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  • 1.
    Berglund, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Subjective well-being and job satisfaction among self-employed and regular employees: does personality matter differently?2016Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 55-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the importance of personality traits for subjective well-being (SWB) and job satisfaction among self-employed. The aim of this article is to investigate if the Big-Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) have different relationships with SWB and job satisfaction among self-employed compared with regular employees. Data come from a Swedish survey comprising representative samples of self-employed (n = 2483) and regular employees (n = 2642). Personality traits are measured using a 10-item personality measure. Our findings show that there are only small differences, between self-employed and regular employees, in the associations between personality traits and SWB. For job satisfaction, on the other hand, we find much stronger relationships for self-employed than the regularly employed. For self-employed, every personality trait except ‘openness to experience’ have a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction. In comparison, only ‘extraversion’ and ‘emotional stability’ are significantly correlated to job satisfaction among regular employees. The relationship between ‘extraversion’ and job satisfaction was furthermore substantially weaker among regular employees. Therefore, being self-employed seems to be particularly beneficial for individuals scoring high on ‘extraversion,’ ‘agreeableness,’ and ‘conscientiousness.’

  • 2. Bongard, René
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hur mår företagaren?: En rapport om välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Exploring the 'something for nothing' syndrome: confused citizens or free riders? Evidence from Sweden2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 293-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the occurrence of political non-attitudes in Sweden and identifies the population segment possessing a 'something for nothing' (SFN) mentality regarding social spending. Sweden – often regarded as epitomizing the advanced welfare state – constitutes an ananalytically interesting case, providing a useful counterpoint to the predominantly American based evidence on the subject. It is argued here that national political institutions fundamentally affect the prevalence – and social base – of the SFN segment. To identify SFN sentiments, two question batteries measuring social spending preferences are used. One battery contains 'priced' items emphasizing the cost of public spending, while the other set of 'unpriced' items does not explicitly connect increased public spending with increased taxes. The patterning of attitudes across these items is explored in order to determine whether SFN sentiments are common in the Swedish electorate. The observed attitude patterns are then linked to broader sets of attitudes to the welfare state, testing whether the degree of ideological coherence differs fundamentally between the SFN segment and other groups. The analysis then explores the individual-level determinants associated with different attitude patterns. The overall results show that: SFN sentiments are not dominant among the Swedish citizenry; the quality of the SFN segment’s belief system, in terms of ideological coherence, does not represent a deviant case; and the background characteristics associated with SFN sentiments suggest that members of this segment should rather be viewed as free riders in economically vulnerable positions than ignorant and politically confused citizens.

  • 4.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Is Sweden Being Torn Apart? Privatization and Old and New Patterns of Welfare State Support2013Ingår i: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 542-564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the potential impact of institutional change on popular welfare support. The encompassing welfare state of Sweden provides an interesting case where the privatization of socialservice delivery has been widespread over the last decades. We use survey data from five rounds of the Swedish Welfare State Survey (1992, 1997, 2002, 2006 and 2010) in order to study how public preferences for the financing and organization of welfare services have changed over time. Based on a theory describing an ideal-typical pattern of public support for an encompassing welfare model, we derive three types of public preferences: support for a pure state model, a pure market model and a mixed model (welfare services are funded by taxes but provided by private firms). We begin by tracking the development of these ideal-typical attitude patterns between 1992 and 2010. We then investigate how preference patterns vary across municipalities displaying different degrees of privatization of social service delivery. Our results show that welfare support among Swedes over the last decades is better characterized as dynamic rather than stable. Swedes seem to take an overall more ideologically based position on the role of the welfare state over time. The share of respondents expressing such ideologically based preferences has increased from 54 per cent in 1992 to 78 per cent in 2010. This change is principally manifested in increased support for the state and mixed models. This trend seems to be parallel to the increasing share of private welfare service providers over the last decade. We also find a link between the municipal degree of privatization and support for ourthree ideal-typical welfare models. Public support for a mixed welfare model and, to some extent, a market model, is comparatively stronger in municipalities where welfare services to a large extent are carried out by private actors. Conversely, data shows that public support for the traditional Swedish state model is more widespread in municipalities having a low degree of welfare services privatization. Lastly, we discuss some theoretical implications of our findings.

