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  • 1.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox2019Ingår i: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

  • 2.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The gender gap in welfare state attitudes in Europe: the role of unpaid labour and family policy2020Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a prevailing 'modern gender gap' in socio-political attitudes in advanced capitalist economies. While numerous studies have confirmed gender differences in attitudes toward the welfare state in Europe, few have addressed the reason for this rift in men's and women's views about the role of government in ensuring the general welfare of citizens. In this paper, I examine the relationship between gender equality in unpaid labour, family policy and the gender gap in welfare state attitudes. Based on data from 21 countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) round 4, and using a mix of country- and individual-level regression models and multilevel models, I find that there is a clear relationship between country-level gender equality in unpaid labour and gender differences in support of an encompassing welfare state. A more equal distribution of unpaid care and domestic work correlates with women being increasingly supportive of a large and encompassing welfare state, in comparison with men. This pattern holds when controlling for individual-level economic risk and resources, cultural factors such as trust and social values traditionally related to support of an encompassing welfare state, and beliefs about welfare state efficiency and consequences for society in general. This pattern is evident for countries with a low level of familistic policies, while no distinguishable pattern is discernible for highly familistic countries. These findings have implications for the perception of gender as an emergent social cleavage with respect to welfare state attitudes. The results are discussed in the light of institutional theories on policy feedback, familism, social role theory and previous findings relating to modernization theory and 'gender realignment'.

  • 3.
    Goossen, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Basic human values and white-collar crime: Findings from Europe2016Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 434-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between values and white-collar crime. The analyses draw on pooled survey data covering 14 European countries. The value constructs are derived on the basis of the theory of basic human values and seven value constructs are tested in relation to three types of white-collar crime: tax evasion, insurance fraud and bribery. The results show that a majority of the value constructs are statistically significantly related to white-collar crime in the expected direction. The relationships between values and white-collar crime are particularly clear-cut regarding tax evasion and insurance fraud but more mixed regarding bribery. The value constructs ‘universalism/benevolence’, ‘power/achievement’ and ‘stimulation’ yield consistent results across all three crime types. ‘Universalism/benevolence’ levels are negatively associated, while ‘power/achievement’ and ‘stimulation’ levels are positively associated, with odds of having committed white-collar crime. The results suggest that values are relevant predictors when trying to account for variation in white-collar offending.

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