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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bjelkeby, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Åström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linder, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Vuxenutbildningens betydelse för inkomster, mobilitet och övergång till högskolestudier2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I början av 1990-talet befann sig Sverige i en kraftig konjunkturnedgång. Arbetslösheten hade stigit till rekordhöga nivåer. Bland de åtgärder regeringen vidtog för att motverka arbetslösheten ingick Kunskapslyftet som var en femårig sats-

    ning på vuxenutbildning. Kunskapslyftet startade den 1 juli 1997 och pågick till och med år 2002.

    Det fanns två övergripande målsättningar med Kunskapslyftet. Den första var ekonomisk och handlade om att minska arbetslösheten, öka sysselsättningen och få till stånd en snabbare ekonomisk tillväxt. Den andra målsättningen var utbildningspolitisk och handlade om att vidareutveckla och förnya vuxenutbildningen.

    Under den femårsperiod som Kunskapslyftet pågick uppgick statens kostnader till

    cirka tre miljarder kronor per år exklusive studiestöd. Totalkostnader för hela projektet

    inklusive studiestöd hamnade på, i storleksordningen 40–45 miljarder kronor.

    På ITPS uppdrag har Institutionen för nationalekonomi vid Umeå universitet

    utvärderat hur Kunskapslyftet och annan kommunal vuxenutbildning påverkat

    deltagarnas inkomster, rörlighet och övergång till högskolestudier.

    De fyra uppsatserna som sammanfattas i denna rapport bygger på deltagare i Komvux

    höstterminen 1997, i vissa fall deltagare med så kallat särskilt utbildningsbidrag

    (studerande i Kunskapslyftet). I de uppsatser där ett förfarande med jämförelsegrupper

    används är dessa öppet arbetslösa i början av hösten 1997 och deltagare i

    arbetsmarknadsutbildning i mitten av denna höst.

    Den databas som har använts i projektets fyra delstudier har byggts upp vid

    institutionen för nationalekonomi vid Umeå universitet. Den omfattar samtliga stu-

    derande i Komvux höstterminerna 1997 t o m 1999 med tillhörande jämförelsegrupper.

    Jämförelsegruppen arbetslösa omfattar samtliga personer som 1 september 1997

    var anmälda vid arbetsförmedlingen som öppet arbetslösa. Den andra jämförelse-

    gruppen – deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning – består av dem som den 15 okto-

    ber samma år var registrerade som deltagare i denna utbildning.

    De viktigaste resultaten i projektets fyra delstudier av kommunal vuxenutbildning

    är i korthet följande:

    1. När det gäller utbildningens effekter på bruttoarbetsinkomster efter avslutad utbildning finner vi att deltagare i Kunskapslyftet som var arbetslösa och studerade med det särskilda utbildningsbidraget hade en relativt sett gynnsammare inkomstutveckling än jämförelsegruppen öppet arbetslösa. Vi fin-

    ner dock en ännu bättre inkomstutveckling för deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning.

    2. Övergång till högre utbildning var högre bland deltagare i Kunskapslyftet jämfört med övriga deltagare i kommunal vuxenutbildning när hänsyn tas till regionala arbetsmarknadsförhållanden och andra bakgrundsfaktorer.

    Kvinnliga studerande inom kommunal vuxenutbildning hade en relativt sett högre sannolikhet för att övergå till högskole- eller universitetsutbildning jämfört med män. Övergångssannolikheten påverkas också av regionala attribut. Den är bland annat negativt korrelerad med regional sysselsättningstillväxt och positivt korrelerad med regional arbetslöshet. Det

    senare behöver dock inte nödvändigtvis tyda på negativa samhällsekonomiska effekter i form av inlåsning av arbetskraft.

    3. Det finns betydande regionala skillnader när det gäller deltagarnas inkomster efter utbildning. De länsvisa skillnaderna är inte obetydliga och kan överstiga 20 procent av genomsnittsinkomsten. Detta bör kanske beaktas

    vid den regionala fördelningen av resurser till vuxenutbildningen.

