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  • 1.
    Esther, Hauer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kristina, Westerberg
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jan, Hjelte
    Field Research and Development Unit (UFFE), Social Services in Umeå.
    Elderly care as an autonomy-supportive environment: from the perspectives of professionals and elderlyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For people to be intrinsically motivated in contrast to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome, they have to experience their behavior as self-determined. It requires either inner resources or contextual supports for autonomy, that is, the extent to which people feel supported in their ability to function autonomously, make choices and decisions. The more one internalizes the reasons for an action, the more one’s extrinsically motivated actions become self-determined. Since individual autonomy is embedded in relationships and circumstances and contexts can yield autonomous regulation, when autonomy-supportive, awareness about the conditions that nurture regulation and internalization can contribute to optimize people's quality of life. Thus the present interview study aims to examine elderly care as an autonomy-supportive environment from the perspectives of professionals and elderly, and also whether an intervention aimed to improve elderly care quality enhances autonomy-support. Nine elderly care recipients and their contact persons participated at Time I and 7 contact persons at Time II. The results suggest that elderly care (in this study) is not an autonomy-supportive environment due to too many constraining interactions. Moreover, quality improvement work does not automatically increases autonomy-support. However, autonomy and elderly care may not need to be a paradoxical conjunction if autonomy and independence are seen as separate goals of elderly care.

  • 2.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kristina, Westerberg
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Annika, Nordlund
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The content of the quality improvement work: influencing learning climate, resource adequacy and workloadManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of Quality Improvement Collaboratives, the evidence of their positive impact is limited. However, awareness of the mechanisms underlying such interventional efforts, as well as of their outcomes, is crucial for HRD professionals. Thus, the general purpose of this study was to examine the relation between process and outcome by addressing two specific aims. The first aim was to explore the content of the quality improvement work and, the second aim was to examine how the content chosen influences employees’ psychosocial work environment. A mixed-methods design was used in this study, including observations and written documentation of the quality improvement work and questionnaires, distributed on two occasions, to136 nursing assistants. Results showed that (1) the content of the quality improvement work differed both in nature and flexibility, even though the same method was used, (2) the perceived learning climate, workload, and resource adequacy were influenced differently by the different contents chosen. This study offers insights into understanding the complexity around such interventions – which might be powerful in some situations and less appropriate in others. Choosing the right method and assuring that the method is implemented is not enough to guarantee the success of the quality improvement work. It is of vital importance that employees have achievable targets in relation to the resources available. Quality improvement should not be achieved at the expense of employees’ psychosocial work environment; otherwise, the improvement process may become counterproductive.

  • 3.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Developmental intervention, learning climate and use of knowledge in elderly care2012Ingår i: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 19-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the learning climate in elderly care, its potential improvements after the “Steps for skills”, and its influence on knowledge from formal training. The assumptions were: the different activities of the Steps for skills should enhance the perceived learning climate; differences in working conditions in home help and residential homes should influence the perceived learning climate and its improvements; and changes in the perception of the learning climate should bring changes in the perceived usefulness of new knowledge.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is a case study carried out in the public elderly care in Sweden, and used a repeated measurements design. A total of 270 nursing assistants answered a questionnaire at Time I, and 174 at Time II.

    Findings – Results show no improvements of the learning climate for the full sample. When contrasting the learning climate in home help services and in residential homes significant differences are found, and also a tendency for their learning climate to change in opposite directions. The perception of the learning climate seems to influence the perceived usefulness of new knowledge.

    Research limitations/implications – The sample was from one single organization.

    Practical implications – Developmental interventions should take in to consideration that context matters, and that the perceived learning climate influences the use of new knowledge.

    Originality/value – In this study, a 15-items learning climate scale (LCS) is presented. Another contribution is identifying working condition failure as a potential explanation to why interventions usually do not result in expected changes.

  • 4.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Intervening with care: varying outcomes of a training and development programme in elderly care in Sweden2017Ingår i: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 617-636Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of the mechanisms underlying training and development (T&D) programmes is crucial in creating sustainable learning conditions in organisations. The organisational and psychosocial aspects of the work environment in Swedish elderly care is the focus of this longitudinal study, and the relation between process and results of a T&D programme is investigated. A mixed-methods design enabled exploration of the content of the quality improvement efforts, followed by an examination of how aspects of the work environment are influenced. The perceived learning climate, workload and resource adequacy are shown to be influenced differently by different contents. Insights into the complexity surrounding T&D programmes are then offered. It is concluded that even if a seemingly sound method of quality improvement is implemented, this is not enough to guarantee success. Also, it is apparent that changes may sometimes be at the expense of employees' work environment, which may hamper continuous learning.

