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  • 1.
    Brohlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Aging effect on neurotrophic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 9, p. e45052-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical efficacy of stem cells for nerve repair is likely to be influenced by issues including donor age and in vitro expansion time. We isolated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow of young (16–18 years) and old (67–75 years) donors and analyzed their capacity to differentiate and promote neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Treatment of MSC with growth factors (forskolin, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor-AA and glial growth factor-2) induced protein expression of the glial cell marker S100 in cultures from young but not old donors. MSC expressed various neurotrophic factor mRNA transcripts. Growth factor treatment enhanced the levels of BDNF and VEGF transcripts with corresponding increases in protein release in both donor cell groups. MSC in co-culture with DRG neurons significantly enhanced total neurite length which, in the case of young but not old donors, was further potentiated by treatment of the MSC with the growth factors. Stem cells from young donors maintained their proliferation rate over a time course of 9 weeks whereas those from the old donors showed increased population doubling times. MSC from young donors, differentiated with growth factors after long-term culture, maintained their ability to enhance neurite outgrowth of DRG. Therefore, MSC isolated from young donors are likely to be a favourable cell source for nerve repair.

  • 2.
    Brohlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Mahay, Daljeet
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Shawcross, Susan G
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Characterisation of human mesenchymal stem cells following differentiation into Schwann cell-like cells2009In: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-based therapies provide a clinically applicable and available alternative to nerve autografts. Our previous studies have characterised rat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and here we have investigated the phenotypic, molecular and functional characteristics of human-derived MSC (hMSC) differentiated along a Schwann cell lineage. The hMSC were isolated from healthy human donors and the identity of the undifferentiated hMSC was confirmed by the detection of MSC specific cells surface markers. The hMSC were differentiated along a glial cell lineage using an established cocktail of growth factors including glial growth factor-2. Following differentiation, the hMSC expressed the key Schwann cell (SC) markers at both the transcriptional and translational level. More importantly, we show the functional effect of hMSC on neurite outgrowth using an in vitro co-culture model system with rat-derived primary sensory neurons. The number of DRG sprouting neurites was significantly enhanced in the presence of differentiated hMSC; neurite length and density (branching) were also increased. These results provide evidence that hMSC can undergo molecular, morphological and functional changes to adopt a SC-like behaviour and, therefore, could be suitable as SC substitutes for nerve repair in clinical applications.

  • 3. Jivan, Sharmila
    et al.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    The effects of delayed nerve repair on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after seventh cervical spinal nerve axotomy in adult rats.2006In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 170, no 2, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed clinically that delayed surgery after traumatic brachial plexus injury may adversely affect functional outcome. In the present experimental study the neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects of early and delayed nerve grafting following proximal seventh cervical spinal nerve (C7) axotomy were examined. The ventral branch of C7 spinal nerve was transected and axons projecting out of the proximal nerve stump were labelled with Fast Blue (FB). At the same time, the biceps brachii muscle was denervated by transecting the musculocutaneous nerve at its origin. Neuronal survival and muscle atrophy were then assessed at 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after permanent axotomy. In the experimental groups, a peripheral nerve graft was interposed between the transected C7 spinal nerve and the distal stump of the musculocutaneous nerve at 1 week [early nerve repair (ENR)] or 8 weeks [delayed nerve repair (DNR)] after axotomy. Sixteen weeks after nerve repair had been performed, a second tracer Fluoro-Ruby (FR) was applied distal to the graft to assess the efficacy of axonal regeneration. Counts of FB-labelled neurons revealed that axotomy did not induce any significant cell loss at 4 weeks, but 15% of motoneurons and 32% of sensory neurons died at 8 weeks after injury. At 16 weeks, the amount of cell loss in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) reached 29 and 50%, respectively. Both ENR and DNR prevented retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and counteracted muscle atrophy, but failed to rescue sensory neurons. Due to substantial cell loss at 8 weeks, the number of FR-labelled neurons after DNR was significantly lower when compared to ENR. However, the proportion of regenerating neurons among surviving motoneurons and DRG neurons remained relatively constant indicating that neurons retained their regenerative capacity after prolonged axotomy. The results demonstrate that DNR could protect spinal motoneurons and reduce muscle atrophy, but had little effect on sensory DRG neurons. However, the efficacy of neuroprotection and axonal regeneration will be significantly affected by the amount of cell loss already presented at the time of nerve repair.