    4. När det gäller geografisk rörlighet finner vi lägre sannolikhet för flyttning bland deltagare i kommunal vuxenutbildning och deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning jämfört med personer i öppen arbetslöshet. Detta gäller även de deltagare i Komvux som deltog i Kunskapslyftet. Jämfört med deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning hade dock studerande inom Komvux högre sannolikhet för flyttning. Dock gäller detta inte deltagare i kunskapslyftet, vilka hade lägre sannolikhet för flyttning i jämförelse med deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income1998In: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 113-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The impact of migration on income for Swedish multi-adult households is examined using panel data pertaining to a sample of stable household constellations during the period 1980-1990. In contrast to previous studies, data on household disposable income is employed in estimating the income function. The empirical results indicate no significant effect on real disposable income from migration. In addition, the hypothesis of no self-selection, or zero correlation between the errors in the decision function and the income function, cannot be rejected."

  • 3.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2016In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.    

  • 4.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed. 

  • 5.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 6.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Institutet för Social forskning, Stockholms universitet.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the labour market?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Stenberg, Anders
    SOFI, Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the Labour Market?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested that education is associated with later retirement from the labour market. In this paper, we examine whether adult education, involving enrolees aged 42 or above, delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly. With Swedish register data of transcripts from adult education and an-nual earnings, which encompasses 1979-2004 and 1982-2004 respectively, we exploit the fact that adult education is a large-scale phenomenon in Sweden and construct a measure of the timing of the transition from being self-supported by productive work to being supported by pension transfers. We match samples of treated and controls on the propen-sity score and use non-parametric estimation of survival rates. The results indicate that adult education has no effect on the timing of the retirement from the labour force. This can be contrasted with the fact that adult education is one of the cornerstones of the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the European Union’s “Lisbon strategy” for growth and jobs.

  • 8.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Geographical Labour Mobility: Migration or Commuting?2003In: Regional Studies, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 827-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ELIASSON K., LINDGREN U. and WESTERLUND O. (2003) Geographical labour mobility: migration or commuting?, Reg.

    Studies 37, 827–837. In this paper, we examine how individual labour market status and spatial variations in employment

    opportunities influence interregional job search behaviour and mobility decisions in Sweden. The econometric analysis is based

    on 290,000 individual observations and refers to the years 1994–95. The empirical results show that the probability of

    interregional labour mobility unexpectedly decreases with the accessibility to employment opportunities in neighbouring

    regions. As expected, the findings reveal that accessibility to job openings in surrounding regions significantly increases the

    likelihood of choosing commuting as the mobility mode.Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that individual unemployment

    experience increases the likelihood of mobility as well as migration.

  • 9.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA/ Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN, USA.
    All in the Family: self Selection and Migration by Couples2014In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 101-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines determinants of couple migration in a model that accounts for self-selection of migrant couples. The study is based on a sample of married couples from the Swedish population. The model incorporates controls for earnings of both spouses preceding the move, and explicitly addresses unmeasured heterogeneity in the family decision to migrate. Two statistical formulations are presented. In the first version, migration is measured as a dichotomous move/stay decision. A second formulation replaces the dichotomous indicator with the distance moved by migrants. Results suggest that family migration is selective of relatively low earning wives with unmeasured potential for strong earnings.

  • 10.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Tillväxtanalys.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Åström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Flyttning och pendling i Sverige2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk och ekonometrisk analys av flyttningar och pendling mellan lokala arbetsmarknadsregioner i Sverige. Översikt över tidigare forskning, deskriptiv analys av geografisk rörlighet över tiden för olika åldersklasser, regiontyper, utbildningskategorier, kategorier av invandrare och med avseende på kön. Ekonometriska analyser av drivkrafter till flyttning och pendling samt effekter av rörlighet på arbetsinkomster.