  • 5.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Social status and life satisfaction in context: a comparison between Sweden and the USA2018Ingår i: International Journal of Wellbeing, ISSN 1179-8602, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 110-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that social status is an important predictor of life satisfaction (LS). However, researchers have largely focused on the United States, which raises questions about the extent to which the cultural context moderates the relationship between social status and LS. In this paper, we argue that the dominant cultural orientations in society most likely influence the strength of the relationship between social status and LS. Cultural orientations emphasizing competition, achievement and assertiveness should increase the positive influence of social status on LS, while cultural emphases on cooperation, equality and humility instead weakens the effect of status. We therefore analyze the social status-LS relationship in two distinctly different cultural contexts, i.e., Sweden and the United States. Based on theories about national differences in cultural value orientations, we argue that social status should be of more importance in the US compared to in Sweden, since the dominant values and ideals emphasize hierarchy, mastery and masculinity, while the Swedish culture represents an opposite pole by emphasizing egalitarianism, harmony, and femininity. We formulate a number of hypotheses and use survey data to examine the extent to which both social status attainment and social status seeking are related to LS in both countries. The results show that socioeconomic status (income) and sociometric status (perceived respect and admiration in everyday life) have a stronger influence on LS in the US compared to in Sweden. Further, the findings show that social status seeking (low honesty-humility) has a positive relationship to LS in the US, but is negatively related in Sweden. The results also show that gender differences in the relationship between social status and LS are more pronounced in the US compared to in Sweden. We conclude that both the attainment and pursuit of social status are more important for LS in the American cultural context compared to in the Swedish, especially among men. These findings are in line with our expectations, based on the opposing cultural orientations in Sweden and the US. The study contributes to the literature on the relationship between social status and LS, but also to the more general literature on the moderating influence of culture on the predictors of LS.

  • 6.
    Goossen, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Basic human values and white-collar crime: Findings from Europe2016Ingår i: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 434-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between values and white-collar crime. The analyses draw on pooled survey data covering 14 European countries. The value constructs are derived on the basis of the theory of basic human values and seven value constructs are tested in relation to three types of white-collar crime: tax evasion, insurance fraud and bribery. The results show that a majority of the value constructs are statistically significantly related to white-collar crime in the expected direction. The relationships between values and white-collar crime are particularly clear-cut regarding tax evasion and insurance fraud but more mixed regarding bribery. The value constructs ‘universalism/benevolence’, ‘power/achievement’ and ‘stimulation’ yield consistent results across all three crime types. ‘Universalism/benevolence’ levels are negatively associated, while ‘power/achievement’ and ‘stimulation’ levels are positively associated, with odds of having committed white-collar crime. The results suggest that values are relevant predictors when trying to account for variation in white-collar offending.

  • 7.
    Hardell, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Welfare service privatization and opinions about service quality: The role of political ideology among local politicians and the public2019Ingår i: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we join the discussion about the potential consequences of welfare service privatization by examining the relationship between the privatization of welfare service delivery and public opinion about service quality in Sweden. Due to the politically polarized debate about welfare service privatization in Sweden, we also examine the extent to which individuals' ideological orientations influence this relationship in both local politicians and ordinary citizens. For local politicians, the results show that a higher municipal degree of privatization is generally associated with slightly lower levels of satisfaction overall with welfare services, although no such relationship exists for the public. Most importantly, however, the results indicate that political ideology constitutes an important moderator in the relationship between privatization and opinions about service quality. Local politicians and, to some extent, ordinary citizens who place themselves to the left on the ideological left–right scale tend to be less satisfied with services as the municipal degree of welfare service privatization increases. For local politicians who position themselves far to the right on the scale, the relationship between welfare service privatization and satisfaction is positive. These findings suggest that there is no clear-cut relationship between privatization and individuals' opinions about services; rather, this relationship depends on the ideological predispositions of local politicians and ordinary citizens.

  • 8.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Werner, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes2018Ingår i: International Studies in Sociology of Education, ISSN 0962-0214, E-ISSN 1747-5066, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 42-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies identify a relationship between education and anti-immigrant attitudes. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the underlying explanations linking education to attitudes. In this article, we examine whether a relationship exists between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (measured as religions/cultures as well as xenophobia/racism), and anti-immigrant attitudes among adolescents. In addition, we examine whether teacher qualification matters for attitudes. The analysis is based on survey data collected from high school students in Sweden. The results show an association between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (both indicators) and anti-immigrant attitudes among students, i.e. higher exposure is related to lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes. However, we find that teaching about xenophobia/racism affects attitudes, but not when simultaneously controlling for teaching about critical thinking and religions/cultures. In terms of teacher qualification, we find that students in schools with a high proportion of certified teachers tend to have lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes.