  • 4.
    Jones, Iwan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikova, Liudmila N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikov, Lev N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Renardy, Monika
    Ullrich, Andreas
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Carlsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Regenerative effects of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injury2018In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 12, no 4, p. E2099-E2109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations, and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts is biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process. Neural crest cells are promising support cell candidates because they are the parent population to many peripheral nervous system lineages. In this study, neural crest cells were differentiated from human embryonic stem cells. The differentiated cells exhibited typical stellate morphology and protein expression signatures that were comparable with native neural crest. Conditioned media harvested from the differentiated cells contained a range of biologically active trophic factors and was able to stimulate in vitro neurite outgrowth. Differentiated neural crest cells were seeded into a biodegradable nerve conduit, and their regeneration potential was assessed in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. A robust regeneration front was observed across the entire width of the conduit seeded with the differentiated neural crest cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of several regeneration-related genes was observed within the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord segments harvested from transplanted animals. Our results demonstrate that the differentiated neural crest cells are biologically active and provide trophic support to stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration. Differentiated neural crest cells are therefore promising supporting cell candidates to aid in peripheral nerve repair.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Effect of delayed peripheral nerve repair on nerve regeneration, Schwann cell function and target muscle recovery2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e56484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2-3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months.

  • 6.
    Karalija, Amar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Neuroprotective Effects of N-Acetyl-Cysteine and Acetyl-L-Carnitine after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. e41086-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the initial acute stage of spinal cord injury, a cascade of cellular and inflammatory responses will lead to progressive secondary damage of the nerve tissue surrounding the primary injury site. The degeneration is manifested by loss of neurons and glial cells, demyelination and cyst formation. Injury to the mammalian spinal cord results in nearly complete failure of the severed axons to regenerate. We have previously demonstrated that the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) can attenuate retrograde neuronal degeneration after peripheral nerve and ventral root injury. The present study evaluates the effects of NAC and ALC on neuronal survival, axonal sprouting and glial cell reactions after spinal cord injury in adult rats. Tibial motoneurons in the spinal cord were pre-labeled with fluorescent tracer Fast Blue one week before lumbar L5 hemisection. Continuous intrathecal infusion of NAC (2.4 mg/day) or ALC (0.9 mg/day) was initiated immediately after spinal injury using Alzet 2002 osmotic minipumps. Neuroprotective effects of treatment were assessed by counting surviving motoneurons and by using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blotting for neuronal and glial cell markers 4 weeks after hemisection. Spinal cord injury induced significant loss of tibial motoneurons in L4-L6 segments. Neuronal degeneration was associated with decreased immunostaining for microtubular-associated protein-2 (MAP2) in dendritic branches, synaptophysin in presynaptic boutons and neurofilaments in nerve fibers. Immunostaining for the astroglial marker GFAP and microglial marker OX42 was increased. Treatment with NAC and ALC rescued approximately half of the motoneurons destined to die. In addition, antioxidants restored MAP2 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity. However, the perineuronal synaptophysin labeling was not recovered. Although both treatments promoted axonal sprouting, there was no effect on reactive astrocytes. In contrast, the microglial reaction was significantly attenuated. The results indicate a therapeutic potential for NAC and ALC in the early treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury.

