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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Len, Smith
    Australian National University, Canberra.
    Indigenous infant mortality in Sweden: the key to the health transition2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sami of northern Scandinavia have experienced a positive health development that has brought them from a high-mortality situation two hundred years ago to their present-day low-mortality profile. Their experience is not shared by other indigenous peoples around the world. This study is concerned with infant mortality, a key issue in the health transition process. Long-term infant mortality trends are analyzed in order to compare Sami and non-Sami groups in the area. Data is obtained from the world-unique Northern Population Data Base at Umeå university, and consist of digitized 18th and 19th-century parish records. These complete life biographies include ethnic markers and enable longitudinal studies of causes of death, differences in sex, age-distribution, stillbirths and legitimacy status. The results are discussed from the perspective of the source quality, methodological considerations, the health transition generally in Sweden, and the overall Sami health transition

  • 2. Cigéhn, Göran
    et al.
    Mats, Johansson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Klassamhällets återkomst: Om klassidentitet, arbetsliv och fritid vid tröskeln till ett nytt sekel2001Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adult children as an important source of help for their elderly parents?: different attitudes toward informal help in Spain and Sweden2015In: Ageing: Culture & Identity / [ed] Lena Karlsson; Marianne Liliequist; Anna Sofia Lundgren; Karin Lövgren & Angelika Sjöstedt Landén, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 17-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which relatives and adult children can help and assist elderly in the future, has been outlined as one of the major challenges to handle in the ageing society. In this article, attitudes towards adult children helping their elderly parents were compared between two countries (Spain and Sweden), described as belonging to a strong and a weak family area. This study takes its point of departure from the intergenerational ambivalence perspective, contrasting intergenerational solidarity with self-interests. The source material is derived from the International Social Survey Progamme in 2012. The analysis reveals that a vast majority of Swedish and Spanish citizens perceived that adult children are an important source of help. In both countries, respondent’s age contributed to the differences in attitudes toward informal help, where individuals aged 50-64 years old to a lesser extent perceived adult children as an important source of help. Regarding gender, the results shows that the more time women spent taking care of the elderly, sick, and children, the less positive their attitudes were toward the statement that adult children are an important source of help. The study concludes that the farther one is from actually fulfilling the caregiver role and the lower the expectation is to actually help ageing parents, the stronger the attitude is toward informal help, and vice versa. The study stresses the importance of more research in this area, especially from an intersectional and comparative perspective.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Advanced ages at death in Sápmi during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: with special attention to longevity among the Sami population2016In: Historical Methods, ISSN 0161-5440, E-ISSN 1940-1906, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines advanced ages at death in a historical population in northern Sweden between 1780 and 1900. The source material used is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University supplemented with the search tool Indiko. The belief that the Sami died at very high ages was tested, and life tables and values of remaining life expectancies at older ages were calculated. The information of the age at death was analysed using a model containing four levels of certainty. The analysis reveals that the Sami did not live to extreme ages. The analysis also reveals large differences between the parishes concerning extreme longevity and correctness of age at death.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Demography of colonisation and the ageing population: population profiles and mortality in Swedish Sápmi, 1750–19002012In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 32, p. 812-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines population trends, age-specific death rates and causes of death for the elderly Sami and settlers during the colonisation era (between 1750 and 1900). The source material is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University that covers parish records from three different parishes. Early in the colonisation period (1750–1840) the Sami had a lower proportion of the elderly population (≥60 years old), compared to the non-Sami and the rest of Sweden. At the end of the colonisation period (1841–1900), the proportion of elderly Sami increased and was above the proportion of elderly non-Sami and more similar to the rest of Sweden. The analysis also reveals that the differences in mortality rates among the elderly Sami and their non-Sami counterparts diminished during the entire colonisation era (1750–1900), mainly because of an increased infant mortality among the non-Sami. Rather than ethnic differences in causes of death, the results show larger differences between the parishes. The study can conclude that the Sami population's mortality declined, the health improved, and the Sami advanced more rapidly in the model of epidemiologic transition, a milestone not yet reached by other indigenous people around the world.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Growing old: indigenous ageing in Gällivare 1777-18952012In: Rivers to cross: Sami land use and the human dimension / [ed] Peter Sköld & Krister Stoor, Umeå: Vaartoe, Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 155-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Indigenous Infant Mortality by Age and Season of Birth, 1800-1899: Does Season of Birth Affect Children’s Survival Chances?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws attention to the influence of season of birth on infant mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population during the nineteenth century. The source material is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University, making it possible to combining age at death (in days), month of death and month of birth during the entire period. For the Sami, the results showed that being born during winter was related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality and being born during summer was related to a higher risk of mortality after 6 months of age. Further, for the Sami, the neonatal mortality showed a U-shaped pattern with a minimum in June-August, whereas the corresponding pattern among the non-Sami was more flat. The findings throw light on vulnerability in two populations sharing the same environment, but diverging by social, economic and cultural factors.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Indigenous Life Expectancy in Sweden 1750-1900: Towards a long and healthy life?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Indigenous life expectancy in Sweden 1850-1899: towards a long and healthy life?2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 28, no 16, p. 433-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that the health transition and demographical pattern of indigenous people has followed a different path compared to non-indigenous groups living in the same area with higher mortality rates and shortened life expectancy at birth.