  • 12. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Åström, Johanna
    Svenska folket flyttar mer än någonsin tidigare2007In: Dagens Nyheter, Vol. 05, no 25, p. 6-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Häggström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Divorcing in middle age and its effects on BMIManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eliasson, Kent
    Westerlund, Olle
    Economics.
    Flytta eller Pendla?2002In: Befolkningen spelar roll!, Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Umeå , 2002, p. 131-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Labour market programmes and geographical mobility: Migration and commuting among programme participants and openly unemployed2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study migration and commuting among participants in labour market pro- grammes and individuals in open unemployment. Post-programme mobility of par- ticipants in Employment Training, which is a supply-orientated program, is com- pared to the mobility of individuals participating in two demand-orientated pro- grammes and the openly unemployed. The empirical results indicate higher geo- graphical mobility among participants in Employment Training as compared to par- ticipants in Relief Work and the Work Experience Scheme. Individuals participat- ing in Employment Training also have a higher probability of mobility than the openly unemployed. In this case, this is due to the relatively higher probability of commuting that predominates the relatively lower probability of migration. Hence, our results indicate that different labour market programmes are associated with different amounts of post-programme mobility. Moreover, using functional regional labour markets as the regional entity, we find interregional commuting to be rela- tively more important than migration as a means of geographical labour mobility.

  • 16.
    Nakosteen, Robert A
    et al.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA .
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael A
    Schroeder Family School of Business Administration, University of Evansville, Evansville.
    Active labor market programs and regional mobility of labor: evidence from the Swedish recession 1994 – 19952012In: Contemporary economic policy, ISSN 1074-3529, E-ISSN 1465-7287, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 178-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the impact of active labor market programs on interregional migration in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which the programs, which provide training and labor market assistance to jobless individuals, induce participants to migrate. Analysis is based on data registers compiled in 1994 and 1995 by Statistics Sweden and the Labor Market Board of Sweden. The paper specifies and estimates a two-equation model of participation and subsequent migration. The model, which is estimated by the method of maximum simulated likelihood, accounts for the role of program participation as an endogenous choice variable in the decision to migrate. In an attempt to capture the effect of migrant self-selection, the estimation approach also controls for unobserved heterogeneity in the participation and migration equations.

    Results of the study indicate a significant positive impact of participation on subsequent mobility for males. This result is robust with respect to alternative specifications of the migration equation and alternative formulations of the model for program participation. For females, the evidence of program impacts is mixed and it appears to be sensitive to the statistical formulation of the model.

  • 17.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    The Effects of Regional Migration on Gross Income of Labor in Sweden2004In: Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we study the effect of interregional migration on gross income of labour. The empirical analysis is based on Swedish household data for the period 1994 to 1995. We are primarily concerned with the allocation effect of migration on economic growth in an economy where the incentives for migration may be hampered by relatively high income taxes and transfers. A treatment-effect model for migration and income is estimated. The results indicate significant income gains from migration for the unemployed as well as for those who were employed prior to migration. The estimation results also indicate negative correlation between errors in the migration function and the income function. The hypothesis of no self-selection can be rejected.

  • 18.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Health-Related Disabilities and Matching of Spouses: Analysis of Swedish Population Data2005In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 491-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research concerning the incidence of reported work-limiting disabilities in the married population indicates a degree of interdependence between spouses' disabilities. This pattern is consistent with several hypotheses. Spouses tend to share many lifestyle traits that might lead to common health outcomes. Alternatively, their joint reports might reflect a shared preference for income benefits or workplace accommodations available to disabled individuals. Another possibility is that disabled individuals tend to be matched in the process of marital formation. This paper investigates the latter hypothesis. Taking advantage of a unique data set from the Swedish population, we select a sample of recently married couples and trace them back in time to their single years. Our analysis indicates nonrandom matching on the basis of disability status. After controlling for observed traits such as age and education, we find a residual correlation between future spouses that is positive and strongly significant. The magnitude of the correlation is within the range of residual correlations obtained from other studies that address marital matching in the contexts of education and earnings.

  • 19.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Marital Matching and Earnings: Evidence from the Unmarried Population in Sweden2004In: The Journal of Human Resources, ISSN ISSN 022-166XE-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1033-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists have devoted substantial research to economic basis for matching of men and women in marriage. A common feature of existing studies is their reliance on samples of married couples. The principal shortcoming of spouse data is that spouses' earnings correlations are contaminated by the partners' behaviors and other events that occur after marriage and affect their earnings. This study addresses that problem by exploiting a longitudinal data file from the Swedish population. By selecting a sample of married couples in a given year, we retreat through the file to years before the marriage. Using data from the spouses' single years, we apply the correlation methodology to their earnings. Evidence from the model supports positive assortative mating.

