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  • 1. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Zackrisson, Olle
    Hellberg, Erik
    Deglaciation and colonization: Pioneer settlements in northern Fennoscandia2004In: Journal of world prehistory, ISSN 0892-7537, E-ISSN 1573-7802, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 155-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new data on Early Mesolithic settlements in northern Sweden and discuss the process of pioneer colonization. A new set of radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites push deglaciation of northern Fennoscandia further back in time and demonstrate the rapid arrival of pioneer settlers. Environmental data reveal a highly productive early postglacial setting with plant communities unmatched in present ecosystems. The chronological and technological setting supports immigration from the north and northwest with pioneers relying on a long history of enculturating northern subarctic landscapes.

  • 2. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Påsse, Tore
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Zachrisson, Olle
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Hellberg, Erik
    Bohlin, Elisabeth
    Isostatic land uplift and Mesolithic landscapes: lake tilting, a key to the discovery of Mesolithic sites in the interior of Northern Sweden2003In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1451-1458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently only a few Mesolithic sites were known from the interior of N. Sweden, although extensive archaeological surveys have been carried out since the 1950s. The lack of archaeological data made every attempt to interpret the process of pioneer colonization quite fruitless. In this paper we present a model of non-uniform glacio-isostatic uplift and lake-tilting used to identify potential areas of Mesolithic habitation. By reconstructing shoreline displacement of ancient lakes, archaeological, palaeoecological and geological studies have resulted in the discovery of a significant number of Mesolithic sites and of an early post-glacial landscape previously unknown.

  • 3. Carcaillet, C
    et al.
    Bergman, I
    Delorme, S
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Zackrisson, O
    Long-term fire frequency not linked to prehistoric occupations in northern Swedish boreal forest2007In: Ecology, Vol. 88, p. 465-477Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Hörnberg, Greger
    et al.
    Bohlin, Elisabeth
    Hellberg, Erik
    Bergman, Ingela
    Zackrisson, Olle
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Påsse, Tore
    Effects of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers on local vegetation in a non-uniform glacio-isostatic land uplift area, northern Sweden2006In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Staland, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Korsman, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Segerström, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fire as an important factor for the genesis of boreal Picea abies swamp forests in Fennoscandia2012In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial establishment of Picea abies in Sweden and Norway on a landscape level, between 3000 and 1000 years ago, was often preceded by recurrent fire and thereafter the influence of fire decreased. However, in some swamp forests, the absence of fire over the last 3500 years has promoted the continuous presence of deciduous trees, i.e. Picea has not established although it has been present regionally for over 3000 years. Our objective was to study long-term vegetation development and fire history in a Picea swamp forest located close (c. 600 m) to a deciduous swamp forest with a documented fire-free history in northernmost Sweden. The study included analyses of charred particles, pollen and ignition residues. Principal component analysis was applied to identify major changes in the pollen spectra. Our results showed that the current Picea swamp forest has developed from a deciduous fen and that fires affected the fen between 6700 and 2300 cal. yr BP. Picea abies established on the fen around 2200 cal. yr BP, following the last local on-site fire. The main factors responsible for the local vegetation development have been: fire (6700 to 2300 cal. yr BP); autogenous processes and climate (2300 to 1000 cal. yr BP); autogenous processes or anthropogenic impact (1000 to 300 cal. yr BP); anthropogenic impact through selective cutting and grazing (300 to 100 cal. yr BP); and autogenous processes and grazing (100 cal. yr BP to present). We conclude that fire facilitated the initial Picea abies establishment. Once established, Picea abies created local conditions that in combination with a colder and wetter climate prevented fire and the establishment of other tree species.

