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  • 1.
    Belancic, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Eva, Lindgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Discourses of functional bilingualism in the Sami curriculum in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sami are Indigenous languages spoken by the Sami people in the northern parts of Scandinavia and Russia. All Sami languages are endangered because of historically aggressive assimilation policies. Currently Sami communities are working actively with language revitalisation processes. This article examines pupils’ access to knowledge in and about Sami languages and functional bilingualism in Sami and Swedish within the curriculum for the Sami schools in Sweden. Through a multifaceted lens of functional linguistic analysis, Bloom’s revised taxonomy of knowledge types and processes, and Bernstein’s concepts of vertical and horizontal discourse we examine the learning outcomes in the Sami and Swedish syllabi. The findings show an unequal balance between the two languages with the Sami syllabus containing fewer knowledge types, cognitive processes, verb processes, a stronger focus on oracy, and a stronger horizontal discourse than the Swedish syllabus. We conclude that the discourses about functional bilingualism that underpin these policy documents is contradictory and does not support Sami to be a fully functional language for all domains of society.

  • 2.
    Belancic, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nordsamiska i och utanför skolan: språkanvändning och attityder2017In: Samisk kamp: kulturförmedling och rättviserörelse / [ed] Marianne Liliequist och Coppélie Cocq, Umeå: Bokförlaget h:ström - Text & Kultur, 2017, p. 252-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Belancic, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vannar, Ingegerd
    Samiskt språkcentrum.
    Sparrok, Sylvia
    Samiskt språkcentrum.
    Förstudie: kartläggning av de samiska språken2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisning2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] Eva Larsson Ringqvist och Ingela Valfridsson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2005, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning Reflection in the Language Translation Class2009In: International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, ISSN 1935-5661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations.Computer keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, and enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention has potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, and (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation.

  • 6.
    Enever, Janet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, EvaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Early language learning: complexity and mixed methods2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and the UK. Themes include English as an additional language, English as a second or foreign language, French as a modern foreign language, medium of instruction controversies and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). The volume reviews the choice of research methodologies for early language learning research in schools with a particular focus on mixed methods, proposing that in the multidisciplinary context of early language learning this paradigm allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the evidence than other approaches might provide. The collection will be of interest to in-service and trainee teachers of young language learners, graduate students in the field of TESOL and early language learning, teacher educators, researchers and policymakers.

  • 7.
    Enever, Janet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Early language learning in instructed contexts - Editorial introduction2016In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an introduction to the Thematic Issue of Education Inquiry, reporting on four studies conducted in the field of early language learning (ELL) in instructed contexts. The paper gives an outline of the debates around recent policy initiatives to introduce languages earlier in the primary school curriculum, together with a summary of the four papers included in the issue. The article authors acted as editors of for the Special Issue.