  • 7.
    Karalija, Amar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Differentiation of pre- and postganglionic nerve injury using MRI of the spinal cord2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e0168807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) is a devastating type of nerve injury, potentially causing loss of motor and sensory function. Principally, BPI is either categorized as preganglionic or post- ganglionic, with the early establishment of injury level being crucial for choosing the correct treatment strategy. Despite diagnostic advances, the need for a reliable, non-invasive method for establishing the injury level remains. We studied the usefulness of in vivo mag- netic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord for determination of injury level. The find- ings were related to neuronal and glial changes. Rats underwent unilateral L4 & L5 ventral roots avulsion or sciatic nerve axotomy. The injuries served as models for pre- and postgan- glionic BPI, respectively. MRI of the L4/L5 spinal cord segments 4 weeks after avulsion showed ventral horn (VH) shrinkage on the injured side compared to the uninjured side. Axotomy induced no change in the VH size on MRI. Following avulsion, histological sections of L4/L5 revealed shrinkage in the VH grey matter area occupied by NeuN-positive neurons, loss of microtubular-associated protein-2 positive dendritic branches (MAP2), pan-neurofila- ment positive axons (PanNF), synaptophysin-positive synapses (SYN) and increase in immunoreactivity for the microglial OX42 and astroglial GFAP markers. Axotomy induced no changes in NeuN-reactivity, modest decrease of MAP2 immunoreactivity, no changes in SYN and PanNF labelling, and a modest increase in OX42 and SYN labeling. Histological and radiological findings were congruent when assessing changes after axotomy, while MRI somewhat underestimated the shrinkage. This study indicates a potential diagnostic value of structural spinal cord MRI following BPI. 

  • 8.
    Karalija, Amar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Ludmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    The effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and acetyl-l-carnitine on neural survival, neuroinflammation and regeneration following spinal cord injury2014In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 269, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic spinal cord injury induces a long-standing inflammatory response in the spinal cord tissue, leading to a progressive apoptotic death of spinal cord neurons and glial cells. We have recently demonstrated that immediate treatment with the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) attenuates neuroinflammation, induces axonal sprouting, and reduces the death of motoneurons in the vicinity of the trauma zone 4weeks after initial trauma. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of long-term antioxidant treatment on the survival of descending rubrospinal neurons after spinal cord injury in rats. It also examines the short- and long-term effects of treatment on apoptosis, inflammation, and regeneration in the spinal cord trauma zone. Spinal cord hemisection performed at the level C3 induced a significant loss of rubrospinal neurons 8weeks after injury. At 2weeks, an increase in the expression of the apoptosis-associated markers BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and caspase 3, as well as the microglial cell markers OX42 and ectodermal dysplasia 1 (ED1), was seen in the trauma zone. After 8weeks, an increase in immunostaining for OX42 and the serotonin marker 5HT was detected in the same area. Antioxidant therapy reduced the loss of rubrospinal neurons by approximately 50%. Treatment also decreased the expression of BAX, caspase 3, OX42 and ED1 after 2weeks. After 8weeks, treatment decreased immunoreactivity for OX42, whereas it was increased for 5HT. In conclusion, this study provides further insight in the effects of treatment with NAC and ALC on descending pathways, as well as short- and long-term effects on the spinal cord trauma zone.

