (0.042, 1.2, 1.0/1.4), highest temperature recorded in ICU (0.044, 2.2, 1.0/4.8) and sodium concentration in ICU (0.038, 1.2, 1.0/1.4).

    CONCLUSIONS: Delirium was common among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Both predisposing and precipitating factors contributed to delirium. When combined, the predictive strength of the model improved. Preventive strategies may be considered, in particular among the precipitating factors. Of interest, delirium was strongly associated with an increased volume load during surgery.

  • 7.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    The use of a screening scale improves the recognition of delirium in older patients after cardiac surgery: a retrospective observational study2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 11-12, p. 2309-2318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed postoperative delirium (POD) in clinical practice after cardiac surgery, how it is detected and documented and if the use of a screening scale improves the detection rate.

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is considered a routine procedure with few complications. However, POD remains a concern, although often being overlooked in clinical practice.

    DESIGN: Retrospective observational analysis.

    METHODS: Patients 70 years and older with POD (n=78) undergoing cardiac surgery were included in the study. Discharge summaries of both nurses and physicians were reviewed together with the clinical database for information about POD, to be compared with symptom screening using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC). A quantitative content analysis was used for the review of discharge summaries, with a coding scheme adopted from the Nu-DESC method. The STROBE checklist was followed.

    RESULTS: In discharge summaries 41 of the 78 POD patients were correctly recognized, and 22 of these were identified in the clinical database. Screening by the Nu-DESC identified delirium at a measurably higher rate, 56/78 patients. The review of discharge summaries showed that patients expressing 'inappropriate behaviour' was the most easily identified sign for POD for both nurses and physicians.

    CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals underdiagnose delirium after cardiac surgery, with a low detection rate described in both discharge summaries and in the clinical database. Recognition of delirium improved when Nu-DESC was used for systematic screening.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study emphasizes the need for better screening for the detection of delirium in daily clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Validation of the confusion assessment method in detecting postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients2015In: American Journal of Critical Care, ISSN 1062-3264, E-ISSN 1937-710X, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 480-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early detection, prevention, and treatment of delirium after cardiac surgery are important for quick postoperative recovery. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) may be an easy-to-use instrument for detecting delirium in clinical practice.

    Objectives: To compare the congruent validity of the CAM with the results from repeated assessments by using a combination of the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for delirium.

    Methods: Patients aged 70 years or older undergoing cardiac surgery were assessed on postoperative days 1 and 4, and the 2 diagnostic methods were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the CAM were examined. The reference method allowed categorization of delirium into subgroups of psychomotor activities and psychiatric symptom profiles, which were compared with the CAM results.

    Results: Postoperative delirium was diagnosed in 78 of 141 patients (55.3%). According to the CAM, 59 patients (41.8%) were categorized as delirious, 53 correctly. Thus, the sensitivity was 68% and the specificity was 90%, indicating false-negative rather than false-positive observations.

    Conclusion: Patients with psychomotor hyperactivity and mixed psychotic-emotional symptoms were more likely to have delirium detected via the CAM than were patients with less obvious clinical manifestations of delirium. Repetitive cognitive testing and psychogeriatric experience are probably necessary to improve the results obtained with the CAM.

  • 9.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hentschel, Jan
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    The association between delirium symptoms according to the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale and hospitalization costs after cardiac surgeryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Cardiothoracic Surgery Division, Heart Center.
    Lingehall, Helena Claesson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Appelblad, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Svenmarker, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Disturbances in Oxygen Balance During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium2018In: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, ISSN 1053-0770, E-ISSN 1532-8422, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 684-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery, specifically associated with the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

    Design: Prospective observational study.

    Setting: Heart Centre, University Hospital.

    Participants: The study included 142 patients aged 70 years and older scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with CPB.

    Interventions: Risk factor analysis comprised information collected from the hospital clinical and CPB dedicated databases in addition to the medical chart. Delirium was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criterion using the Mini Mental State Examination and the Organic Brain Syndrome scale.

    Measurements and Main Results: Assessments of delirium diagnosis were executed preoperatively and on the following first and fourth postoperative days. Delirium occurred in 55% (78/142) of the patients. Patients with delirium were identified with significantly higher body weight and body surface area preoperatively, accompanied with longer CPB time, higher positive fluid balance per CPB, and lower systemic pump flow related to body surface area. Furthermore, the duration of the mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) below 75% was significantly longer during CPB. The result from the multivariable logistic regression analysis included the duration of SvO2 below 75%, fluid balance per CPB and patient age as independent risk factors for postoperative delirium.

    Conclusions: The influence of the SvO2 level during CPB, fluid balance, and patient age should be recognized as risk factors for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery in patients 70 years and older.

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