  • 8.
    Enever, Janet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Mixed methods in early language learning research2017In: Early language learning: complexity and mixed methods / [ed] Janet Enever and Eva Lindgren, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 305-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Enever, Janet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, EvaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.Ivanov, SergejUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Conference proceedings from early language learning: theory and practice 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eva, Lindgren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    La révision en production écrite enregistrée2014In: Temps de l'écriture: enregistrements et représentations / [ed] Christophe Leblay and Gilles Caporossi, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium: Academia-L'Harmattan , 2014, p. 71-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gheitasi, Parvin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Broadening the understanding of the language classroom: mixed methods2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Janet Enever, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 21-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hansson, Heidi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sprida forskningsresultat eller samla meriter?: Behovet av gränsdragning mellan författare i akademiska texter2012In: Språkets gränser - och verklighetens: Perspektiv på begreppet gräns / [ed] Daniel Andersson och Lars-Erik Edlund, Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 179-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Forskarutbildning i det utbildningsvetenskapliga landskapet – en kartläggning2006In: Utbildningsvetenskap: ett vetenskapsområde tar form, Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm , 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Forskarutbildning med anknytning till lärarutbildningen: (ingår i: Utvärdering av den nya lärarutbildningen vid svenska universitet och högskolor, Del 3 Särskilda studier)2005Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The uptake of peer-based intervention in the writing classroom2005In: Effective learning and teaching of writing / [ed] Gert Rijlaarsdam, Huub van den Bergh, Michel Couzijn, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2005, p. 259-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents and discusses a method, peer-based intervention (PBI), in which conscious reflection of key-stroke logged writing sessions is used to improve written composition. Multiple writing opportunities are used together with discussion and observation of the writer’s own and a peer’s text. The method entails the theoretical assumption that the release of cognitive resources in working memory helps writers to focus the attention towards deeper structures of the text under construction as well as towards the writing process per se and thus assist in raising writers’ metacognitive awareness of writing. The chapter reports on a study of Swedish 13-year-olds composing descriptive and argumentative texts in their first language (L1), with and without PBI. The texts were graded and all revisions undertaken during the writing process were analysed according to their impact on the text product. Further, text quality and frequency of revisions were tested statistically in order to delimit the impact of the PBI treatment. The results indicate that the method was generally successful for low L1 ability writers, while high L1 ability writers benefited from the treatment in the argumentative assignments. The treatment further raised writers’ awareness of contents features involved in writing by increased frequency of text-based revisions.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Writing and revising: Didactic and Methodological Implications of Keystroke Logging2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Keystroke logging records keyboard activity during writing. Time and position of all keystrokes are stored in a log file, which facilitates detailed analysis of all pauses, revisions and movements undertaken during writing. Keystroke logging further includes a replay function, which can be used as a tool for reflection and analysis of the writing process. During writing, writers continuously plan, transcribe, read, and revise in order to create a text that meets with their goals and intentions for the text. These activities both interact and trigger one another.

    This thesis includes studies in which keystroke recordings are used as bases for visualisation of and reflection on the cognitive processes that underlie writing. The keystroke logging methodology is coupled with Geographical information systems (GIS) and stimulated recall in order to enhance the understanding of keystroke logged data as representations of interacting cognitive activities during writing. Particular attention is paid to writing revision and a taxonomy for analysis of on-line revision is proposed. In the taxonomy, revisions made at the point of inscription are introduced as ‘pre-contextual’ revisions, and highlighted as potential windows on cognitive processing during transcription. The function of pre-contextual revisions as revisions of form and concepts was ascertained in an empirical study, which also showed that 13-year-old writers revised more form and concepts at the point of inscription when they wrote in English as a foreign language (EFL) than in Swedish as a first language (L1).

    In this thesis, a learning method, Peer-based intervention (PBI), is introduced and examined through case studies and statistical analysis. PBI is based on theories about cognitive capacity, noticing, individual-based learning and social interaction. In PBI, the keystroke-logging replay facility is used as a tool for reflection on and discussion of keystroke logged data, i.e. representations of cognitive processes active during writing. In the studies presented in this thesis, teen-aged and adult writers’ texts, written before and after PBI, were analysed according to text quality and revision. Descriptive and argumentative texts in both L1 and EFL were included in the studies. The results showed that PBI raised adult and teen-aged writers’ awareness of linguistic and extra-linguistic features, and that the effect varied across levels of learner ability, text type and language.

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Enever, Janet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Introduction: Mixed methods in early language learning research - examining complexity2017In: Early language learning: complexity and mixed methods / [ed] Janet Enever and Eva Lindgren, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Enever, JanetUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Språkdidaktik: Researching Language Teaching and Learning2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to contribute to bridging the gap between research and practice within the field of language education. In each chapter the authors focus on the relationship between research and practice and draw on a range of disciplines that are not commonly integrated. The book presents new material in the area of teaching and learning languages including empirical studies and reviews of research. With this volume we hope to contribute to the discussion and definition of the relatively new research area of language didactics (språkdidaktik) in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Knospe, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching writing with observational logging tools from 2006 to the present2019In: Observing writing: insights from keystroke logging and handwriting / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 1-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Muñoz, Carmen
    University of Barcelona.
    The influence of exposure, parents, and linguistic distance on young European learners' foreign language comprehension2013In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 105-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The project Early Language Learning in Europe (ELLiE) has studied the longitudinal effects of an early foreign language (FL) start in seven European contexts. This article presents a sub-study of ELLiE that investigates the impact of out-of-school factors on learners' listening and reading skills in year four of formal FL instruction. More specifically, we include Parents' educational level, parents' use of the FL professionally, exposure, interaction and cognate linguistic distance. Data were collected by means of listening and reading tests and a parents' questionnaire. Results of the statistical analyses show that cognate linguistic distance was the strongest predictor of both listening and reading scores, followed closely by exposure, and parents' FL use at work and international interaction at some distance. Parents' educational levels only impacted on reading scores, and domestic interaction did not have any effect on listening or reading. Furthermore, the results confirm previous research on young learners’ incidental FL acquisition through watching subtitled films, as watching films was the most powerful exposure type for both listening and reading. Parents' use of FL at work correlated significantly with exposure, indicating that the influence of parents would have an effect on the opportunities for their children's FL exposure.

