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  • 1.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Den lokala nivåns betydelse i det förebyggande arbetet mot våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism2017In: Våldsbejakande extremism: en forskarantologi / [ed] Christofer Edling och Amir Rostamni, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, p. 225--255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review2018In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research note, we present results from a review of research on local resilience in relation to radicalization in public health, social work, crisis management, and community policing using terrorism studies as a point of departure. In order to identify agreements between literatures, we focus on how local resilience is understood, how it is said to be promoted, and how this knowledge could be synthesized. We show that resilience by and large is understood as both a process and a capacity underpinned by cooperation, social networks, and community resources and that an initial mapping of existing strengths and resources is pivotal for local resilience-building.

  • 3.
    Forsberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strandberg, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Goede, Patrick
    Liuski, Petra
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    [New threats raise new disaster planning requirements]2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 603-604Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rad attentat mot den spårbundna trafiken har visat hur sårbar sektorn är för attacker. Ett väl utvecklat och anpassat katastrofmedicinskt omhändertagande behövs för att öka förmågan att hantera följderna av eventuella attentat.

  • 4.
    Holgersson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Emergency organizations’ diverging perceptions of terrorist attacksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To analyse how the police, the rescue services and the emergency medical services (EMS) perceive the threat of terrorism and preparedness for a terrorist-induced crisis. It also aims to unravel differences among the emergency organizations and to discuss their potential implications for emergency preparedness. Methodology: Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to operational personnel from the emergency services in eight Swedish counties; 864 responses were received and analysed. Findings: There were significant differences between the police, rescue and ambulance services regarding perceptions of event likelihood, willingness to respond, estimated management capability and level of confidence with tasks to be performed on scene. Perceived likelihood of events appeared affected by institutional logic; events within their respective domain of responsibility were perceived as more likely. The police stood out in many aspects, with more personnel with experience of violence on duty and a high grading of the probability of terrorist attacks compared to the other organizations. Fewer police had high estimates of their organizations’ management capability and knowledge of tasks on-scene. Practical implications: Differences in perspectives of terrorism preparedness and response among the emergency services were shown, highlighting the importance of enabling inter-organizational insights on safety culture, with risk awareness and management strategies, as well as knowledge of the other organizations’ institutional logics and main tasks, so as to achieve an effective, collaborative response to terrorism-induced crises. Originality: Little research has been conducted comparatively with regard to the emergency services and their perceptions of terrorism-specific threats and preparedness, particularly in the Swedish context. 

  • 5.
    Holgersson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Emergency organizations' diverging perceptions of terrorist attacks2016In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the police, the rescue services and the emergency medical services perceive the threat of terrorism and preparedness for a terrorist-induced crisis. It also aims to unravel differences among the emergency organizations and to discuss their potential implications for emergency preparedness.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to operational personnel from the emergency services in eight Swedish counties; 864 responses were received and analysed.

    Findings – There were significant differences between the police, rescue and ambulance services regarding perceptions of event likelihood, willingness to respond, estimated management capability and level of confidence with tasks to be performed on-scene. Perceived likelihood of events appeared affected by institutional logic; events within their respective domain of responsibility were perceived as more likely. The police stood out in many aspects, with more personnel with experience of violence on duty and a high grading of the probability of terrorist attacks compared to the other organizations. Fewer police had high estimates of their organizations’ management capability and knowledge of tasks on-scene.

    Practical implications – Differences in perspectives of terrorism preparedness and response among the emergency services were shown, highlighting the importance of enabling inter-organizational insights on safety culture, with risk awareness and management strategies, as well as knowledge of the other organizations’ institutional logics and main tasks, so as to achieve an effective, collaborative response to terrorism-induced crises.

    Originality/value – Little research has been conducted comparatively with regard to the emergency services and their perceptions of terrorism-specific threats and preparedness, particularly in the Swedish context.

     

  • 6.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

  • 7.
    Strandberg, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Rail Bound Traffic: a Prime Target for Contemporary Terrorist Attacks?2013In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 271-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of terrorism is a worldwide concern, often discussed in the context of our constantly changing world with new complex threats, risks and crises. This article focuses on terrorist attacks targeting rail bound traffic because of its extreme vulnerability for terrorist attacks. The article provides an empirical overview of the frequency and characteristics of attacks on rail bound traffic. At least in recent years, attacks have been a growing phenomenon. The results are interpreted through the lens of a contemporary terrorism paradigm which revolves around in which way which terrorist organizations organize their activity and if there is an increased religiously motivated terrorism and a presumed shift towards more indiscriminate killing through the use of new tactics and weapons. This article identifies the 20 biggest large-scale attacks on rail bound traffic, and they do resemble contemporary terrorism.