  • 5.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning climate: Requiring alignment between working conditions and suggested key factors in workplace learning2009Ingår i: Abstracts from the 14th European Congress of work and Organizational Psyhology (CD), 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning environment in Swedish public elderly care has typically been described as resting on experience-based learning and characterized by a low level of formal education among the employees. The increasing number of elderly and the future needs for skilled workers in elderly care has been addressed in several investigations made by local and regional authorities. In the present study we want to highlight the workplace learning climate in home help service and residential care in elderly care in an average sized Swedish municipality, before and after an intervention. The intervention was a part of the programme “Steps for skill” initiated by the former Swedish government in 2005 and its basic idea was to build new infrastructures for learning and development in elderly care. The project focused on three main areas:  Individual education programmes and development of carrier steps; the “Break-through” method[1]to improve learning and skill development in workgroups and additional education to all leaders. Besides, a knowledge base including experiences from the workgroups for future use is going to be constructed.

     

    Within this frame we will focus on the learning climate in home help services and residential homes. The specific research questions are: Are there differences between home help services and residential homes in their experience of the learning climate and what is the outcome of the intervention when it comes to the experiences of the learning climate? Why may the experience of the learning climate differ between HHS an RH and how can such difference be understood? A total of 35 workplaces participated. Each workplace included two groups answering the “learning climate” questionnaire, those who were actively working with the “Break-through” method (n=150) and those who were not (n=200).

     

    Preliminary results show that there is a significant difference between the two types of elderly care when it comes to the total score on learning climate; the groups working in home help service have a lower estimation than the groups working in residential homes. Among the subscales it was decision autonomy, collaborative potential and innovative climate that showed significant differences. To work in home help services among other things seems to have a negative influence on the learning climate, which is not surprising considering the lack of opportunities to discuss everyday work activities and specific problems when they occur. The home help service has specific working conditions that are not in line with the suggested key factors in workplace learning. Therefore, new forms of workplace learning and knowledge transfer should be tailored to fit this kind of work. However, at this moment the second wave of data has not been completed and therefore we cannot address the questions about the outcome of the intervention yet.

    [1]Langley, Nolan, Nolan, Norman, Provost (1996) The improvement guide: A practical approach to enhancing organizational performance.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

  • 6.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning climate and its effects on work outcomes2010Ingår i: Abstract of the 27 International Congress of Applied psychology / [ed] Vicky Mrowinski, Michael Kyrios and Nicholas Voudouris, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  In the present study the learning climate in elderly care in an average sized Swedish municipality, before and after the intervention, is investigated. The intervention was part of the programme “Steps for skill” and the basic idea was to build new infrastructures for learning and development in elderly care. As a result of “Steps for skill” taken into account different organizational levels but considering home help services and residential homes as one context, the specific research questions were: Are there differences between the two types of elderly care as well as between managers and employees’ in their experience of the learning climate? How do the learning climate and its variables effects work outcomes? What is the outcome of the intervention?

    Method: Prior to, and one year after the development intervention, surveys were distributed to 29 workplaces and answered by 270 care assistants and 29 managers working in working in elderly care. The sample consisted mainly of females (91%), the average age was 43 years, and 13% had a university degree.  

    Results: Preliminary results show that there is a difference between two types of elderly care. When it comes to learning climate the groups working in home help service have a lower estimation than the groups working in residential homes, and a higher level of perceived stress. Regarding the outcome of the intervention, the learning climate became significantly better only at the home help services.  

    Conclusions: To work in home help services seems to have a negative influence on the learning climate, which is not surprising considering the lack of opportunities to discuss everyday work activities and specific problems when they occur. Although the home help services have specific working conditions that are not in line with the suggested key factors in workplace learning, they improved after the intervention.

    Choosing one context over another may influence both research results an implications. In the present study the learning climate in elderly care in an   average sized Swedish municipality, before and after the intervention, is   investigated. The intervention was part of the programme “Steps for skill” and   the basic idea was to build new infrastructures for learning and development   in elderly care. 

    As a result of “Steps for skill” taken into account different   organizational levels but considering home help services and residential homes   as one context, the specific research questions were: Are there differences   between the two types of elderly care as well as between managers and   employees’ in their experience of the learning climate? How do the learning   climate and its variables   effects work outcomes? What is the outcome of the intervention?  

    Prior to, and   one year after the development intervention, surveys were distributed to 29 workplaces and   answered by 270 care   assistants and 29 managers working in working in elderly care. The sample   consisted mainly of females (91%), the average age was 43 years, and 13% had   a university degree.  

    Preliminary results show that there is a difference between two types   of elderly care. When it comes to learning climate the groups working in home   help service have a lower estimation than the groups working in residential   homes, and a higher level of perceived stress. Regarding the outcome of the   intervention, the learning climate became significantly better only at the   home help services.  