    Objective: This paper draws attention to the development of life expectancy for the Sami and non-Sami during the colonization era (1850-1899). The paper will compare the development of life expectancy levels, infant mortality, and age-specific mortality between the Sami and the non-Sami population and analyze the main causes of death.

    Methods: The source material for this study is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University. Life tables and calculations of values of life expectancies are calculated using period data.

    Results: The analysis reveals that the life expectancy at birth was remarkably lower for the Sami during the entire period, corresponding to a high infant mortality. When comparing life expectancy at birth with life expectancy at age one, Sami still had a lower life expectancy during the entire period. The analysis also reveals a lower proportion of deaths due to infections among the younger Sami.

    Conclusions: The results paint a complex picture of the demographic transition in Sápmi. Neither the Sami nor the non-Sami population followed the same pattern of increased life expectancies at birth, as the Swedish population did in general. The negative consequences of colonization (high mortality, low life expectancy at birth) hit the Sami and non-Sami populations, but at different time periods.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Klasstillhörighetens subjektiva dimension: klassidentitet, sociala attityder och fritidsvanor2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this dissertation is to study the subjective class identification and the importance of this identification for social attitudes and leisure habits. Class identification is a significant, yet often neglected, area of research in the study of social class and stratification. The aim of this thesis has been to explore in what way the Swedish citizens perceive their own place in the structure of stratification. This thesis is based on three Swedish surveys, collected between 1993 and 2000. The results show that a vast majority of the citizens think that Sweden is still a class society and can place themselves in this structure. The most important sources for this identification are the objective class position and the class position of the father during childhood and adolescence. Identification with the working class is to a higher extent connected with a view that the differences in living conditions are too high, that the differences in the possibility to advance in the Swedish society are unequal and that the gap in income should decrease. This standpoint is nearly as common for people who identify with the working class irrespective of a socialistic or non- socialistic position. The results also show that class identification is related to the level of participation in different leisure activities. Identification with the middle class is connected with a higher degree of participation in a variety of activities, especially in highbrow culture such as theatre and opera. In the conclusion it is discussed that the relevance of class identification in the future is highly dependent on how class in the political and ideological sphere is formulated and attached with different attitudes, and if class is expressed as a positive source in the construction of the social identity.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Perceptions of Social Structure and Inequality2014In: Changing Society, Durham: BSA Publications Ltd , 2014, p. 303-303Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asking people about how they perceive the structure of their society tells us how they visualize both inequality and the structure of the class system. Following the reference group theory and the concept of the ‘availability heuristic’, people tend to exaggerate the size of their own social group; where individuals who place themselves in the middle of the stratification system also view others as located in the middle. When taking individuals age into account the reference group theory has failed to give a sufficient explanation for the way individuals perceive their society (Karlsson, submitted article). A recent study reveals that age was the most important factor for perceiving Swedish society as highly equalitarian or elitist, after controlling for a wide array of factors like social class, class identity, subjective social placment and subjective social mobility (Ibid.). Results revealed that elderly individuals to a greater extent than others perceived society as elitist discussed as the elderly to a greater extent base their judgements of a societal order on life-course projection. In this paper the validity of the reference group theory will be further tested and compared among other western countries such as: Great Britain, USA and the other Scandinavian countries: Finland and Norway. The source material is derived from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) in 2009 (‘Social Inequality IV’) and the results will be analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Self-placement in the social structure of Sweden: the relationship between class identification and subjective social placement2017In: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 43, no 7-8, p. 1045-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the two assessments of subjective placement in the social structure – class identification and subjective social placement – in a top-to-bottom social hierarchy. In this article, the focus is on the association between working-class identity and subjective social placement. The source material is derived from the International Social Survey Programme from 2009 and 2012. The analysis reveals that women who identified with the working class to a higher extent located themselves towards the lower strata compared to their male counterparts, a result indicating that the female class structure may be more polarized than that of males. The results imply a need for more research concerning how women and men relate their objective class position to social status, as well as the relationship to different outcomes, such as subjective well-being and social justice.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Fattigauktioner och samiska ålderdomshem: synen på äldre samer i samband med åldringsvården2016In: De historiska relationerna mellan Svenska kyrkan och samerna: en vetenskaplig antologi. Bd 2 / [ed] Daniel Lindmark, Olle Sundström, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2016, p. 885-912Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Liliequist, MarianneUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.Lundgren, Anna SofiaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.Lövgren, KarinUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Sjöstedt Landén, AngelikaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ageing: culture & identity2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Att tillhöra en social klass: när medborgarna själva får välja2016In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors, Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2016, p. 103-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Indigenous infant mortality by age and season of birth, 1800–1899: did season of birth affect children’s chances for survival?2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the influence of season of birth on infant mortality among the Sami and non-Sami populations in northern Sweden during the nineteenth century. The source material is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, making it possible to combine age at death (in days), month of death, and month of birth over the course of the entire century. Cox regression models reveal that for the first week of life, season of birth had no influence on the risk of mortality. For the Sami, the results showed that being born during winter was related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and being born during summer was related to a higher risk of mortality after six months of age. Furthermore, for the Sami, the neonatal mortality showed a U-shaped pattern with a minimum in June–August, whereas the corresponding pattern among the non-Sami was flatter. The findings shed light on vulnerability in two populations sharing the same environment, but diverging in terms of social, economic, and cultural factors.