  • 6. Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Östlund, Lars
    Long-term human impact and vegetation changes in a boreal forest reserve: implications for the use of protected areas as ecological references2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1017-1036Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern boreal forest reserves that display no signs of modern forest exploitation are often regarded as pristine and are frequently used as ecological reference areas for conservation and restoration. However, the long-term effects of human utilization of such forests are rarely investigated. Therefore, using both paleoecological and archaeological methods, we analyzed temporal and spatial gradients of long-term human impact in a large old-growth forest reserve in the far north of Sweden, comparing vegetational changes during the last millennium at three sites with different land use histories. Large parts of the forest displayed no visible signs of past human land use, and in an area with no recognized history of human land use the vegetation composition appears to have been relatively stable throughout the studied period. However, at two locations effects of previous land use could be distinguished extending at least four centuries back in time. Long-term, but low-intensity, human land use, including cultivation, reindeer herding and tree cutting, has clearly generated an open forest structure with altered species composition in the field layer at settlement sites and in the surrounding forest. Our analysis shows that past human land use created a persistent legacy that is still visible in the present forest ecosystem. This study highlights the necessity for ecologists to incorporate a historical approach to discern underlying factors that have caused vegetational changes, including past human activity. It also indicates that the intensity and spatial distribution of human land use within the landscape matrices of any forests should be assessed before using them as ecological references. The nomenclature of vascular plants follows Krok and Almquist (Svensk flora. Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter, 2001).

  • 7.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ; Institute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden .
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. nstitute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    nstitute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden.
    The history of early cereal cultivation in northernmost Fennoscandia as indicated by palynological research2014In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 821-840Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The age of the introduction of cereal cultivation in northern Europe has long been debated by researchers from many disciplines, in particular archaeology and palaeoecology. Over the past 40 years extensive palynological data have been collected concerning pre-industrial land use in northern Fennoscandia. This paper reviews palynological studies that include records of fossil cereal pollen from northernmost Sweden, Finland and Norway at latitudes north of 63A degrees N. The geographical extent of known early cultivation sites is constantly expanding, with more than 100 records of cereal pollen pre-dating ad 1700. The oldest records of scattered cereal pollen derive from Neolithic times. Periods of continuous cultivation, indicated by cereal pollen recorded recurrently in the sediment profiles, derive from the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Collectively, the reviewed pollen records indicate that cereal cultivation was first introduced into areas close to the coast and later to the interior, and that it may have been practiced locally long before sedentary settlements based on intensive cultivation were established during medieval times. The data do not indicate a latitudinal spread of cultivation from south to north. However, methodological problems relating to pollen morphology of cereals, site characteristics and lack of connections to archaeologically excavated sites imply that the value of many early cereal pollen finds remains unclear. To increase our understanding of the context in which cereal cultivation was introduced in northernmost Fennoscandia, multidisciplinary studies integrating palaeoecology, archaeology and history are needed.

  • 8. Liedgren, L
    et al.
    Bergman, I
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Zackrisson, O
    Hellberg, E
    Östlund, L
    DeLuca, T
    Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric hearths in alpine northern Sweden: problems and possibilities2007In: Journal of Archaeological Sciences, Vol. 34, p. 1276-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ramqvist, Per H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Silvermuseet.
    Burial mounds as settlement indicators: archaeological and palynological investigations at Sangis, northern Sweden2015In: Fennoscandia Archaeologica, ISSN 0781-7126, Vol. XXXII, p. 121-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grave mounds established during the 1st millennium AD in northern Sweden are common in central Norrland, up to northern Ångermanland. There are, however, two grave mounds located 350 km further north, close to the villages of Sangis and Espinära, that stand out as anomalies. These mounds rise questions regarding who established them and why? We hypothesised that they were established close to sedentary settlements, just as the ones found further south. To identify old settlement remains and traces of ancient land use, an archaeological excavation was performed of the sand ridge where the Sangis grave mound is located, and a palynological study was conducted to identify local vegetation changes. The results show that no sedentary settlement accompanied the mound. The area had, however, two phases of land use; as an occasionally visited site from calAD 600 to 800 when the grave mound and possibly a cooking pit was established, and; from calAD 1070 when human impact on the ridge restarted, probably associated to permanent settlements nearby.

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