    To work in home help   services seems to have a negative influence on the learning climate, which is   not surprising considering the lack of opportunities to discuss everyday work   activities and specific problems when they occur. Although the home help   services have specific working conditions that are not in line with the   suggested key factors in workplace learning, they improved after the   intervention.  

    Choosing one   context over another may influence both research results an implications.

  • 7.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Department of support and development, Umeå Municipality.
    Sjöberg, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hyvönen, Ulf
    From thought to action: young parents' reasons for participation in parenting support groups at child welfare centers2015Ingår i: Social Work in Public Health, ISSN 1937-1918, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 516-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the focus is on young parents' engagement process in relation to participation in parenting support groups carried out at child welfare centers. This qualitative study focuses not only on young parents' reasons for participating or not participating in parenting support groups during different phases in their engagement process, but also on examining the circumstances that may contribute to such changes. The results show that these reasons can be divided into four categories: the staff, other participants, the social network, and practical circumstances. It also appears that these reasons change between different phases of their engagement process. Primarily three different circumstances contributed to variation in parents' reasons: difficulty in predicting the value of participation, increased closeness in relationships with staff and other parents, and the specific life phase in which young parents find themselves. The results have important implications for policy makers and practitioners in their work in formulating and updating parenting support; they also indicate what may be important to focus on in the recruitment of young parents, and also what may be crucial in regard to them completing their engagement in parent support groups.

  • 8.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Support and Development, Umeå Municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Youth jobs: young peoples' experiences of changes in motivation regarding engagement in occupations in the Swedish public sector2018Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 36-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the influence of a programme with the purpose of increasing young people’s motivation to engage in professions with labour shortages in the Swedish public sector. The data collection methods used were qualitative and quantitative. The study shows that employment quality (skills, learning opportunities and social interaction) is essential to young people in relation to labour market interventions targeted at professions with labour shortages in the public sector. There appears to be heterogeneity in how young people value different factors. In addition, the motivational profile of young people seems to be an evolving process, but also in what way participation in a programme with focus on professions with labour shortages may contribute to such changes. The results indicate that, when planning a programme aimed at young people, individual differences should be taken into account in order to motivate them to work in professions with labour shortages.

  • 9.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå socialtjänsten (Umeå Social Services).
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The story of a knowledge-based and learning organization2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 5, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is generally viewed as one of the most important organizational resources, and this view is also held in relation to municipal elderly-care organizations. However, the concept of a knowledge-based organization has seldom been addressed in elderly-care research. The aim of the present study was to analyse how political and professional groups involved in elderly care conceive of the idea of a knowledge-based organization, and how these conceptions relate to their expectations in relation to the future of elderly care. This issue is important because these conceptions are intertwined with actions conducted by organizational members. Participants were selected for the study on the basis of organizational level and engagement in the development of different kinds of care in an elderly-care organization in a large municipality. A narrative approach was used for data analysis. The study indicates that the interpretations of a knowledge-based organization bring stability and meaning to participants by linking elderly care, as it is in the present, to an image of its future. Furthermore, the narratives are adjusted depending on what kind of problems that organization is expected to solve. However, the participants do not view the economic resources of the organization as something they can influence and develop, in either the present or the future. The study also shows that there are multiple perspectives in regard to the meaning of a knowledge-based organization and, accordingly, multiple perspectives on what will need to be done in the future. This is a potential problem for elderly care because it can hinder the coordination of organizational activities and the ability to handle the challenges of the future. Therefore the results point to the importance of creating within the organization a shared meaning of its main problems, and to the contribution a knowledge-based organization can make in solving these problems.

  • 10.
    Hyvönen, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Blom, BjörnUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.Westerberg, KristinaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    FoU i det sociala arbetets tjänst.: En reflekterande antologi om forsknings- och utvecklingsarbete i socialtjänsten.2004Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Häggqvist, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    "The balancing act". Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention: a qualitative study2012Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 12, s. 62-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients.

    Methods: A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, "the balancing act". The theme includes three categories: "the right to decide", "the constant watch", and "the ongoing negotiation" as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients' appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients' risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words "risk of falling" were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example "dizzy and pale". The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer.

    Conclusions: Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies.