  • 9.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: a multilevel analysis2018Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 311-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of health inequalities have largely neglected age and ageing aspects, while ageing research has often paid little attention to questions of social inequalities. This article investigates cross-country differences in gradients in self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness (LLSI) in middle-aged and in older people (aged 50–64 and 65–80 years) linked to social class, and degrees to which the social health gradients are associated with minimum pension levels and expenditure on elderly care. For these purposes, data from the European Social Survey (2002–2010) are analysed using multilevel regression techniques. We find significant cross-level interaction effects between class and welfare policies: higher expenditure on elderly care and particularly more generous minimum pensions are associated with smaller health inequalities in the older age group (65–80 years). It is concluded that welfare policies moderate the association between social class and health, highlighting the importance of welfare state efforts for older persons, who are strongly reliant on the welfare state and welfare state arrangements such as pensions and care policies.

  • 10.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Local context and attitudes toward privatization: do public service contexts matter for attitude formation?Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Local contexts, social risks and social spending preferences: a multi-level approach2009Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 249-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I analyse the relationship between local context and individuals´ social spending preferences in Sweden. The contextual unit studied is the municipality and the analyses are based on both individual-level survey data (n = 5,324) and municipal-level data. Multi-level modelling is used to handle data at both levels simultaneously. It is suggested that the presence of social risks in the local community affects whether individuals are willing to support high social spending. It is argued that the interdependent nature of certa in social risks, such as local unemployment rates, depopulation and labour market structure, is an important factor explaining contextual influence on social spending preferences. The results indicate that the prevalence of social risks in a municipality affect the willingness of local inhabitants to support high social spending. Support for high social spending tends to be greater, taking individual-level determinants into account, in municipalities suffering from unemployment, ill health, depopulation, a low tax base and an industry sector dominated by agriculture and manufacturing. This finding also indicates that contextual influence on olitical attitudes might not be restricted to interpersonal interaction, as often suggested in past research.

  • 12.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Suspicious minds: local context and attitude variation across Swedish municipalities2010Ingår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 225-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates whether degree of suspicion of welfare abuse relates to local context in Sweden. It is suggested that certain features of Swedish municipalities can create a local information bias influencing individual suspicion of welfare abuse. Prevalence of social problems and political climate are features of the municipal context having the potential to influence opinion formation. Social problems are captured by local unemployment, social assistance and ill-health rates. Political climate is captured by electoral support for conservatives. The results indicate that local context can influence suspicion of welfare abuse, contexts where social problems are widespread reduce such suspicion. While local political climate seems important in itself, it also interacts with social problem level, increasing suspicion if a conservative political climate and social problems coexist. While social problems seem to generate less suspicion regarding social policy abuse, they also provide 'raw material' for political rhetoric regarding suspicion.

  • 13.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Welfare state attitudes and the local community: contextual effects on attitudes toward financing and service deliveryManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Welfare state attitudes in context: local contexts and attitude formation in Sweden2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare state attitudes are often studied from the perspective of the individual's characteristics and/or national or regime-type contexts. This thesis instead seeks explanations for individuals' varying attitudes towards the welfare state at the level of local contexts (municipalities). Sweden is used as a case for testing whether there are such contextual effects. The general aim is to find out whether social, political, and institutional aspects of local context influence the attitudes of individuals.

    Since the general aim of this thesis is to examine how background characteristics of individuals and characteristics of local contexts simultaneously act in shaping individuals' attitudes, I use multilevel modelling in order to handle individual-level and contextual-level data simultaneously. Latent-class analysis (LCA) is also employed in the analyses to explore the patterning of variables. This is mainly done in order to create dependent variables and to distinguish between categories of municipalities sharing similar characteristics.  The data consist of Swedish survey data, which have been complemented by municipal-level data.

    The findings indicate that the social and political context of municipalities can matter for individuals' attitude formation. Variation across municipalities in terms of the prevalence of social problems and risks seems to influence how individuals view the welfare state. Local municipal contexts characterized by many social problems and risks tend to be associated with more welfare state friendly attitudes among the local inhabitants, after taking individual-level determinants into account. Support for high social spending is greater in such milieus as is the tendency to view welfare beneficiaries with less suspicion regarding the potential abuse of welfare policies. Regarding the influence of local public service provision on attitudes, no evidence was found for feedback effects on individuals' attitudes toward public service privatization.

    In their attitudes towards the welfare state, individuals are to some extent influenced by their local environment. There seems to be a 'built in' thermostat in the Swedish welfare state. Local circumstances characterized by social problems and risks tend to be associated with a local citizenry having more welfare state-friendly attitudes.