  • 21.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    Reading University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Development of fluency and revision in L1 and L2 writing in Swedish High School years eight and nine2008In: ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 156, p. 133-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use keystroke logging to examine the development of fluency and revision in high school L1 Swedish and L2 English writing.  Each writer wrote one text in English and one in Swedish in each year of the study. Using a combination of statistical and automatic analyses of the keystroke log, we attempted to investigate: i) how the on-line writing process in terms of revising, pausing and fluency in first and second language writing changes over time, ii) whether there are on-line writing process variables which can be identified as contributing to text improvement, and iii) whether there are any aspects of L1 writing which can be identified as contributing to L2 writing and learning processes and which may form part of a teaching programme. Previous studies of L2 writers have attested to changes in fluency, pause and revision behaviour, and amount of text produced, although associations with the quality of the final output are not clearly supported. The within-writer comparison of this study addresses differences in fluency, pause and revision behaviour between L1 and L2 writing. A regression analysis looking at quality and two types of revision (Form, and Conceptual) found that form revision frequency was related to the language of writing and that conceptual revision frequency was dependent on linguistic experience rather than on language. The findings suggest that conceptual revision and writing skills are transferred from the L1 to the L2, and that these skills should be taught accordingly.

  • 22.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Stevenson, Marie
    The University of Sydney.
    Interactional resources in the letters of young writers in Swedish and English2013In: Journal of second language writing, ISSN 1060-3743, E-ISSN 1873-1422, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 390-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of interactional resources in letters to a penfriend of Swedish 11-year-olds in Swedish (L1) and English (FL) from a multi-competence perspective. The objectives of the study are to ascertain whether the language in which the letters were written and the gender of the writers influenced the extent to which interactional meanings were expressed, and also to examine the textual resources that the young novice writers employed to convey interactional meanings in FL. The texts are analysed in terms of both content and discourse-semantic expression, with the discourse-semantic analysis drawing on a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework known as Appraisal. The quantitative results show that, when the amount of text produced is taken into account, there are few significant differences in the frequency of expression of interactional meanings in L1 and FL, but slightly more for gender. The qualitative description identifies a number of language-specific and non-language specific resources used by the writers to enable them to express interactional meanings in FL. In the discussion, these findings are linked to the notion of multi-competence.

  • 23.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Stevenson, Marie
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting the Reflective Language Learner with Computer Keystroke Logging2008In: Handbook of research on computer-enhanced language acquisition and learning / [ed] Felicia Zhang & Beth Barber, Information Science Reference, Hershey PA, USE , 2008, p. 189-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sulivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    University of Winchester.
    Development of Fluency in First and Foreign Language Writing2012In: Learning to write effectively: Current trends in European research / [ed] Torrance, M., Alamargot, D., Castelló, M., Ganier, F., Kruse, O. Mangen, A., Tolchinsky, L. & Van Waes, L., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, 1, p. 273-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Writing Through Observation of Writing Processes Using Keystroke Logging2012In: Learning to write effectively: Current trends in European research / [ed] Torrance, M., Alamargot, D., Castelló, M., Ganier, F., Kruse, O. Mangen, A., Tolchinsky, L. & Van Waes, L., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 403-404Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Stimulated recall as a trigger for increasing noticing and language awareness in the L2 writing classroom: A case study of two young female writers2003In: Language Awareness, Vol. 12, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Analysing online revision2006In: Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 157-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents, discusses and illustrates a method for the analysis of revision of form and concepts in online writing. Keystroke logging was coupled with stimulated recall to assist the development of the LS-taxonomy for online writing revision. Revisions are fundamentally divided according to their position in the text and according to their effect on the developing text. Revision occurs either within the previously written text or at the point of inscription. Revisions at the point of inscription are characterised by being only preceded by written text; the revisions occur in the course of transcription. During the writing process, revisions interact actively with pauses and other revisions. The complex nature of discourse in development, the issues of multiple categorisation of revision and the linking of revisions and pauses together as revision episodes, and how these impact upon the use of the LS-taxonomy is ovenviewed. All LS-taxonomy categories are thoroughly exemplified by examples from a corpus of keystroke-logged data of first language Swedish and English as a foreign language (EFL) compositions.