  • 12.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundberg, MattiasUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.Nordin, MariaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.Sandström, AgnetaSemb, OlofUmeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.Westerberg, KristinaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psykologi för vårdprofessioner2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Nordin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Romeo, Marina
    Yepes-Baldo, Montserrat
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Spanish and Swedish eldercare managers' influence on employees2018Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 294-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Hierarchical and flat organizational types are predominant in Spain and Sweden, respectively. To study how managers' commitment and work overcommitment (WOC) affect employee well-being, and job perception in these different countries can shed insight on how to improve eldercare organization. The purpose of this paper was to study the association between eldercare employee exposure to managers' commitment and WOC, and employee mental well-being and job perception and how these associations differed between Spain and Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach - A questionnaire with validated questions on commitment, WOC, mental well-being and job perception, operationalized as the perception of quality of care and turnover intent, was sent out to eldercare managers and employees in Spain and Sweden. t-Tests, (2) and linear regression were applied to study the associations and differences between the countries.

    Findings - Interaction analyses revealed that Spanish employees' mental well-being and job perception were influenced by their managers' commitment and WOC in that manager commitment improved and WOC impaired well-being and job perception. However, the Swedish eldercare employees were not influenced by their managers on these parameters.

    Practical implications - The impact of managerial commitment and WOC differed between employees in Spain and Sweden, possibly because the preconditions for leadership varied due to differences in organizational type.

    Originality/value - This study compares the managers' impact on employee health and job perception in two countries with different organizational prerequisites. Moreover, managers' commitment and WOC were estimated by the managers themselves and did not rely on the employees' perception, which improved ecological validity.

  • 14.
    Romeo, Marina
    et al.
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ángel Piñeiro, Miguel
    University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Job crafting and well-being in the elderly care sector: the effect of over-commitment2019Ingår i: Employee relations, ISSN 0142-5455, E-ISSN 1758-7069, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 358-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderation effect of over-commitment in the job crafting–well-being relationship, in the elderly care sector in Spain.

    Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional design was implemented and a final sample of 353 participants were assessed using the Job Crafting Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Over-commitment Scale from the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).

    Findings – A positive interaction between relational and task crafting and over-commitment is observed in the prediction of well-being levels. Specifically, the effect of over-commitment in the task crafting–well-being relationship proved to be statistically significant when opposed to low, medium and high levels of over-commitment. Additionally, the effect of over-commitment in the relational crafting–well-being relationship proved to be statistically significant only when opposed to medium and high levels of over-commitment. Finally, a direct and simple effect was observed between cognitive crafting and well-being, not moderated by over-commitment.

    Research limitations/implications – Implementation of non-behavioral measurements, and a non-longitudinal design are suggested. The development of behavioral measures for job crafting is encouraged, along with the implementation of longitudinal designs sensitive to changes in over-commitment. Possible over-commitment results are biased by an economically contracted environment.

    Practical implications – Job crafting training, over-commitment early detection and further research on job crafting strategies’ preferences are suggested.

    Originality/value – The moderating role of over-commitment in the job crafting–well-being relationship in the elderly care sector represents one of these attempts to better understand evidences of how work-related efforts modify a worker’s psychological functioning and adaptation, which is the reason why, specially in contexts of uncertainty, its study becomes relevant.

  • 15.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Toward understanding the direct and indirect effects of transformational leadership on well-being: A longitudinal study2011Ingår i: Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, ISSN 1071-7919, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 480-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this two-wave longitudinal panel study, the authors strived to advance understanding of how transformational leadership affects employee well-being over time. The authors proposed a model that included both direct and indirect effects, which was tested in a sample of social service employees. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that transformational leadership had no direct effect on well-being over time. Instead, both the short-term and long-term effects of transformational leadership on well-being were mediated by a positive climate for innovation. The study contributes to knowledge about the complicated processes by which leaders influence well-being of employees.

  • 16.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hyvönen, Ulf
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Transformational leadership in the social work context: the importance of leader continuity and co-worker support2014Ingår i: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 886-904Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social work leadership has attracted growing attention in both social work practice and research. As social service organisations have changed in a variety of ways during the last decades, knowledge of how  leaders should act in these transformed organisations  is crucial. However,  few  empirical  studies have examined what  kind  of leadership  these changed  organisations  benefit from  and how  the  continuing  organisational change might  affect  the impact leaders have. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of transformational leadership of first line managers in a social work  setting.  We used a randomised  sample of  158 employees in a Swedish social service organisation, and examined the direct and indirect effect of transformational leadership on two important employee attitudes—commitment and role clarity. The results demonstrate the contri- bution of  transformational leadership  in creating  a workplace  where  employees  are committed and know  what  their  assignment is. Interaction effects of leader continuity and  co-worker  support  indicate  the  need  for  some stability  in  the  organisation in order  to increase the positive  influence  transformational leaders have on employees. This study has implications for leadership training in social work  and is a contribution.