  • 9.
    Khrenov, A P
    et al.
    Nizhnii Novgorod State Medical Academy.
    Novikov, L N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, L N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Regeneration of dorsal roots of spinal nerves in rats after transplantation of embryonic nerve tissue.2002In: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, ISSN 0097-0549, E-ISSN 1573-899X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kingham, Paul J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kolar, Mallappa K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Stimulating the neurotrophic and angiogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells enhances nerve repair2014In: Stem Cells and Development, ISSN 1547-3287, E-ISSN 1557-8534, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 741-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In future, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) might be used to treat neurological disorders. In this study, the neurotrophic and angiogenic properties of human ASC were evaluated, and their effects in a peripheral nerve injury model were determined. In vitro growth factor stimulation of the cells resulted in increased secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and angiopoietin-1 proteins. Conditioned medium from stimulated cells increased neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Similarly, stimulated cells showed an enhanced ability to induce capillary-like tube formation in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. ASC were seeded into a fibrin conduit that was used to bridge a 10 mm rat nerve gap. After 2 weeks, the animals treated with control or stimulated ASC showed an enhanced axon regeneration distance. Stimulated cells evoked more total axon growth. Analysis of regeneration and apoptosis-related gene expression showed that both ASC and stimulated ASC enhanced GAP-43 and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) expression in the spinal cord and reduced c-jun expression in the DRG. Caspase-3 expression in the DRG was reduced by stimulated ASC. Both ASC and stimulated ASC also increased the vascularity of the fibrin nerve conduits. Thus, ASC produce functional neurotrophic and angiogenic factors, creating a more desirable microenvironment for nerve regeneration.

  • 11.
    Kolar, Mallappa K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    The therapeutic effects of human adipose derived stem cells in a rat cervical spinal cord injury model2014In: Stem Cells and Development, ISSN 1547-3287, E-ISSN 1557-8534, Vol. 23, no 14, p. 1659-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal cord injury triggers a cascade of degenerative changes leading to cell death and cavitation. Severed axons fail to regenerate across the scar tissue and are only capable of limited sprouting. In this study we investigated the effects of adult human adipose derived stem cells (ASC) on axonal regeneration following transplantation into the injured rat cervical spinal cord. ASC did not induce activation of astrocytes in culture and supported neurite outgrowth from adult rat sensory DRG neurons. After transplantation into the lateral funiculus 1mm rostral and caudal to the cervical C3-C4 hemisection, ASC continued to express BDNF, VEGF and FGF-2 for 3 weeks but only in animals treated with cyclosporine A. Transplanted ASC stimulated extensive ingrowth of 5HT-positive raphaespinal axons into the trauma zone with some terminal arborisations reaching the caudal spinal cord. In addition, ASC induced sprouting of raphaespinal terminals in C2 contralateral ventral horn and C6 ventral horn on both sides. Transplanted cells also changed the structure of the lesion scar with numerous astrocytic processes extended into the middle of the trauma zone in a chain-like pattern and in close association with regenerating axons. The density of the astrocytic network was also significantly decreased. Although the transplanted cells had no effect on the density of capillaries around the lesion site, the activity of OX42-positive microglial cells was markedly reduced. However, ASC did not support recovery of forelimb function. The results suggest that transplanted ASC can modify the structure of the glial scar and stimulate axonal sprouting.

  • 12. Louw, Andrew M
    et al.
    Kolar, Mallappa K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kjems, Jørgen
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Chitosan polyplex mediated delivery of miRNA-124 reduces activation of microglial cells in vitro and in rat models of spinal cord injury2016In: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1549-9634, E-ISSN 1549-9642, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 643-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is further complicated by an increase in secondary neuronal damage imposed by activated microglia/macrophages. MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) is responsible for mouse monocyte quiescence and reduction of their inflammatory cytokine production. We describe the formulation and ex vivo transfection of chitosan/miR-124 polyplex particles into rat microglia and the resulting reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α and lower expression of MHC-II. Upon microinjection into uninjured rat spinal cords, particles formed with Cy3-labeled control sequence RNA, were specifically internalized by OX42 positive macrophages and microglia cells. Alternatively particles injected in the peritoneum were transported by macrophages to the site of spinal cord injury 72h post injection. Microinjections of chitosan/miR-124 particles significantly reduced the number of ED-1 positive macrophages in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these data present a potential treatment technique to reduce inflammation for a multitude of CNS neurodegenerative conditions.