  • 28.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Ett skrivexperiment i skolmiljö: datoranalys som metod2008In: Se skolan: forskningsmetoder i pedagogiskt arbete / [ed] Carina Rönnqvist & Monika Vinterek, Umeå: Fakultetsnämden för lärarutbildning, Umeå universitet , 2008, p. 41-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P HUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Observing writing: insights from keystroke logging and handwriting2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observing writing: Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting is a timely volume appearing twelve years after the Studies in Writing volume Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing (Sullivan & Lindgren, 2006). The 2006 volume provided the reader with a fundamental account of keystroke logging, a methodology in which a piece of software records every keystroke, cursor and mouse movement a writer undertakes during a writing session. This new volume highlights current theoretical and applied research questions in keystroke logging and handwriting research that observes writing. In this volume, contributors from a range of disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, modern languages, and education, present their research that considers the cognitive and socio-cultural complexities of writing texts in academic and professional settings.

  • 30.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    The LS graph: A methodology for visualising writing revision2002In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 565-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The writing process has long been a subject for investigation. Until recently researchers have been restricted to written protocols for the analysis of writing sessions. These provide vast amounts of information from which it is impossible to create detailed mental representations of the writer’s movements around the text, revision activity, or pause behavior. Computer keystroke –logging programs, which record all keystrokes and mouse actions, facilitate the collection of quantitative data about text creation. This article presents the LS graph, a novel way of graphically representing and summarizing the quantitative data collected when keystroke logging. Further, the graph can be combined with a detailed manual analysis of the individual revisions that can be undertaken by playing back the logged writing session.

  • 31.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Writing and the Analysis of Revision: An Overview2006In: Computer keystroke logging and writing: methods and applications / [ed] Kirk P. H. Sullivan, Eva Lindgren, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 31-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the reader to the complexities of revision analysis and problematises the issues surrounding the development of revision taxonomies, 'online' revision analysis and the categorisation of online revisions. For the reader unfamiliar with the writing process, the chapter begins by overviewing the writing process. This introduction to the writing process provides the reader unfamiliar with writing and revision processes with a ground for understanding of the complexity of revision and the overview of revision presented in this chapter. After reading this chapter, the reader will have the necessary understanding of the writing and revision processes to follow the arguments relating to the development of an online revision taxonomy and online revision categorisation presented by Lindgren and Sullivan (this volume, Chapter 9).

  • 32.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Lingvistik.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Nordliga studier.
    The story of Nils and Anders: some historical perspectives on reflection and writing development2006In: ISCHE 28: the 28th session of the International Standing Conference for the History of Education : technologies of the word : literacies in the history of education, Umeå: Department of Historical Studies, Teacher Education Faculty, Umeå University , 2006, p. 80-80Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    GIS for writing: Applying Geographical Information Systems Techniques to Data Mine Writings' Cognitive Processes2007In: Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007, p. 83-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the use of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data mining and visualising information about cognitive activities involved in writing. The information can be collected from various sources, such as keystroke logs, manual analysis of stimulated recall sessions and think-aloud protocols. After an introduction to the GIS, an English as a foreign language (EFL) writing session is used to explain how to create the various GIS layers from the different information/analysis sources, and show how they can be easily data mined using the GIS techniques to improve our understanding of the cognitive processes in writing. The illustrative graphs used to provide an insight into the methodology are based on keystroke-logged data, manual researcher-based analyses and coded stimulated recall data that were collected after the writing session. Also a tool for visualisation and data mining, the GIS technique can support analysis of the interaction of cognitive processes during writing focusing on the individual writer, differences between writers or the writing processes in general. Depending on the research question, GIS affords the possibility to aggregate data to the level of writers, de-aggregate data in any way chosen or display data as attributes of individuals.