  • 17.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The First Year of Service: A Longitudinal Study of Organisational Antecedents of Transformational Leadership in the Social Service Organisations2018Ingår i: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 430-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal interview study, we have strived to advance the understanding of how organisational factors may hinder the emergence of transformational leadership among first line managers in social service organisations. By interviewing managers in a Swedish social service organisation during their first year of leadership, we first identified leadership ideals and then asked them to identify factors that hinder the performance of this leadership. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data and the results revealed that the managers strived for a transformational leadership, but several factors in the organisation made it difficult to lead in the way they intended. Hindering factors were identified both at the organisational level, such as 'top-down management', 'financial strain' and 'continuous change', and in the managers' own working environment in terms of no support', 'high work-load', 'limited influence', 'administrative tasks' and 'distance to employees'. This study contributes to our understanding of organisational antecedents of transformational leadership as well as the premises of transformational leadership in social service organisations.

  • 18.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The First Year of Service: A Longitudinal Study of Organizational Antecedents of Transformational Leadership in the Public SectorManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal interview study, we have strived to advance the understanding of how organizational factors may hinder the emergence of transformational leadership among first-line managers in the public sector. By interviewing managers in a Swedish social service organization during their first year of leadership we first identified leadership ideals and then asked them to identify factors that hinder the performance of this leadership. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, and the results revealed that the leaders strived for a transformational leadership, but several factors in the organization made it difficult to lead in the way they intended. Hindering factors were identified both at the organizational level, such as ‘top-down management’, ‘financial strain’ and ‘continuous change’ and in the leaders’ own working environment in terms of ‘no support’, ‘high work load’, ‘limited influence’, ‘administrative tasks’, and ‘distance to employees’. These factors were also experienced as having negative consequences for the leaders in terms of ill health, immoral conduct, and turn over as well as resulting in a passive leadership style. This study contributes to our understanding of organizational antecedents of transformational leadership as well as the premises of transformational leadership in public organizations.

  • 19.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics Karolinska Institutet, Medical Management Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Aligning job redesign with leadership training to improve supervisor support: a quasi-experimental study of the integration of HR practices2019Ingår i: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 74-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this quasi-experimental study, we examine the alignment of a job redesign initiative with leadership training aimed at increasing supervisors' opportunities for providing support to employees. In addition, we examine intervention-mediated effects on climate for innovation through increases in perceived supervisor support. To test the hypothesized process, we used employee ratings (N = 524) of perceived supervisor support and climate for innovation collected at three time points over 2 years in the home help services in seven Swedish municipalities. Results of latent growth curve analyses showed that employees in the intervention group had a stronger and positive slope of perceived supervisor support relative to the comparison group. Further, the growth trajectories of perceived supervisor support were positively associated with climate for innovation at the 24-month follow-up. The study contributes to the human resource management literature by showing that alignment of employment practices such as training with work practices such as job redesign may be a promising strategy for achieving positive outcomes at multiple levels in organizations.

  • 20.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factors influencing psychological contract content in a social service organization2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning climate as a mediator of leadership style and subordinate stress2007Ingår i: The 13:th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007, s. 85-85Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Transformational leadership and the importance of relationship continuity at work2011Ingår i: The Work Environment: Impact of Technological, Social and Climate Change / [ed] Maria Albin, Johanna Alkan-Olsson, Mats Bobgard, Kristina Jakobsson, Björn Karlson, Peter Lundqvist, Mikael Ottosson, Fredrik Rassner, Måns Svensson and Håkan Tinnerberg, Göteborg, 2011, s. 87-87Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Collaborative networks among female middle managers in a hierarchical organization1999Ingår i: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 8, nr 1/2, s. 95-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I present empirical findings from an observational study of female municipal middlemanagers who are home help assistants in elder care. The observations showed that the home helpassistants’ sphere of activity was influenced by two distinct patterns: the official line organizationand the invisible horizontal social network. I first give a brief description to the immediate backgroundof the present study. Then I describe the line organization and give two empirical examplesof information exchange where the practical implication of the line organization at different levelsis visible. However, the study also revealed another pattern opposed to the line organization, calledthe horizontal network. I will give an empirical example of an incident that illustrates how the homehelp assistants use a social network to solve problems and to make judgments. The study showed thatthese networks are not persistent – they are rebuilt depending upon context. Members of the networkcan be people both within and outside the municipal organization. Decisions and problem solving arethus conducted in a process of interaction and negotiations with other people. The social networks arenot visible in the official organizational description. Still they form the foundation for the home helpassistants’ work and influence their ideas of how the work should be conducted. Finally I discusssome implications of the line organization and the social network and the possible consequenceswhen introducing new technology, i.e., computers in work. In this case the computers were plannedto support the line organization but not the work practice of social networks.