  • 13.
    McGrath, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Brohlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Paul, Kingham
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Fibrin conduit supplemented with human mesenchymal stem cells supports regeneration after peripheral nerve injury   Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the need for the development of bioengineered replacement of a nerve graft for treatment of peripheral nerve injuries a novel two component fibrin glue conduit was combined with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and immunosupressive treatment with cyclosporine. MSC possess the advantage of lower donor site morbidity and easier expandability in vitro compared with Schwann cells. The effects of hMSC on axonal regeneration in the conduit and reaction of activated macrophages was investigated using sciatic nerve injury model. The experiments were performed on 20 female Fischer rats (8-10 weeks old). A 10mm gap in the sciatic nerve was created and repaired either with fibrin glue conduit containing diluted fibrin matrix or fibrin glue conduit containing fibrin matrix with hMSC at concentration of 80x106 cells per ml. Cells were labeled with PKH26 prior to transplantation. The animals were allowed to survive for 3 weeks and some groups were treated with daily injections of cyclosporine. After 3 weeks the conduits were harvested and the distance of regeneration and area occupied by regenerating axons together with ED1 staining of activated macrophages was measured. hMSC survived in the conduit and enhanced axonal regeneration only when transplantation was combined with cyclosporine treatment. Moreover, cyclosporine significantly reduced the ED1 macrophage reaction.

  • 14.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Brohlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Fibrin conduit supplemented with human mesenchymal stem cells and immunosuppressive treatment enhances regeneration after peripheral nerve injury2012In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 516, no 2, p. 171-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the need for the development of bioengineered replacement of a nerve graft, a novel two component fibrin glue conduit was combined with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and immunosupressive treatment with cyclosporine A. The effects of MSC on axonal regeneration in the conduit and reaction of activated macrophages were investigated using sciatic nerve injury model. A 10mm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat was created and repaired either with fibrin glue conduit containing diluted fibrin matrix or fibrin glue conduit containing fibrin matrix with MSC at concentration of 80×10(6)cells/ml. Cells were labeled with PKH26 prior to transplantation. The animals received daily injections of cyclosporine A. After 3 weeks the distance of regeneration and area occupied by regenerating axons and ED1 positives macrophages was measured. MSC survived in the conduit and enhanced axonal regeneration only when transplantation was combined with cyclosporine A treatment. Moreover, addition of cyclosporine A to the conduits with transplanted MSC significantly reduced the ED1 macrophage reaction.

  • 15.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Norrlands Univ Hosp, Sect Hand & Plast Surg, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Brohlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Norrlands Univ Hosp, Sect Hand & Plast Surg, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Norrlands Univ Hosp, Sect Hand & Plast Surg, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Long-Term Effects of Fibrin Conduit with Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Immunosuppression after Peripheral Nerve Repair in a Xenogenic Model2018In: Cell Medicine, ISSN 2155-1790, Vol. 10, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previously we showed that a fibrin glue conduit with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cyclosporine A (CsA) enhanced early nerve regeneration. In this study long term effects of this conduit are investigated. Methods: In a rat model, the sciatic nerve was repaired with fibrin conduit containing fibrin matrix, fibrin conduit containing fibrin matrix with CsA treatment and fibrin conduit containing fibrin matrix with hMSCs and CsA treatment, and also with nerve graft as control. Results: At 12 weeks 34% of motoneurons of the control group regenerated axons through the fibrin conduit. CsA treatment alone or with hMSCs resulted in axon regeneration of 67% and 64% motoneurons respectively. The gastrocnemius muscle weight was reduced in the conduit with fibrin matrix. The treatment with CsA or CsA with hMSCs induced recovery of the muscle weight and size of fast type fibers towards the levels of the nerve graft group. Discussion: The transplantation of hMSCs for peripheral nerve injury should be optimized to demonstrate their beneficial effects. The CsA may have its own effect on nerve regeneration.

