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  • 1. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Johansson Lönn, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Svonni, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.

  • 2.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lessons from the Arctic past: The resource cycle, hydro energy development, and the human geography of Jokkmokk, Sweden2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 16, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified a series of human geography impacts of natural resource developments in sparsely populated areas like the Arctic. These impacts can be mapped to the 'resource cycle', and arise from periods of population growth and decline, changing patterns of human migration and mobility, changing patterns of settlement, and changes in the demographic 'balance' between males and females, young and old, Indigenous and non-Indigenous. This paper examines the applicability of the resource cycle model in the case of hydro energy development in the Jokkmokk municipality of Sweden. Using quantitative demographic data, media reports, and contemporary accounts of hydro development, the paper describes the human geography of Jokkmokk since the late 19th century. The paper concludes that changes in human geography in Jokkmokk mirror what has been observed in regions dependent on non-renewable resources, although it is difficult to distinguish many impacts from those that might have occurred under alternative development scenarios. The paper identifies a 'settlement cycle' with phases of integrated and separated habitation for populations specifically associated with the development. Settlement dynamics, and the impacts of hydro on Sami geography are areas for further research.

  • 3.
    Edholm, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Marriage and Fertility among Southern Sami People: A Demographical Survey of two Sami Parishes in late Nineteenth-Century Sweden2006In: 6th European Social Science History Conference (ESSHC) in Amsterdam, Netherlands, 22-25 March 2006. Session: Demography of Indigenous Populations., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the significant amount of primary information consisting of the Swedish parish records, the demographical studies about the Sami population in Sweden are until today scarcely investigated. The few surveys that are done focuses on the Northern Sami population, which leaves the Southern Sami population almost without any further examination considering their demographical paths. The presentation focuses on the demographical pattern among the Southern Sami population in Sweden during the years 1860-1890. The longitudinal study includes two Sami parishes in Jämtland and considers population development, marriage and fertility among the inhabitants. The results are analysed and compared to a Northern Sami area and to the average Swedish population.

  • 4.
    Edholm, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Marriage patterns among Sami nomads and Swedish settlers under the impact of the colonization process in 19th century northern Sweden2008In: 7th European Social Science History Conference (ESSHC) in Lisbon, Portugal 26 February - 1 March 2008. Session: Demography of Indigenous Populations, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The predominant inhabitants in the northern Sweden were until the beginning of 18th century the Sami people, indigenous and often nomadic reindeer breeders. As the colonization process of the northern part of the country progressed it led to increasing contacts between Sami people and Swedes. In the southern part of Sápmi the situation was somewhat different from the northernmost part. The area was not as inaccessible as the northern part and had therefore a larger amount of Swedish inhabitants which led to more frequent contacts between nomads and Swedes. The colonization process led to confrontation, and not least competition, between Sami and settlers about vast land areas that traditionally belonged to Sami, who used it for reindeer herding, fishing and hunting. As these areas became attractive for arriving settlers, the access to land was often legally disputed between Sami and settlers. In the northern part of Sápmi, the mining industry along with generous tax privileges attracted newcomers from both Sweden and Finland. To some extent there were also Sami people who settled down, chiefly from the forest Sami group, but the majority of the settlers where newcomers. Knowing their marriage pattern helps illuminate what happens when people from different cultures meet; do the cultural and social grounds change? Do the Sami people adopt the newcomer’s cultural grounds or are they more inclined to follow their old traditions and marry within their own group? And further, do the marriage behaviour among Sami people change if/when they settle down? The main purpose of this paper is thus to see whether the confrontation between the two groups affected the way people chose to make decisions of decisive importance. In this paper represented by the way people chose to marry. The colonization process that occurred in Sweden’s northernmost counties during the years 1750-1900 has been widely investigated and written about. To what extent the inhabitants, the Sami, were influenced both culturally and demographically is on the contrary scarcely investigated. This paper consequently explores the marriage pattern during the transition where the Sami people went from majority to marginalised people in the area.

  • 5.
    Edholm, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Methods in finding ethnic markers in Swedish catechetical material2006In: Vaartoe – Sami Research in the Future, 8th Nordic Symposium for Sami History and Culture, Jokkmokk 21-23 August 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Edholm, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sami nomads and Swedish settlers in interaction. A Demographical Survey of four Parishes in Sweden2006In: 31st Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association (SSHA) in Minneapolis, USA, 2-5 November, 2006. Session: The Demography of Marginalized Groups in Conflict., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Edholm, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Äktenskap och familjebildning i jämtlandsfjällen under det sena 1800-talet2005In: Ett land, ett folk: Sápmi i historia och nutid / [ed] Per Axelsson & Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, p. 147-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    A New Net-based Masters Programme at Umeå University: Indigenous Studies2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Adopting or Rejecting a New Culture?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Adopting or Rejecting a New Culture?: Marriage patterns among settled Sami under impact of the colonization process in 19th Century Northern Sweden.2010In: , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The predominant inhabitants in the northern Sweden were until the beginning of 19th century the Sami people, indigenous and often nomadic reindeer breeders. As the colonization process of the northern part of the country progressed, it led to increasing contacts between Sami people and Swedes. To some extent there were also Sami people who settled down, chiefly from the forest Sami group, but the majority of the settlers where newcomers. Although previous historical research has focused on the nomadic Sami people, those settled have so far attracted less attention about their demographic behaviour. Knowing their marriage pattern helps illuminate what happens when people from different cultures meet; did the cultural and social grounds shift? And further, did the marriage behaviour among Sami people change when they settled down? Did the Sami people who settled down adopt Swedish cultural grounds or were they more inclined to follow their old traditions and marry within their own group? The main purpose of this paper is thus to explore whether a settled life affected the way Sami people chose to make decisions of decisive importance, in this paper represented by the way people chose whom and when to marry? To meet the aim of this analysis world unique parish registers stored at the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University are utilized. 