  • 24.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    History and conflicting themes in a gender creating culture2001Ingår i: Mind, culture and activity, ISSN 1074-9039, E-ISSN 1532-7884, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 231-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article statements made by elder care middle managers containing explanations of conflicts andtensions during a period of change in two municipalities are described and related to the history of thework activity. Furthermore, the explanations are associated with the construction of gender in this type ofwork activity. The results show that it is possible to relate different perceptions of work conflicts and variousconstructions of femininity to the history of the work. The use of cultural-historical and activity theoryapproaches on gender and management is discussed and a concept of activity identity is suggested.

  • 25.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kompetensstegen i Umeå: Utvärdering av KUM - kompetens och lärande i äldreomsorgen. Slutrapport april 2010.2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärande, kunskap och kompetensutveckling är aktuella begrepp som förknippas med äldreomsorgen. Det finns flera anledningar till detta: framtidens förväntade ökning av äldre, förändringar i vård- och omsorgsbehoven och därmed förändrade arbetsuppgifter för äldreomsorgen samt rekryteringsbehoven av utbildad personal och den relativa avsaknaden av formell utbildning som finns redan idag.

    Fokus på kompetensutveckling i äldreomsorgen har också riktats från politiskt håll där satsningen ”Kompetensstegen” startade 2005 och pågick i tre år. Kompetensstegen syftar till att stödja kommunernas ”långsiktiga kvalitets- och kompetensutvecklingsarbete inom vård och omsorg om äldre” (Kompetensstegen, december 2005). De flesta av Sveriges kommuner har fått stöd för utbildning och kompetensutveckling i äldreomsorgen under den här perioden. Umeå kommun är en av dem som fått stöd för ett omfattande kompetensutvecklingsprogram.

    Kompetensstegen i Umeå döptes till KUM projektet. I Umeås ansökan till Kompetens-stegen beskrivs hur man planerade att arbeta för att bygga en infrastruktur för lärande i äldreomsorgen (Projektansökan, 2005). I huvudsak önskade man rikta in sig på tre områden: arbetslag, individuella karriärvägar och ledarutveckling. I projektansökan beskrivs att man i arbetslagen skulle arbeta med Genombrottsmetoden1, nätverk och lärandeseminarier. Den individuella karriärstegen för vård- och omsorgspersonalen skulle bestå av fyra nivåer där det även fanns vissa valmöjligheter inom varje nivå. En strategisk ledarutveckling skulle riktas till enhetscheferna, med kurser som handlar om grupper och grupprocesser, förändringsprocesser, projektledning och forskningsfrågor. Dessutom tänkte man sig också att bygga upp en kunskapsbank som ska vara tillgänglig för alla som arbetar i äldreomsorgen.

    Umeå kommuns ansökan till Kompetensstegen inkluderade även en utvärderingsdel. Ansökan godkändes i sin helhet och UFFE, socialtjänstens utvecklings- och fältforskningsenhet i samarbete med Institutionen för psykologi, Umeå universitet, engagerades för att arbeta med utvärderingen av KUM projektet. Föreliggande rapport beskriver utvärderingens teoretiska utgångspunkter och frågeställningar samt resultat från utvärderingen. Syftet är att ge en bred bild av ett kompetensutvecklingsprojekt i äldreomsorgen och diskutera vilka insatser som ger resultat. Rapporten inleds med en kort beskrivning av KUM projektet och utvärderingsplanen. Därefter följer en teoretisk genomgång av forskning om lärande och kunskap i arbetet som även tidigare har presenterats, i stora delar, i en arbetsrapport. Sedan beskrivs de metoder som använts och utvärderingens resultat. Slutligen diskuteras hur man kan förstå resultaten och på vilket sätt de olika insatserna i KUM projektet har haft betydelse för olika delar i äldreomsorgen.