  • 16.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide hydrogel seeded with Schwann cells for peripheral nerve regeneration2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of a membrane conduit filled with a synthetic matrix BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide (BD) hydrogel and cultured Schwann cells on regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats. After sciatic axotomy, a 10mm gap between the nerve stumps was bridged using ultrafiltration membrane conduits filled with BD hydrogel or BD hydrogel containing Schwann cells. In control experiments, the nerve defect was bridged using either membrane conduits with alginate/fibronectin hydrogel or autologous nerve graft. Axonal regeneration within the conduit was assessed at 3 weeks and regeneration of spinal motoneurons and recovery of muscle weight evaluated at 16 weeks postoperatively. Schwann cells survived in the BD hydrogel both in culture and after transplantation into the nerve defect. Regenerating axons grew significantly longer distances within the conduits filled with BD hydrogel when compared with the alginate/fibronectin hydrogel and alginate/fibronectin with Schwann cells. Addition of Schwann cells to the BD hydrogel considerably increased regeneration distance with axons crossing the injury gap and entering into the distal nerve stump. The conduits with BD hydrogel showed a linear alignment of nerve fibers and Schwann cells. The number of regenerating motoneurons and recovery of the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle was inferior in BD hydrogel and alginate/fibronectin groups compared with nerve grafting. Addition of Schwann cells did not improve regeneration of motoneurons or muscle recovery. The present results suggest that BD hydrogel with Schwann cells could be used within biosynthetic conduits to increase the rate of axonal regeneration across a nerve defect.

  • 17.
    Novikov, Lev N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Holmberg, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kellerth, J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the synaptic composition of axonally lesioned and normal adult rat motoneurons2000In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has previously been shown to promote survival and axonal regeneration in injured spinal motoneurons and, also, to modulate synaptic transmission and regulate the density of synaptic innervation in a variety of neurons. The present light and electron microscopic study demonstrates synaptotrophic effects of exogenously applied brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the synaptic composition of both normal and axonally lesioned adult rat spinal motoneurons. After L5-L6 ventral root avulsion, a massive loss of all types of boutons occurred on the somata of the lesioned motoneurons which persisted for at least 12 weeks postoperatively. We found that (i) intrathecal infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during the first postoperative week did not prevent the synaptic detachment and activation of glial cells; (ii) prolonged treatment for four weeks restored synaptic covering and significantly reduced microglial reaction; (iii) the synaptotrophic effect remained significant for at least eight weeks after cessation of the treatment; (iv) brain-derived neurotrophic factor mainly supported F-type boutons with presumably inhibitory function, while it had little effect on S-type boutons associated with excitatory action; and (v) in normal unlesioned motoneurons, four weeks of treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced sprouting of F-type boutons, a loss of S-type boutons and motoneuron atrophy. The present data show that exogenous neurotrophins not only help to restore synaptic circuitry in axonally injured motoneurons, but also strongly influence the synaptic composition in normal motoneurons.

  • 18.
    Novikov, Lev N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Mosahebi, Afshin
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    A novel biodegradable implant for neuronal rescue and regeneration after spinal cord injury.2002In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 23, no 16, p. 3369-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After spinal cord injury, the severed neuronal pathways fail to regenerate spontaneously. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) fibers as carrier scaffold for matrix components and cell lines supporting neuronal survival and regeneration after spinal cord injury. After cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats, a graft consisting of PHB fibers coated with alginate hydrogel + fibronectin was implanted in the lesion cavity. In control groups, PHB was omitted and only alginate hydrogel or fibronectin, or their combination, were used for grafting. In addition, comparisons were made with animals treated intrathecally after spinal cord injury with the neurotrophic factors BDNF or NT-3. The neurons of the rubrospinal tract served as experimental model. In untreated animals, 45% of the injured rubrospinal neurons were lost at 8 weeks postoperatively. Implantation of the PHB graft reduced this cell loss by 50%, a rescuing effect similar to that obtained after treatment with BDNF or NT-3. In the absence of PHB support, implants of only alginate hydrogel or fibronectin, or their combination, had no effect on neuronal survival. After addition of neonatal Schwann cells to the PHB graft, regenerating axons were seen to enter the graft from both ends and to extend along its entire length. These results show that implants using PHB as carrier scaffold and containing alginate hydrogel, fibronectin and Schwann cells can support neuronal survival and regeneration after spinal cord injury