  • 34.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching literacy development in the globalised North: studying tri-lingual children's English writing in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish Sápmi2016In: Super Dimensions in Globalisation and Education / [ed] David R. Cole & Christine Woodrow, Singapore: Springer, 2016, p. 55-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Lingvistik.
    Stevenson, Marie
    The analysis of on-line writing processes: applications for research and language instruction2006In: The 31st Annual Congress of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia: Language and Languages: Global and Local tension, Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, ALAA , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Lingvistik.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    On the lookout for new relationships: an exploration of keystroke-logged writing data2006In: SIG Writing, Antwerp, Belgium, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Peer-to-Peer Supported Reflection as a Life-Long Learning Skill: an Example from the Translation Classroom2011In: Human Development and Global Advancements through Information Communication Technologies: New Initiatives / [ed] Susheel Chhabra & Hakikur Rahman, Hershey USA: IGI publishing , 2011, 1, p. 188-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-long learning skills have moved from being a side-affect of a formal education to skills that are explicitly trained during a university degree. In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations. Computer keystroke logging coupled with Peerbased intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text, develop reflection skills and learn from their peers. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with Peer-based intervention has to potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation and (3) develop peer-to-peer supported reflection as a life-long learning skill.

  • 38.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Van Waes, Luuk
    University of Antwerp.
    Leijten, Mariêlle
    University of Antwerp.
    Adapting to the reader during writing2011In: Written Language & Literacy, ISSN 1387-6732, E-ISSN 1570-6001, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 188-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of the reader and ability to adapt the text to the reader are assumed to be important aspects of successful writing. Models of writing development include the aspect of reader awareness, as a rhetorical goal, that writers develop gradually and that eventually distinguishes expert writers from novice writers. However, developing writers can present an awareness of writing aspects without being able to apply them successfully on task. The role of maturation on the one hand and instruction and training on the other have been put forward as crucial aspects of writing development. Against this background, six writers, representing different levels of expertise in writing, undertook the same writing tasks. Eighteen texts, interviews and stimulated recall protocols are analysed, compared and contrasted with a particular focus on writers’ awareness of and adaptation to the intended reader. Keystroke logs provide a solid and complementary base for detailed analysis of the writing processes, in which revisions relating to a reader perspective are of particular importance. Findings provide support for the theoretical framework, but they also raise questions about the role of knowledge about genre and writing strategies in relation to maturation for successful writing development. 

  • 39.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Meaning-making across languages: a case study of three multilingual writers in Sápmi2017In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 124-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sápmi is a geographical area that runs across the Kola Peninsula in Russia to northern Finland, Norway and Sweden. All Sami languages have been going through a rapid language change process and many of the traditional language domains have disappeared during the last decades due to previous national and local language policies. Nevertheless, recent growth of positive attitudes towards Sami languages and culture both within and outside the Sami group has given new momentum to the language revitalisation process. At the same time, English is becoming more present in the Sami context through tourism, media and popular culture. This study investigates 15-year-old writers' meaning-making in three languages they meet on a daily basis: North Sami, the majority language Finnish/Norwegian/Swedish and English. Data were collected in schools where writers wrote two texts in each language, one argumentative and one descriptive. Using a functional approach, we analyse how three writers make meaning across three languages and two genres. Results show that writers made use of similar ways of expressing meaning on the three levels we investigated: ideational, interpersonal and textual, but also how the production differed between the texts, and how context and content interacted with writers’ meaning-making in the three languages.