  • 26.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kunskap och lärande i äldreomsorgen2006Ingår i: Kunskap i socialt arbete: om villkor, processer och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och Kultur , 2006, s. 215-228Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Utveckling av kompetens och lärande i äldreomsorgen: Ett år med kompetensstegen i Umeå2008Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Municipal middle managers: psychosocial work environment in a gender-based division of labor2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 189-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the reported study was to explore how 245 municipal middle managersperceived their psychosocial and physical work environments, and to examine psychosomaticreactions and job satisfaction in departments engaged in di!erent types of activity, also tocompare male and female managers in these respects. The way in which psychosomaticreactions and job satisfaction were related to the psychosocial and physical work environmentswas also investigated. The results indicated a di!erence between departments depending on thetype of activity. Departments concerned with care and education, i.e. care of the elderly, childcare and schools showed a tendency to lower values for psychosocial work environment factorsand more psychosomatic reactions than the departments geared more towards maintenanceand production, i.e. street maintenance, the power plant department and the recreation o$ce.In the departments concerned with children, female managers were in a majority. In the streetmaintenance department, the recreation o$ce and the power plant department, male managerspredominated. Compared to the men, the women had a higher level of education, lower salaries,more reactions of a psychosomatic nature, lower job satisfaction and a less satisfying psychosocialwork environment. The only department with an equal number of male and femalemanagers was the schools department. Here there were no di!erences between men and womenin the factors studied. Two partial correlations were computed in order to separate theimportance of type of activity and sex to the work environment factors and outcome variables.This indicated that the type of activity was more important than biological sex. The genderingof work activities is therefore also discussed and further investigations are suggested. ( 2000Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bolin, Lena
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Kompetensutveckling i äldreomsorgen i fyra kommuner2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en rad år har kommunernas äldreomsorg haft möjlighet att söka statliga medel förkompetensutveckling och kvalitetsförbättring i satsningarna Kompetensstegen och Stimulansmedel.I bakgrunden finns ett ökat behov av att höja utbildningsnivån hos personalen i äldreomsorgen, attfinna nya former för kunskapsöverföring, att förbättra kvaliteten i det brukarnära arbetet och attmöta de kommande behoven av omsorg från ett ökande antal äldre. Syftet med den här studien1 varatt undersöka om de kurser, utbildningar och förändringsarbeten som bedrivits åren 2006-2009 ifyra kommuner kan relateras till hur man ser på arbetet med brukarna och kontakten med derasanhöriga och kompetensutveckling, kunskap och lärande. De fyra kommuner som deltog i studienvar Umeå, Skellefteå, Lycksele och Vännäs. Studien innehöll en kartläggning och en enkät ochutfördes i samarbete med utvecklingsansvariga i respektive kommun. Enkäten skickades till 375undersköterskor och vårdbiträden och 219 (58%) svarade. Frågeställningarna var: Finns detskillnader mellan kommunerna och kan utbildningsinsatserna och förändringsarbetet ha sambandmed hur personalen uppfattar omsorgsarbetet, lärandestrategier, lärandeklimat och användning avkunskapskällor? Resultaten pekade mot att omorganisation kan vara en orsak till vissa skillnadermellan kommunerna men att geografi och kommunstorlek inte verkade ha betydelse. Resultatenvisade också att en kombination av aktiviteter som bestod av förändringsarbete på arbetsplatsenoch kurser eller utbildningar utgjorde en markant positiv skillnad jämfört med de som enbart hadedeltagit i ett av alternativen. Slutligen diskuteras studiens bidrag till en ökad kunskap om olikaaktiviteters och insatsers betydelse när det gäller kompetensutveckling.

  • 30.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning climate and work group skills in care work2009Ingår i: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 581-594Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the manager's assessment of the work group skills correlate with the work group's perception of the learning climate?

    Design/methodology/approach – A total of 12 managers and 130 of their subordinates were selected, and answered a questionnaire. The subordinates belonged to work groups with five to 19 care assistants working in elderly care. The majority of the participants were women (92 per cent). The mean age was 43 years old, range 20-63.

    Findings – Results suggest that the perception of the learning climate has a correspondence between the organisational levels (managers and their subordinates) and that there is a correspondence between managers' ratings of work group skills, in particular skills for effectively managing change, and the work groups' perception of their learning climate, in particular decision autonomy and developmental and collaborative potentials.

    Research implications/limitations – The manager sample was small and from one single organisation.

    Practical implications – The relations between the learning climate and the assssment of staff skills are important to the actions taken in order to facilitate workplace learning and development.

    Originality/value – This study contrasted the managers' assessment of skills with their work groups' perceptions of learning climate, which is quite unusual in learning climate studies.

  • 31.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hjelte, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. UFFE, Social Services, Umeå, Sweden.
    The impact of elderly care competenceand quality improvement programme in four Swedish municipalities2013Ingår i: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 319-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During a number of years Swedish municipalities have work with improvment of competence and long-term quality in elderly care. The overall aim of the present study was to compare different learning activities (workplace improvement and/or courses), and to relate these activities to learning climate, learning strategies, and perception of care quality. In addition, the effect of organisational changes was tested. Four Swedish municipalities were selected and 219 nursing assistants filled in a questionnaire (response rate, 58%). Documentation of the learning activities was collected. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was computed to answer the research questions. The results showed that there was a main effect for learning activities and organisational change on learning climate and learning strategies, but not on the perception of care quality. A combination of courses and workplace improvement practices yielded better results compared with only one of these activities, and organisational changes had a negative effect. The results suggest that the workplace should not only be regarded as an area for non-formal training but should also be included as a part of a training programme. Organisational changes should be avoided during the programme, otherwise the expected effects of the time and effort invested may be wasted.