  • 8.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser: bistånd eller motstånd?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet undersöker vilka trender och drivkrafter som finns bakom civilsamhällets respons på olyckor och kriser. Forskningen analyserar olika former av frivilligt engagemang både ur ett internationellt och ett svenskt perspektiv.

  • 9.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Crisis Volunteerism is the New Black?: Exploring the Diversity of Voluntary Engagement in Crisis Management2019In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 311-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both crisis research and crisis management policy suggest that crisis management experiences a “participatory turn” and it seems to be a renewed interest in the topic of crisis volunteerism. However, the voice of volunteer organizations, paradoxically, appears to be missing in research. This article builds on an interview study (26 interviews) with different types of voluntary organizations in Sweden. It explores two aspects of crisis volunteerism (i) the diversity of crisis volunteerism and (ii) the changing landscape of crisis volunteerism. The Disaster Research Center (DRC) typology is used to understand different types of volunteering and how different organizational types relate to each other. The empirical material shows that a significant amount of voluntary engagement with relevance to crisis management takes place outside the realm of core crisis management actors. An important finding is that the number of avenues where voluntary engagement is needed has expanded, and as a result, we need to engage new volunteer groups in society. Hence, the study suggests a more adaptive and inclusive understanding of the phenomenon of crisis volunteerism.

  • 10.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring vulnerabilities in preparedness: rail bound traffic and terrorist attacks2017In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 45-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway and subway systems are regarded as being vulnerable to terrorism. This article examines different kinds of vulnerabilities in preparedness for terrorist-induced crises targeting rail bound traffic. Many discussions about critical infrastructures and their vulnerability to breakdowns and certain hazards are often discussed from the perspective of technical control systems or advanced mitigation efforts. This article contributes with another perspective. It is suggested that a wider perspective on what constitutes vulnerability is needed and the literature on disasters and crises is therefore informative. Relying on 20 interviews with actors from rail bound traffic and Sweden’s crisis management system, the article focuses on different actors’ own perceptions of their preparedness. The results show that the involved actors not only understand vulnerabilities in preparedness to be a matter of shortcomings in technical security systems or in the ability to secure trains from acts of antagonistic violence. Rather, they identify two additional significant vulnerabilities. First, increased organizational fragmentation in the sector is perceived as creating vulnerability in crisis management preparedness. Second, the failure to ensure that relevant actors have a cognitive and mental preparedness is seen as creating vulnerability.

  • 11.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Frivilliga – en viktig men omdiskuterad resurs i kris- och katastrofhantering2017In: Mänsklig SäkerhetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Frivilligt engagemang: en nyckelkomponent i framtida krisberedskap och krishantering2019In: Tillsammans i krisen: framtidens frivillighet inom krisberedskap och totalförsvar / [ed] Anders Forsberg, Josefine Karlsson, Åsa Wiklund, Stockholm: Svenska Röda Korset , 2019, p. 10-14Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Preparing and responding to Mass Casualty Terrorist Attacks: a Comparative Analysis of Four Terrorist Attacks Targeting Rail Bound Traffic2015In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 262-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenging task of responding to terrorist attacks targeting rail bound traffic and provides a multi-level framework for analysis of such complex attacks. Major mass-casualty attacks are particularly challenging to emergency management and there is a knowledge gap concerning how to prepare for and respond to such extraordinary events. This paper categorises a rich empirical material from four major attacks on rail bound traffic and concludes that decisive components of the emergency management response in the four cases are related to ‘agent-generated demands’. Additional complicating factors emerge since each response is carried out in a specific terrorism context. Examples include sense-making difficulties, scene safety and terrorism-specific injuries. Another conclusion is that the development of knowledge and awareness about such challenges and the incorporation of such knowledge in training and response plans are pivotal to future emergency management.

  • 14.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Responding to Terrorist Attacks on Rail Bound Traffic: Challenges for Inter-organizational Collaboration2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary terrorism is becoming increasingly indiscriminate, and rail bound traffic appears to be vulnerable and at high risk for terrorist attacks. An attack targeting a train or subway system can have enormous implications, both in terms of human suffering and long-term societal consequences. This dissertation aims to analyze how public and private organizations prepare for and respond to crises emanating from terrorism targeting rail bound traffic. It also examines different practices, networks and ideas related to interorganizational collaboration. Contemporary research emphasizes the importance and advantages of collaborative action in crisis management, and the idea of inter-organizational collaboration is also embedded in policy documents and has support among practitioners. Despite this, interorganizational collaboration often turns out to be difficult in practice, and it stands out as a critical factor in many crisis situations. Hence, it is crucial to identify and better understand the challenges associated with interorganizational collaboration in the context of terrorist-induced crises. This dissertation is a contribution to this endeavor. In order to capture the inherent complexity of the topic this dissertation combines and merges literature from three research fields: crisis management research, disaster medicine research and terrorism studies.