  • 15.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    A Little More Action, Please: Increasing the Understanding about Citizens’ Lack of Commitment to Protecting the Environment in Different National Contexts2018Ingår i: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 314-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study advances the current understanding of why many citizens do not display a high level of commitment to protecting the environment. We examine cross-national differences in the salience of attitudinal and behavioral profiles distinguished by their comparably low levels of pro-environmental behavior, in both the public and private spheres. Based on theories of postmaterialism and collective action problems, we expect gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and levels of generalized trust to be related to the salience of these attitudinal and behavioral profiles cross-nationally. First, low levels of GDP very likely constrain pro-environmental behavior through decreasing environmental concern, which should increase the probability of citizens displaying an attitudinal and behavioral profile characterized by low levels of both environmental concern and pro-environmental behavior. Second, collective action problems in low-trust countries should also constrain behavior by undermining the propensity of environmentally concerned individuals to act on their concerns, which should increase the probability of citizens displaying a profile characterized by low levels of pro-environmental behavior despite high levels of concern. Using latent class analysis and multilevel modeling, we analyze data from the International Social Survey Programme (2010) and show that the probability of individuals displaying these profiles is clearly linked to GDP and national levels of generalized trust, in the expected manner. In contrast to previous research, we demonstrate that these societal factors are complementary insofar as they relate to fundamentally different individual-level processes underlying pro-environmental behavior.

  • 16.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Are the self-employed really that poor? Income poverty and living standard among self-employed in Sweden2015Ingår i: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, ISSN 2000-8023, E-ISSN 2000-8023, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises are often highlighted by politicians as important engines of economic growth and job creation. However, previous research suggests that self-employment might not be equally beneficial for individuals in terms of their income compared to regular employment. Several studies have in fact found that the self-employed may face a substantially higher poverty risk than do regular employees. The aim of the present study is to investigate to what extent income poverty is a good predictor of actual living standards among the self-employed. Is the relationship between income poverty and living standards different for self-employed compared to the regularly employed? To investigate this question we use a unique Swedish survey dataset including regularly employed (n 2,642) as well as self-employed (over-sampled, n 2,483). Income poverty is defined as living in a household with less than 60% of the median household income. Living standards are measured with a deprivation index based on 29 consumption indicators. The results show that even though income poverty is more prevalent among the self-employed than among the regularly employed, no evidence can be found suggesting that the self-employed have a lower standard of living than the regularly employed. Furthermore, when specifically comparing income poor self-employed with income poor regularly employed, we find that the income poor self-employed score significantly lower on the deprivation index even after the compositional characteristics of both groups are taken into account. The conclusion is that poverty measures based on income data underestimate the actual living standard of the self-employed.

  • 17.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    The prevalence, characteristics and well-being of 'necessity' self-employed and 'latent' entrepreneurs: findings from Sweden2016Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 58-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employment is often discussed in terms of 'push' and 'pull' factors. The aim of this article is to assess not only the prevalence of 'necessity' self-employed and 'latent' entrepreneurs in Sweden, but also the characteristics in terms of socio-demography, personality traits, intrinsic work motivation and preference for independence associated with each group. In addition, the article investigates whether 'necessity' self-employment and 'latent' entrepreneurship are related to four measures of well-being. This is done using a nationally representative survey of the self-employed (small-business owners, n = 2,483) and regularly employed (n = 2,642) in Sweden. The main findings indicate that 'necessity' self-employed have characteristics and preferences that differ from other (non-'necessity') self-employed. They display relatively low intrinsic work motivation and preference for independence as well as scores on personality traits typically associated with entrepreneurship. They also report lower levels of work autonomy, job-satisfaction, life satisfaction and family-life satisfaction than other self-employed. 'Latent' entrepreneurs resemble entrepreneurs in many ways but they nevertheless report lower levels of well-being than non-'necessity' self-employed.

  • 18.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Subjective well-being among the self-employed in Europe: macroeconomy, gender and immigrant status2016Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 239-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the self-employed generally experience a higher degree of job satisfaction compared to regular employees. However, our knowledge of subjective well-being among the self-employed, the differences between various groups of self-employed and the potential influence of contextual factors is somewhat limited. The purpose of the present paper is to address this gap by taking macroeconomic conditions, gender and immigrant status into consideration. The results show that self-employment is positively related to subjective well-being, but there are also differences between groups of the self-employed; self-employed with employees report a higher level of life satisfaction than the self-employed without employees. Economic growth is more important for the level of life satisfaction among the self-employed than among employees. The analyses also point to different patterns for female and male self-employed without employees: only women experience a higher level of life satisfaction compared to employees. The results also show that the relationship is stronger among immigrants than natives. The results of this study confirm the importance of considering potential heterogeneity when examining subjective well-being among the self-employed.