  • 32.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet. UFFE: Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Sweden.
    Hjelte, Jan
    UFFE: Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Sweden.
    Brännström, Jan
    UFFE: Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Ulf
    UFFE: Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Sweden.
    The meaning of a knowledge-based organization in Swedish municipal elderly care2012Ingår i: Social Work Education, ISSN 0261-5479, E-ISSN 1470-1227, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 465-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the notion of the knowledge-base in a Swedish social services organization. The overall aim was to investigate the concept “knowledge-based organization in municipal elderly care” as it was perceived by informants on different organizational levels and professional and political functions in the social services. The research questions concerned how different informants perceive, and to what extent they share, the meaning of a knowledge-based organization and to relate these perceptions to the organizational conditions for learning and knowledge use. The theoretical point of departure was the socio-cultural approach where the interaction between communication, cultural artifacts and actions are important ingredients. The results showed that there were different views on the meaning of knowledge-based elderly care, mainly related to professional functions and organizational levels. It is argued that these views have implications for organizational learning and change as well as formal training and education.

  • 33.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hjelte, Jan
    The Field Research and Development Unit in Social Services, Umea Municipality, Umea, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Sara
    Unit Manager in Home Help Services, Norrköping Municipality, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services2017Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 621-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users’ strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, but also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: a) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention?, b) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems?, and c) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems?

    A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66 to 92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis.

    The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases they referred to the work conditions, work organization and lack of other resources in the eldercare organization. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialization and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users’ understanding of the work conditions and work organization of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent them from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  • 34.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pienaar, Jacobus
    Department of Psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Romeo, Marina
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Organizational change and commitment: Effects on well-being, turnover intent and quality of care in Spanish and Swedish eldercare2018Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent organizational changes have been a rule rather than an exception in many European countries for decades. The present study investigates how affective organizational commitment relates to and moderates the effects of having been exposed to organizational restructuring on employee well-being, quality of care and turnover intentions among 530 eldercare employees in Sweden and Spain. The results show that there was a main effect of employees’ experiences of being affected by change on well-being and turnover intentions but not on quality of care. Restructuring changes were moderated by affective commitment on turnover intentions. However, the buffering effect of affective commitment in terms of protecting employees from turnover intentions was weak.

  • 35.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Strandberg, Sara
    Rehabilitation Centre, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Showering is more than resistance: cognitive interview sequences in residental homes for elderly clients with dementia2007Ingår i: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, Vol. 4, nr 1/2, s. 15-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview method, based on the cognitive interview, was used to capture critical work situations in elderly care, in this case showering elderly clients suffering from dementia. Generally, this experience causes clients to become agitated and aggressive. Twelve nursing assistants participated in individual and group interviews. This study explored whether it was possible to distinguish different sequences and themes in the staff descriptions of shower situations. The results were analyzed with a grounded theory approach and showed that it was possible to distinguish seven sequences in the shower situation, each with different themes and with diverse qualities. The themes showed that there were sequences that contained cooperation, participation, and satisfaction. Two sequences were typically met with resistance. This study also comments on the usefulness of the results and the interview method with respect to education planning and clinical practice.

  • 36.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Changes in commitment to change among leaders in home help services2015Ingår i: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 216-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the this study was to explore the development of commitment to change among leaders in the home help services during organizational change and to study this development in relation to workload and stress. During organizational change initiatives, commitment to change among leaders is important to ensure the implementation of the change. However, little is known of development of commitment of change over time. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews with ten leaders by the time an organizational change initiative was launched and follow-up one year later. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Findings: Commitment to change is not static, but seems to develop over time and during organizational change. At the first interview, leaders had a varied pattern reflecting different dimensions of commitment to change. One year later, the differences between leaders’ commitment to change was less obvious. Differences in commitment to change had no apparent relationship with workload or stress. Research limitations/implications: The data were collected from one organization, and the number of participants were small which could affect the results on workload and stress in relation to commitment to change. Practical implications: It is important to support leaders during organizational change initiatives to maintain their commitment. One way to accomplish this is to use management team meetings to monitor how leaders perceive their situation. Originality/value: Qualitative, longitudinal and leader studies on commitment to change are all unusual, and taken together, this study shows new aspects of commitment.

  • 37.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services2014Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 461-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members.

  • 38.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Romeo, Marina
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Job crafting, employee well-being, and quality of care2018Ingår i: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 52-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care (r = .291, p < .01; β = .261, p < .01; ΔR2 = .065, p < .01) and employees’ well-being (r = .201, p < .01; β = .171, p < .01; ΔR2 = .028, p < .01). A positive linear relationship was found between job crafting and well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees’ and residents’ well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

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