    The dissertation examines international experiences of terrorist attacks directed against rail bound traffic. It identifies the way in which attacks have changed over time and analyzes the main challenges of providing pre-hospital care following a mass-casualty attack. In addition, Sweden is used to provide empirical focus in an analysis of preparedness. Relying on scenario-based interviews with central crisis management actors and actors from rail bound traffic, current preparedness practices for responding to a multi-site terrorist attack on rail bound traffic in Sweden is analyzed. The research shows that both public and private organizations have developed risk awareness about terrorist-induced crises. However, their preparedness practices are characterized by significant variations and substantial uncertainty. Scare resources are a critical factor, and actors find it difficult to invest in preparedness for seldom-occurring crises. This difficulty is accentuated by the fact that no major mass-casualty attack has taken place in Sweden. A terrorist attack differs from a routine event and poses new and different challenges for inter-organizational collaboration. A large number of organizations are supposed to work together under severe time constraints, and their work can be delayed by particular security concerns. It is assumed that rail bound traffic actors engage in collaborative crisis management; however, there appear to be few mechanisms to prepare them, in a systematic way, for managing this particular type of crisis. Among actors, inter-organizational collaboration is understood primarily from a normative view rather than from the point of view of its practical meaning. As a consequence, it is difficult to turn risk awareness and a commitment to working together into actual practical action. In addition, collaboration between different levels in the crisis management system is particularly challenging. This dissertation also identifies a tension between viewing crisis management as an example of policy-as-usual or from a crises-as-exceptions perspective.

  • 15.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sweden's capacity to prepare and respond to a terrorist attack on rail-bound traffic: promising practices and obstacles to inter-organizational collaboration2015In: Journal of risk analysis and crisis response, ISSN 2210-8491, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in evolving collaborative practices in crises caused by terrorism targeting rail-bound traffic. Sweden provides the empirical focus, by examining current preparedness processes, this article offers an important perspective on inter-organizational collaboration; that is, the perspective of the involved actors themselves. This study relies on 20 interviews with key actors in the response system and rail bound traffic actors.This article combines insights from the literature on governance with the research on disasters and crises. Promising practices and obstacles to inter-organizational collaboration are identified and analyzed.

  • 16.
    Strandh, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Emergent groups in disaster research: varieties of scientific observation over time and across studies of nine natural disasters2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing emphasis on the diversity of disaster volunteering among disaster researchers. Our aim was to review the extent to which, and in what forms, emergent groups in the aftermath of natural disasters are examined as a topic of research. We review previous crisis and disaster management research, focusing particularly on those parts of the disaster research literature which treat with volunteerism. We describe and discuss how this research has evolved 1960–2016, and analyse how different forms of volunteerism, particularly emergent groups, have been researched following nine natural disasters. We utilize the Disaster Research Center typology to systematize and categorize research from different disaster contexts. The review shows that research on disaster management is fraught with an understanding of organization in disaster contexts based on the primacy of established formal organizations. We suggest a more fine-tuned conceptualization of disaster volunteerism and we call for further research on actor motivations.

  • 17.
    Strandh, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Swedish Counterterrorism Policy: An Intersection Between Prevention and Mitigation?2015In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 359-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyze how and why Swedish counterterrorism policy has changed since 2001. It raises the issue of how counterterrorism interacts with other factors on the governmental agenda, which priorities are made, and how these can be understood. Although much empirical evidence on the real political influence of emergent interagency networks is still lacking in the case of Sweden, an attempt is made here to analyze the importance of focusing events. In the light of the Swedish national strategy for counterterrorism, the article analyzes the content of annual reports from the Swedish Security Service. The article also explores linkages between the counterterrorism and crisis management literatures, and argues that the reassuring overtones in Swedish counterterrorism policy of late can be understood not only as the result of changes in threat perception and policy, but also in institutional change.

  • 18.
    Strandh, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lokal resiliens mot våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism i norra Sverige2018In: Fremmedkrigere: forebygging, straffeforfølgning og rehabilitering i Skandinavia / [ed] Anna Andersson, Sofie Alexandra Engli Høgestøl, Anne Christine Lie, Gyldendal Juridisk, 2018, 1, p. 235-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 18 of 18
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