  • 11.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Familjelivet2016In: Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 117-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Äktenskap i Sápmi: Giftermålsmönster och etnisk komplexitet i kolonisationens tidevarv, 1722-18952009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores a period in Northern Sweden when contacts between Sami and non-Sami became more frequent as the colonisation progressed. The investigated period is 1722-1895 and eight parishes in northern Sweden are under study. Both the northern as well as the southern Sami area are represented. The main purpose of the thesis is thus to see whether the cultural meeting between Sami and non-Sami affected the way people chose to make significant decisions. In this study these cultural meetings are represented by the way people married.

         To understand the consequences of cultural contacts, where individuals from different backgrounds meet, concepts developed within the field of acculturation theories are used. The marriage patterns among the inhabitants are viewed with regard to three key variables founded by Ruth Dixon, as these help to explain changes or continuations in the individuals’ marital behaviour.

         The southern Sami area seamed to be rather unaffected by the colonisation process, at least according to the marriage pattern. The analysis revealed limited economic openings for marriage as well as cemented marriage traditions, and these prevailed throughout the investigated period. During the 18th and 19th centuries it was evident that the northern Sami areas were significantly affected by the in-migrated newcomers.  Even though the gender distribution in each parish seemed to matter, analysing the overall marriage pattern illuminated chiefly economic reasons for changes that occurred during the colonisation process. As the in-migration of non-Sami progressed, the age at first marriage increased particularly among Sami women. Furthermore, the results indicates that even though settled Sami probably interacted with non-Sami on a daily basis, and were integrated in their lifestyle, Sami settlers continuously estranged themselves from a complete assimilation and stuck to their Sami culture and traditions. Thus, language and cultural expressions seemed to have mattered when it came to marriage. 

         The thesis concludes that according to the marriage pattern, economic prerequisites for preferentially the Sami, changed dramatically through the colonisation process. Most affected by the changes were thus the Sami women, who experienced an unfavourable marriage market as the colonisation progressed. Towards the end of the nineteenth century the preferable form of coexistence was still the legal marriage in the area, and the marriage as an institution was of considerable importance, which is also evident since the marriage to some extent still seemed to be a family affair. The study also showed that Sami people in the southern Sami area interacted with non-Sami to a less degree than was the case in the north. However, in the north, the more ethnic complex parishes revealed an integrating population, rather than assimilating. The more ethnically homogenous parishes instead pointed towards an assimilated state among the newcomers. 

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  • 13.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The complex fertility of indigenous Sami and non-reindeer-herding settlers in Jokkmokk 1815–18952014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 157-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though contemporary fertility shows a steady decrease among indigenous populations in the circumpolar area during the twentieth century, they display a far higher fertility compared to the rest of the population's respective countries. In the absence of Swedish modern data on ethnicity, this study concentrates on fertility in historical times to improve our knowledge on Sami fecundity. Using digitized parish records we aim to study nineteenth century fertility among the Sami and non-Sami in an ethnically mixed parish in the Northern Sweden. The sources also enable an intra-ethnic perspective; thus, the study includes comparisons between forest and mountain Sami. The data revealed a Sami fertility deviating not only from their non-Sami neighbors, but also to a Swedish average. Both Sami and non-Sami women had very low birth rates among young women; nevertheless, Sami women gave birth to fewer children than the non-Sami. Toward the end of the nineteenth century non-Sami women showed crude birth rates well above both Sami and a Swedish average. The fertility pattern among the forest and the mountain Sami revealed both social and economic differences within the Sami group.

  • 14.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    True or false?: Nineteenth-century Sápmi fertility in qualitative vs. demographic sources2012In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about childbirth and childcare among Arctic indigenous peoples in historical times, and the Swedish Sami are no exception. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether the Sami experienced fertility trends parallel to those of the rest of the population in the area and in Sweden as a whole. Digitized parish records offer a unique possibility to include comparisons from ethnic, cultural, geographical and long-term perspectives. The present study compares the statements about fertility and childcare provided by qualitative sources with data from quantitative demographic investigations. This comparison reveals a contrasting picture, from which it is evident that contemporary observers' impressions of the Sami and their childbirths were somewhat inaccurate. Opposite to what the qualitative sources claimed Sami fertility was higher than the national average rates. Moreover, crude birth rates were high and the average number of children in families exceeded what was generally claimed. We can conclude that the statements made by clergy, physicians and travelers concerning childbirth among the Sami did not correspond particularly well with the demographic reality.

  • 15.
    Sköld, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Metodologiska utmaningar vid studier av urfolk i en nordisk kontext2015In: City-Saami: Same i byen eller bysame? Skandinaviske byer i et samisk perspektiv / [ed] Paul Pedersen & Torill Nyseth, Kárášjohka: ČálliidLágádusas , 2015, p. 31-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
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