  • 20. Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Migration and Self-Selection: Measured Earnings and Latent Characteristics2008In: Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 48, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in regional and labor economics has established that economic incentives play a significant role in the process of internal migration. The most common approach is to view migration as a form of human capital investment undertaken by individuals who expect to benefit from the standpoint of increased earnings. One of the central concepts in these models is self selection. Individuals who self-select the option of migration tend to differ from the nonmigrant population in ways that are not measured in most data sets.

    The contribution of this paper is in its distinction between two aspects of migrant selection. On one hand, some workers possess unmeasured traits that might simultaneously affect their wages and their propensity to engage in risky human capital investment such as migration. On the other hand, measured earnings might exert a direct effect on migration. Based on samples of employed Swedish males and females at two points in time, this study seeks first to examine whether migration between the two periods occurs in the presence of correlation between unmeasured factors present in both earnings during the first period and the subsequent decision to migrate. Second, it looks for an explicit role of earnings per se in the migration decision. Results of the study provide support for selection based on unmeasured traits for both genders. For females, there is also evidence of selection based on measured earnings.

  • 21.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Is your commute killing you?: On the mortality risks of long-distance commuting2014In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1496-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general belief that expanding labour-market regions, triggered by increased commuting, have positive economic effects on individuals, firms, and society. Recently, however, scholars have reported possible negative outcomes related to health and well-being. Based on these findings, this study addresses the association between long-distance commuting, and mortality. Using longitudinal individual data from between 1985 and 2008, focusing on 55-year-olds in 1994, we model mortality through propensity score matching and Kaplan–Meyer estimates of survival among long-distance commuters and matched controls from the population travelling short distances to work. The results indicate that women who have experienced long-distance commuting face a significantly higher mortality risk compared with women with short commutes to work. This seems to be driven by variations in income and education: for example, for women with long-distance commuting experience, substantially lower survival rates are found among those with low education and low income. A very different picture emerges for men, for whom mortality risks do not seem to be associated with long-distance commuting. Our findings suggest that men and women are subject to different mechanisms regarding the nexus between commuting and mortality.

  • 22.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the Labour Market?2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, ISSN 0933-1433, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 677-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether adult education delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly, a mechanism suggested in the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the “Lisbon strategy” of the EU. Using register data from Sweden, we analyse transcripts from adult education for the period 1979–2004 and annual earnings 1982–2004. We match samples of treated individuals, in adult education 1986–1989, and untreated on the propensity score. The timing of exit from the workforce is assessed by non-parametric estimation of survival rates in the labour force. The results indicate no effects of adult education on the timing of retirement.

  • 23.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. IFAU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Does formal education for older workers increase earnings?: evidence based on rich data and long-term follow up2014In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 163-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments in Europe, Canada and the US have expressed an ambition to stimulate education of older. In this paper, we analyze if there are effects on annual earnings of formal education for participants aged 42-55 at the time of enrolment in 1994-1995. The analysis explores longitudinal population register data stretching from 1982 to 2007. The method used is difference-in-differences propensity score matching based on a rich set of covariates, including indicators of health and labor market marginalization. Our findings underline the importance of long follow up periods and imply positive effects for females, especially so for women with children, and no significant average earnings effects for males. These results differ from earlier studies but are stable to several alternative assumptions regarding unobservable characteristics. Data further indicate that the gender gap in our estimates may stem from differences in underlying reasons for enrolment.

  • 24.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does comprehensive education work for the long-term unemployed?2007In: Labour EconomicsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the effects of comprehensive adult education on wage earnings of long-term unemployed, an essentially unexplored issue. We use register data pertaining to a large sample of long-term unemployed in Sweden who enrolled in upper secondary comprehensive adult education. Estimates with propensity score matching indicate that more than one semester of study results in substantial increases in post program annual earnings for both males and females. According to our rough calculations, the social benefits of offering these individuals comprehensive education surpass the costs within five to seven years.