  • 17.
    Lena, Karlsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Season of birth, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in Sweden: the Sami and non-Sami population, 1800–18992019In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1629784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal patterns of neonatal mortality and stillbirths have been found around the world. However, little is known about the association between season of birth and infant mortality of pre-industrial societies in a subarctic environment. In this study, we compared how season of birth affected the neonatal and stillbirth risk among the Sami and non-Sami in Swedish Sápmi during the nineteenth century. Using digitised parish records from the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, we applied logistic regression models for estimating the association of season of birth with stillbirths and neonatal mortality, respectively. Higher neonatal mortality was found among the winter- and autumn-born Sami, compared to summer-born infants. Stillbirth risk was higher during autumn compared to summer among the Sami, whereas we found no seasonal differences in mortality among the non-Sami population. We relate the higher neonatal mortality risk among winter-born Sami to differences in seasonality of living conditions associated with reindeer herding.

  • 18.
    Lena, Karlsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The association between cold extremes and neonatal mortality in Swedish Sápmi from 1800–18952019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1623609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies in which the association between temperature and neonatal mortality (deaths during the first 28 days of life) is tracked over extended periods that cover demographic, economic and epidemiological transitions are quite limited. From previous research about the demographic transition in Swedish Sápmi, we know that infant and child mortality was generally higher among the indigenous (Sami) population compared to non-indigenous populations.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between extreme temperatures and neonatal mortality among the Sami and non-Sami population in Swedish Sápmi (Lapland) during the nineteenth century.

    Methods: Data from the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, were used to identify neonatal deaths. We used monthly mean temperature in Tornedalen and identified cold and warm month (5th and 95th) percentiles. Monthly death counts from extreme temperatures were modelled using negative binomial regression. We computed relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for time trends and seasonality.

    Results: Overall, the neonatal mortality rate was higher among Sami compared to non-Sami infants (62/1,000 vs 35/1,000 live births), although the differences between the two populations decreased after 1860. For the Sami population prior 1860, the results revealed a higher neonatal incidence rate during cold winter months (< -15.4 °C, RR=1.60, CI 1.14–2.23) compared to infants born during months of medium temperature). No association was found between extreme cold months and neonatal mortality for non-Sami populations. Warm months (+15.1 °C) had no impact on Sami or non-Sami populations.