  • 19.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Conditional representation: Gendered experiences of combining work and family among local politicians2019Ingår i: Journal of women, politics & policy, ISSN 1554-4788, E-ISSN 1554-4788, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 367-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on working and living conditions among local politicians in Sweden, and on their experiences of combining political work and family life. Applying a sociological perspective on representation, we first map the working and living conditions represented among politicians, with a specific focus on gender and age. We then examine experiences of work-family conflict and subjective well-being, and investigate how these outcomes are related to gender, age, and working and living conditions. The main findings show significant gender differences in working and living conditions, and substantially higher levels of work-family conflict among young female politicians.

  • 20.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Self-Employment as a Strategy for Dealing with the Competing Demands of Work and Family? The Importance of Family/Lifestyle Motives2015Ingår i: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 256-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test the argument that self-employment may be a strategy for dealing with competing demands of work and family. We do this by comparing work–family conflict experienced by self-employed and employed men and women. By examining to what extent the selfemployed versus regularly employed value time for themselves and their family — i.e., whether they are driven by family/lifestyle motives in their working life — we examine whether selfemployment can help reduce work–family conflict among those guided by family/lifestyle motives. Using data from a 2011 Swedish survey of 2483 self-employed and 2642 regularly employed, the analyses indicate that experiences of work–family conflict differ between selfemployed and employees. Self-employed men and women, especially those with employees, generally experience more work–family conflict than do employees. However, self-employment can sometimes be a strategy for dealing with competing demands of work and family life. The presence of family/lifestyle motives generally decreases the probability of experiencing work–family conflict, particularly among self-employed women with employees.

  • 21.
    Kulin, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Role of Government in Protecting the Environment: Quality of Government and the Translation of Normative Views about Government Responsibility into Spending Preferences2019Ingår i: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 110-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is becoming increasingly evident that environmental problems such as climate change and global warming constitute existential threats to human societies, these problems will very likely per- sist and even intensify unless governments enact effective and potentially costly environmental poli- cies. However, government policies and spending ultimately rely on public support, thus underscoring the need to increase present knowledge about the processes underlying citizens' policy attitudes. In this study, we focus on the relationship between citizens' normative views about govern- ment responsibility and their support for government spending on the environment. While people who think that, as a general principle, it ought to be the government's responsibility to protect the environment should be more likely to support increasing government spending on the environment, we argue that this relationship is dependent on the quality of government. Using multilevel analysis and data from the most recent ISSP “Role of Government” module, we show that people who think that it is the government's responsibility to protect the environment are more likely to support increasing government spending on the environment in countries where government institutions are fair, effective, and non-corrupt. This suggests that the role of government in protecting the environment stretches far beyond designing effective environmental policies, since an overall ineffective and corrupt government appears to undermine public support for critical environmental policymaking. 

  • 22.
    Lindh, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Political Partisanship and Welfare Service Privatization: Ideological Attitudes among Local Politicians in Sweden2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 75-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article ties in with a growing international literature examining the link between party politics and welfare service privatization in modern welfare states. In recent decades, a central aspect of policy change in Sweden is that private actors have come to produce publicly financed welfare services on a more regular basis. This overall privatization trend is furthermore characterized by substantial geographical variation across Sweden's 290 municipalities. The ideological attitudes of local politicians have been recognized as particularly important for understanding this development. This article examines the extent to which local politicians’ ideological attitudes regarding welfare service privatization are best explained with a partisan approach emphasizing between-party polarization as opposed to a critical perspective that points to the proclaimed significance of ideological consensus between left and right parties in certain municipal contexts. Using multilevel modelling and survey data collected from elected politicians in municipal governments, the empirical findings show substantial differences in attitudes between Conservatives and Social Democrats, irrespective of municipal characteristics – most notably the degree of welfare service privatization. Hence, the results strongly indicate that the partisan approach is much more fruitful compared to the consensus approach as a general explanation for local politicians’ attitudes towards welfare service privatization in Sweden. Accordingly, a conclusion is that comparisons at the subnational level within countries are important as a complement to country-comparative studies when attempting to understand the link between political partisanship and welfare service privatization in modern welfare states.

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