  • 25.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Education and retirement: does University education at mid-age extend working life?2013In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 2, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this paper provides the first study evaluating the effects of higher education for adults on the timing of retirement. Using detailed longitudinal population register data 1982–2010, we track first-time enrollees in higher education in 1992–1993. Our sample is aged 42–55 at the time of enrollment and thus aged 60–73 in 2010. We find that higher education increases labor market survival rates when aged 61–66 by about 5 percentage points. The estimates represent relatively large effects. Tentative calculations indicate that if enrollment occurs at age 42, the retirement delay represents about one percent in yearly earnings returns per year of tertiary education.

  • 26.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults?2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 27. Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Flexibility at a cost: Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2016In: The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 28.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kunskapslyft för arbetslösa genom generell utbildning istället för yrkesinriktade program?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns en internationellt utbredd uppfattning bland såväl forskare som politiker att arbetsmarknadspolitisk utbildning bör vara yrkesinriktad. Ett undantag från denna ståndpunkt utgjordes av reformen Kunskapslyftet 1997–2002, som tillät arbetslösa att välja generella studier vid Komvux. Hypotetiskt kan generella kunskaper göra individer mer flexibla inför förändringar på arbetsmarknaden och därför på lång sikt vara en mer effektiv utbildningsåtgärd. I denna studie jämförs arbetsinkomster 1990–2010 för arbetslösa individer som 1997 deltog i program med yrkesinriktad respektive generell utbildning.

  • 29.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Long-term Earnings Consequences of General vs. Specific Training of the Unemployed2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve teaching a specific skill to ease the transition into employment. However, in 1997, the Swedish unemployed could choose general/theoretical training through enrollment in one year of full-time studies at the upper secondary school level. This study provides an empirical assessment of the relative earnings impact of general vs. specific training 13 years post-enrollment. In the long term, general training may compensate for the short-term relative earnings loss by enhancing the ability to adapt to changes in demand for skills. The analyses are based on population register data 1990-2010 and an unusually rich set of control variables. The results indicate that both programs are associated with earnings increases. Our relative program estimates reveal a short-term advantage of specific training that converges within 5-7 years. With a longer perspective, there is considerable heterogeneity in the relative earnings estimates. For females with short educations, the earnings increases following general training substantially exceed those following specific training.

  • 30.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    SOFI, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Linneaus University, Växjö/Kalmar, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed2015In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, p. 1-26, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training.

  • 31.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e008565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50-64) and middle-old (65-74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design: Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting: Swedish national register-based study. Participants: 2 288 489 individuals, aged 5074 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures: The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results: During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions: Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

  • 32.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Mousavi-Nasab, Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the association between marital and parental status and their individual and combined effect on risk of dementia diseases in a population-based longitudinal study while controlling for a range of potential confounders, including social networks and exposure to stressful negative life events. Methods: A total of 1,609 participants without dementia, aged 65 years and over, were followed for an average period of 8.6 years (SD = 4.8). During follow-up, 354 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression was used to investigate the effect of marital and parental status on risk of dementia. Results: In univariate Cox regression models (adjusted for age as time scale), widowed (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.78), and not having children (HR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06) were significantly associated with incident dementia. In multivariate analyses that included simultaneously marital and parental status and covariates that were found to be significant in univariate models (p < 0.10), the HR was 1.30 (95% CI = 1.01-1.66) for widowed, and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.08-2.10) for those not having children. Finally, a group of four combined factors was constructed: married parents (reference), married without children, widowed parents, and widowed without children. The combined effect revealed a 1.3 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.03-1.76) of dementia in widow parents, and a 2.2 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.36-3.60) in widowed persons without children, in relation to married parents. No significant difference was observed for those being married and without children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that marital- and parental status are important risk factors for developing dementia, with especially increased risk in those being both widowed and without children.