  • 40.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Revising at the leading edge: shaping ideas or clearing up noise2019In: Observing writing: insights from keystroke logging and handwriting / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Kirk P H Sullivan, Leiden : Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, 1, p. 346-365Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Muñoz, Carmen
    et al.
    University of Barcelona.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Out-of-school factors: the home2011In: ELLiE: Early Language Learning in Europe : [evidence from the ELLiE study] / [ed] Janet Enever, London: British Council, 2011, 1, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Book Review: Deborah Brandt 'The Rise of Writing - Redefining Mass Literacy'2016In: The Journal of Writing Research, ISSN 2030-1006, E-ISSN 2294-3307, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 177-181Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Procedural differences in bilingual writers' computer mediated writing: evidence from treatment of gradation in textManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Jönköping University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching writing development to support language maintenance and revitalization: design and methodological challenges2019In: Perspectives on Indigenous writing and literacies / [ed] Coppélie Cocq and Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 165-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Peterson, Shelley S.
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Parr, Judy
    University of Auckland.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kaufman, Douglas
    University of Connecticut.
    Conceptualizations of writing in early years curricula and standards documents: international perspectives2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 499-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, researchers in the field of early writing identify underlying beliefs and values about writing and learning to write for the beginning years of formal schooling in four jurisdictions: the American state of Connecticut, New Zealand, the Canadian province of Ontario, and Sweden, as reflected in the respective curricula and standards documents that guide instruction. Using Ivanic’s Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write to guide our text analysis, we found that curriculum developers have primarily been influenced by views of writing as a set of skills, processes, and genres. We found few references to the sociopolitical dis- course which indicates a view among curriculum developers that sociopolitical literacy is not suitable for this age group. We argue, with support in previous research, that young children’s writing does not have to be politically neutral and that it can be devel- oped under age-appropriate circumstances. Implications for policy and curriculum development include a need for greater consider- ation of the complexities of writing shown in research conducted across five decades. We propose a change to the model for early years, recognising that young children’s socio-political under- standings lie within their home and school lives, rather than the broader community.

  • 46. Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    et al.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The psycholinguistic dimension in second language writing: Opportunities for research and pedagogy using computer keystroke logging2008In: TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Sturk, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Discourses in Teachers' Talk about Writing2019In: Written Communication, ISSN 0741-0883, E-ISSN 1552-8472, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 503-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Views about what writing is and how it should be taught have varied over the years as well as across contexts. Studies of curricula, teaching materials, and teaching practices have shown a strong focus on skills, genres, and processes, but few have asked teachers about their perspectives on writing. In this article we explore what views, or discourses, of writing are currently active among teachers in Swedish compulsory education, covering ages from 7 to 15. Sixty teachers answered a questionnaire with open and closed questions. Using Ivanič’s framework for discourses of writing, the answers were analyzed holistically in order to define what main discourse, or discourses, each teacher represented. Results show that most teachers represent one main discourse, but that a combination of discourses occur, in particular among teachers from the earliest school years (1–3). The most common discourse was the process discourse, followed by genre, creativity, skills, and thinking. None of the teachers represented the social practice or the sociopolitical discourse. The results concur with findings from studies of curricula, teaching materials, and teaching practices both in Sweden and globally and are discussed in relation to what literacy skills may be necessary in the 21st century in order to participate in social and political life.

  • 48.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Belancic, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The global in the local: young multilingual language learners write in North Sámi (Finland, Norway, Sweden)2019In: Teaching writing to children in Indigenous languages: instructional practices from global contexts / [ed] Ari Sherris and Joy Krefft Peyton, New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 235-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary globalization trends might be a threat to Indigenous language revitalization efforts, or might act as catalysts that stimulate interest in learning and writing in Indigenous languages. This chapter presents a snapshot case study of young multilingual writers of North Sámi and considers the interaction of supercomplexity and the super dimensions of Sápmi on North Sámi literacy. Using illustrations taken from 126 young writers' narratives texts collected from 12 schools across the North Sámi speaking area of Sápmi in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, this chapter discusses how these young writers express in written North Sámi what they do in their lives, their understandings of their identities, and how these reflect the global and the local dimensions that they engage in on a daily basis. Based on our analysis, together with earlier research, we argue that young writers have the literacy skills necessary for meaning making, but that more possibilities for exposure to North Sámi are required, coupled with structural support from policy makers, society generally, and education opportunities, to raise the linguistics competencies for more nuanced North Sámi writing.

  • 49.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, EvaUmeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education.
    Computer keystroke logging and writing: methods and applications2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digital tools for the recording, the logging and the analysis of writing processes: Introduction, overview and framework2006In: Writing and Digital Media, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 153-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This subchapter provides an introduction to the possibilities and limitations of digital tools for recording of writing processes, a comprehensive framework in which the digital tools that are explained further in the subchapters 2-5 are integrated and a critical perspective to the characteristics of the tools, their usage and related automatic analyses.

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