    Conclusions: This study revealed the role of environmental factors (temperature extremes) on infant health during the demographic transition where cold extremes mainly affected the Sami population. Ethnicity and living conditions contributed to differential weather vulnerability.

  • 19.
    Lena, Karlsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Lundevaller, Erling
    Season of birth, stillbirths and neonatal mortality: the Sami and non-Sami population 1800-18992018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Elderly Sami as the "Other": Discourses on the Elderly Care of the Sami, 1850–19302011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors have examined images of elderly Sami in relation to elderly care in Sweden between the years 1850 and 1930. What discourses can be revealed from spoken statements, written documents and every-day practices? This study has shown that the higher the degree of closeness and mutual exchange between Sami and non-Sami, the more the image of the "Other" as something "foreign" has been challenged and rejected. To be able to one-sidedly distance oneself from other people and turn them into stereotypes requires a certain amount of emotional and geographic distance. Where there has been physical distance and a lack of mutually beneficial exchange, the elderly Sami are more often described as "foreign," "threatening" and "deviant," a force of nature that must be tamed and controlled. The Sami dismissed as "not-quite-human" in the popular discourse were the paupers among them. A more balanced relationship existed between the Sami and the settlers in the mountains and the elderly Sami were often described as "one of the family." The staffs of the Sami old-age homes were far more nuanced in their view of the elderly than the civil servants sent from Stockholm to report back on the Sami.

  • 21.
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lövgren, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sjöstedt Landén, Angelika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Introduction2015In: Ageing: culture & identity / [ed] Karlsson, Lena; Liliequist, M; Lundgren, AS; Lövgren, K & Sjöstedt Landén, A, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 9-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1645-1670, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent decades, the proportion of individuals in Western countries living in a one-person household has increased. Previous research has mainly focused on the increase among the elderly and younger segments of the population, and there is a lack of research regarding the characteristics of individuals living alone among the working-age population.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the educational gradient of living alone in the working-age population (aged 30–64 years) in a comparative perspective and to assess if the differences in the educational gradient are related to the level of gender equality in different European societies.

    Methods: Using data on 12 European countries from the Generations and Gender Surveys, the estimated probabilities of living alone for men and women with different levels of education were calculated using logistic regression models while controlling for parental status and differences in the age distribution across different populations.

    Results: In the more gender equal countries, we found a negative educational gradient of living alone, especially for men, with decreasing gender differences in the probability of living alone as education increases. In the less gender equal countries, women tend to live alone to a higher extent than men regardless of their educational level. In the least gender equal countries, we found a positive educational gradient of living alone most markedly among women. Here we found the lowest probability of living alone among those who had received only a primary education and the highest levels among men and women with university degrees. Thus, we found a shift in the educational gradient of living alone from a negative gradient in the most gender equal countries in Northern Europe to a positive gradient in the least gender equal countries in the South and in Eastern Europe.

    Contribution: This study highlights differences in living alone for men and women in the working-age population in Europe across different levels of education.

  • 23.
    Sköld, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Smith, Len
    Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Infant mortality of Sami and settlers in Northern Sweden: the era of colonization 1750–19002011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 8441-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with infant mortality (IMR) that is one of the most important aspects of indigenous vulnerability. Background: The Sami are one of very few indigenous peoples with an experience of a positive mortality transition. Objective: Using unique mortality data from the period 1750-1900 Sami and the colonizers in northern Sweden are compared in order to reveal an eventual infant mortality transition. Findings: The results show ethnic differences with the Sami having higher IMR, although the differences decrease over time. There were also geographical and cultural differences within the Sami, with significantly lower IMR among the South Sami. Generally, parity has high explanatory value, where an increased risk is noted for children born as number five or higher among siblings. Conclusion: There is a striking trend of decreasing IMR among the Sami after 1860, which, however, was not the result of professional health care. Other indigenous peoples of the Arctic still have higher mortality rates, and IMR below 100 was achieved only after 1950 in most countries. The decrease in Sami infant mortality was certainly an important factor in their unique health transition, but the most significant change occurred after 1900.

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