  • 33.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Relationship between marital and parental status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease2013In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 9, no 4, Supplement, p. P631-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is increasing evidence that social network factors may affect risk of developing dementia. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between marital and parental status separately and their combined effect on the risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A total of 1707 members of a population-based prospective cohort study aged 65 and over were followed for an average period of 9.5 years. During follow-up, 393 participants were diagnosed with dementia, including 221 of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age, sex, education, smoking, vascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and stressful negative life events were used as covariates. Results: Cox logistic regression revealed that unmarried have a greater incidence of dementia and AD compared to married. Participants that were childless were also more likely to develop dementia and AD than those who were parents. Examining the combined effects of marital and parental status revealed that the already negative effect of being unmarried was further enhanced if the individuals were also childless. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both marital and parental statuses are associated with risk of dementia and that the effect of marital status need to be examined while taking into account parenthood. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to explore the mechanisms underlying this association.

  • 34.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berck, Peter
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The determinants of the choice of location among young adults: evidence from Sweden2011Other (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, Universiity of Massachussets at Amherst, MA, USA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Schroeder School of Business , University of Evansville, IN, USA.
    Youth-age characteristics as precursors of power couple formation and location choice2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends the literature on highly educated “power” couples. Its objectives are twofold. First, it examines the extent to which precursors of power couple formation are evident in young people during their years of compulsory schooling. Second, we examine location choices at adult ages by accounting for youth-age characteristics in addition to adult-age power status. Using Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power couples evolve from matching of spouses who were high academic achievers during the schooling years. Regarding location choice, our results indicate that power couples are characterized by a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large labour markets. The evidence also points to latent self selection in both spouse matching and location choice.

  • 36.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Zimmer, Michael
    University of Evansville, USA.
    Back to the Future: Migration, Matching and the Power Couple Phenomenon in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to a recent and growing literature addressing the phenomenon of high-credentialed power couples. It seeks to determine the extent to which precursors of power couple formation and location choice of couples at midlife are evident in young people during their formative school years. Its second objective is to extend the analysis of location choice by modeling location choice among different sizes of labor market areas, given different power status of the couples.

         Based on analysis of Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power spouses evolve from the population of high achieving school age individuals, the latter identified by high academic performance during the years of compulsory schooling. Other factors such as parental education and family income also play a role. In addition, there appear to be regional disparities in the evolution of power couples. The evidence also points to the presence self-selection arising from unmeasured heterogeneity, both in spouse matching and to a lesser extent in location choice. Regarding location choice, the results indicate that power couples display a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large cities.

  • 37.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Arbetslöshet, arbetsmarknadspolitik och geografisk rörlighet2001In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Determinants of migration in Northern Sweden: exploring intraregional differences in migration processes2009In: Migration in the Circumpolar North: Issues and Contexts / [ed] Lee Huskey, Chris Southcott, Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute Press , 2009, p. 175-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economic Influences on Migration in Sweden1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper [I]- Household Migration and the Local Public Sector: Evidence from Sweden, 1981-1984 (co-authored with Michael L. Wyzan), contains an empirical explo­ration of the nexus between variables related to the local public sector budget and migration. Micro-data is employed in binomial and multinomial-logit regressions esti­mating the probability to migrate. We report results separately for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, because the per capita levels of the tax base and intergovernmen­tal grants are theoretically important migration determinants where population is sparse, while the tax rate may be more important where population is dense. Empirical results support our fiscal hypotheses and are consistent with previous findings on household characteristics.

    Paper [II]- Internal Gross Migration in Sweden: The effects of Variation in Mobility Grants and Regional Labour Market Conditions, focuses on the effects of labor market conditions and migratory stimuli on over county-border migration. Aggregate data on the flows of all migrants and on the flows of migrants receiving extra mobility stimuli are used in estimations of a single-equation migration model based on the hiring function. The results indicate that regional migration flows respond to changes in labor market conditions in accordance with predictions from economic theory. This result seems mainly to stem from the migratory behavior of the unemployed. In addition, nonmatching migration subsidies at the levels employed are not found to be migration enhancing.

    Paper [IH]- Employment Opportunities, Wages and Interregional Migration in Sweden 1970-1989, deals with the impact of aggregate labor turnover and regional labor market conditions on gross in- and outmigration. Annual panel data is used in estima­tion of separate in- and outmigration functions, where regional labor market conditions are assumed to be endogenous with migration under two different assumptions concer­ning the working of the labor market. An increase in the regional excess supply of labor is found to increase outmigration and decrease inmigration. Moreover, cyclical variation in labor turnover is positively correlated with gross migration. The hypothesized effects of real wages on migration are not confirmed. The results are not sensitive to the various assumptions concerning regional wage formation considered in this study.

    Paper [IV]- A Panel Study of Migration, Household Real Earnings and Self-Selec- tion (co-authored with Roger Axelsson). The effects of migration on household real earnings are examined. Data pertain to a sample of stable household constellations in Sweden, 1978-1991. A treatment-effect model is employed, whereby the potential effects of nonrandom sampling of data on earnings for migrants and nonmigrants are taken into account. We find that stable multi-adult household constellations did not gain in income from migration during the 1980s. In addition, we find no strong indications of selection bias in the income equation.

  • 40.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Employment Opportunities, Wages and Interregional Migration in Sweden 1970 - 19891997In: Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I focus on the impact of aggregate labor turnover and regional labor market conditions on gross in- and out-migration within the framework of a neoclassical flexible-wage (equilibrium) model and a fixed-wage (labor-market disequilibrium) model. Using annual panel data on internal gross migration flows in Sweden from 1970 to 1989, I find that regional differences in employment opportunities have the expected effects on migration. The empirical relationship between real wages and gross migration flows is found to be less congruent with theory implications, indicating that compensated regional income prospects are equalized primarily via the interaction between employment opportunities and gross migration flows. Cyclical changes in hirings are shown to have a robust and strongly significant positive scale effect on migration.

  • 41.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Geografisk rörlighet och tillväxt2005In: Arbetsrätt, rörlighet och tillväxt, ITPS, Stockholm , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Internal Migration in Sweden: The Effects of Mobility Grants and Regional Labour Market Conditions1998In: Labour, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 363–388-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether variations in mobility grants have affected internal migration in Sweden. The paper also contains an exploration of how changing labour market conditions influence the migratory behaviour of the unemployed in comparison with other individuals. The results indicate that total migration flows respond to changes in labour market conditions in accordance with predictions from economic theory. This finding seems mainly to stem from the migratory behaviour of the unemployed. Furthermore, non-matching migration subsidies at the levels employed are not found to be migration enhancing.

  • 43.
    Westerlund, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wyzan, Michael
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Household migration and the local public sector: evidence from Sweden, 1981-19841995In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 145-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the relationship between public sector attributes and household characteristics, and Swedish household migration, 1981-4, is studied. We report results separately for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas because the per capita levels of the tax base and intergovernmental grants are theoretically important migration determinants where population is sparse, whilst the tax rate may be more important where population is dense. Because fiscal influences are likely to be stronger for short-distance migration, we apply multinomial logit to a three-way choice set: staying and migrating short and long distances. Empirical results support our fiscal hypotheses and are consistent with previous findings on household characteristics.

  • 44.
    Westerlund, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Östbye, Stein
    Nationalekonomi, Department of Economics.
    Sand, Jan-Yngve
    Nationalekonomi, Department of Economics.
    Omstilling og omstendigheter – et samfunnsøkonomisk tilbakeblikk på kulldriften på Svalbard2009In: Det Store Kullrushet: Industriell omstilling i Arktis, Oslo: Gyldendals Akademisk , 2009, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, 01003, USA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, USA.
    Twice chosen: Spouse matching and earnings among women in first and second unions2013In: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines spouse matching for females in second order marriages or cohabitating relationships. It is based on detailed data from longitudinal Swedish population registers. We follow women who marry, divorce, and subsequently remarry compared to women who marry and remain married over the course of the study interval. The earnings of both groups, along with the earnings of their respective husbands, are modeled on the basis of data in the year prior to their marriages. From the regressions we obtain spouse-to-be pairs of earnings residuals and measure the correlation between spouses within each marital regime. Overall, we find significant positive residual correlations for both sample partitions. The correlation is smaller for the first of two marriages for women who divorce than for women who marry and remain married. For the second of successive marriages, however, the correlation is larger than that for women who marry but once. Also for twice-married women, we find evidence of matching between successive husbands. Women who marry men with unmeasured positive earnings capacities, in the event of divorce, tend to select and match in a similar fashion the second time around. (C) 2013 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Twice chosen.: Spouse matching and earnings among women in first and second marriages2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines spousal matching for females in second-order marriages. It is based on detailed data from longitudinal Swedish population data registers. We aim to follow women who marry, divorce, and subsequently remarry compared with females who marry and stay married over the course of the study interval. The earnings of both groups are modeled through regression analysis in the year prior to their marriages along with the earnings of each husband. The residuals from the regressions represent unobservables in the process of earnings generation. From the regressions we obtain spouse-to-be pairs of earnings residuals and we measure the correlation of residuals for each marital regime. Overall, we find significant positive correlations for all three of the marital partitions. The correlation tends to be smaller for the first of a sequence of marriages for women who divorce than for women who marry and stay so. For the second of the successive marriages, however, the correlation of the residuals is larger than that for women who marry but once. We also find evidence of “matching” between successive husbands. Women who marry men with unmeasured positive earnings capacities, in the event of divorce, tend to select and match in a similar fashion the second time around.

  • 47.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sex and migration: who is the tied mover?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of interregional migration on two-earner household gross earnings as well as on the relative income between married and cohabiting couples. In particular, we examine the link between education level and income gains.  Our empirical analysis is based on longitudinal data from Sweden as well as on functional regional labour markets that operate as regional entities. Using difference-in-differences propensity score matching, we find that migration increases total gross household earnings and has no significant impact on the male/female earnings gap. We find that pre-migration education level is a key determinant of migration and economic outcomes and is also a determinant of the effect of migration on income distribution within the household. The positive average effect on household earnings is largely explained by income gains among highly-educated males. Females generally experience no significant income gain from migration in absolute terms. Females gain significant relative income only if they are highly educated and married or cohabitating with a lower-educated male. 

  • 48.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA. .
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, 800 Lincoln Ave, Evansville, IN, 47714, USA.
    See the future by looking at the past: predicting divorce with pre-marital earnings2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, ISSN 1350-4851, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 997-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of spouse's premarital earnings capacity on the probability of divorce is examined. This study is based on longitudinal register data on married and cohabitating couples in Sweden. We use the residuals from estimated earnings equations of men and women based on observations before their marriage in estimation of a logit model of divorce. By using information on individuals as singles, we can identify the impact of relative earnings power on the probability of divorce, per se, without the confounding effect of the marital relationship. The results indicate that differences in spouse's conditional earnings capacities increase the probability of divorce.

  • 49.
    Östbye, Stein
    et al.
    University of Tromsö.
    Moilanen, Mikko
    University of Tromsö.
    Tervo, Hannu
    University of Jyväskylä .
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CEDAR.
    The creative class: do jobs follow people or do people follow jobs?2018In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 745-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional adjustment models are applied to explore causal interaction between two types of people distinguished by educational attainment, and two types of jobs, creative class jobs and other jobs. Data used are for labour market regions in Finland, Norway and Sweden from the 2000s. Creative class jobs follow people with high educational attainment (oneway causation), but creative class jobs also follow main jobs and vice versa (circular causation). The results suggest that stimulating creative class job growth could be accomplished through attracting people with higher education, but also through attracting main sector business with the added benefit that the initial stimulus would be reinforced through circular and cumulative causation between job creation in the two sectors.

  • 50. Östbye, Stein
    et al.
    Sand, Jan-Yngve
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Management, markets and politics: statistical screening for historical footprints in Arctic coal mining2011In: Problems & Perspectives in Management, ISSN 1727-7051, E-ISSN 1810-5467, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We look at the economic performance of the main (coal mining) company operating inSvalbardbased on time series data from 1922 to 2006 and use statistical techniques to detect structural breaks in economic indicators decomposed into components that the company control or influence and components that are exogenous. The analysis suggests distinctive historical periods and illustrates that statistical time series analysis may be used as a screening device to discriminate between noise and real change.

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