  • 19.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Effects of nerve graft implantation technique on axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury2008In: Journal of Neurodegeneration and Regeneration, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Brohlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects of bone marrow stromal cells after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats2011In: Cytotherapy, ISSN 1465-3249, E-ISSN 1477-2566, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 873-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background aims. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) have been shown to provide neuroprotection after transplantation into the injured central nervous system. The present study investigated whether adult rat BMSC differentiated along a Schwann cell lineage could increase production of trophic factors and support neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after transplantation into the injured spinal cord.

    Methods. After cervical C4 hemi-section, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled BMSC were injected into the lateral funiculus at 1 mm rostral and caudal to the lesion site. Spinal cords were analyzed 2-13 weeks after transplantation.

    Results and Conclusions. Treatment of native BMSC with Schwann cell-differentiating factors significantly increased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro. Transplanted undifferentiated and differentiated BMSC remained at the injection sites, and in the trauma zone were often associated with neurofilament-positive fibers and increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. BMSC promoted extensive in-growth of serotonin-positive raphaespinal axons and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive dorsal root sensory axons into the trauma zone, and significantly attenuated astroglial and microglial cell reactions, but induced aberrant sprouting of CGRP-immunoreactive axons in Rexed's lamina III. Differentiated BMSC provided neuroprotection for axotomized rubrospinal neurons and increased the density of rubrospinal axons in the dorsolateral funiculus rostral to the injury site. The present results suggest that BMSC induced along the Schwann cell lineage increase expression of trophic factors and have neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects after spinal cord injury.

  • 21.
    Novikova, Liudmila N.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kolar, Mallappa K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Ullrich, Andreas
    Oberhoffner, Sven
    Renardy, Monika
    Doser, Michael
    Müller, Erhard
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Novikov, Lev N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Trimethylene carbonate-caprolactone conduit with poly-p-dioxanone microfilaments to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury2018In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 66, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with scarring and cavity formation and therefore bridging strategies are essential to provide a physical substrate for axonal regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of a biodegradable conduit made from trimethylene carbonate and c-caprolactone (TC) containing poly-p-dioxanone microfilaments (PDO) with longitudinal grooves on regeneration after SCI in adult rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that different cell types including astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts, Schwann cells and adult sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons can grow on the TC and PDO material. For in vivo experiments, the TC/PDO conduit was implanted into a small 2-3 mm long cavity in the C3-C4 cervical segments immediately after injury (acute SCI) or at 2-5 months after initial surgery (chronic SCI). At 8 weeks after implantation into acute SCI, numerous 5HT-positive descending raphaespinal axons and sensory CGRP-positive axons regenerated across the conduit and were often associated with PDO microfilaments and migrated host cells. Implantation into chronically injured SCI induced regeneration mainly of the sensory CGRP-positive axons. Although the conduit had no effect on the density of OX42-positive microglial cells when compared with SCI control, the activity of GFAP-positive astrocytes was reduced. The results suggest that a TC/PDO conduit can support axonal regeneration after acute and chronic SCI even without addition of exogenous glial or stem cells.

  • 22.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lobov, Sergei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Efficacy of olfactory ensheathing cells to support regeneration after spinal cord injury is influenced by method of culture preparation2011In: Experimental Neurology, ISSN 0014-4886, E-ISSN 1090-2430, Vol. 229, no 1, p. 132-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) have been shown to stimulate regeneration, myelination and functional recovery in different spinal cord injury models. However, recent reports from several laboratories have challenged this treatment strategy. The discrepancy in results could be attributed to many factors including variations in culture protocols. The present study investigates whether the differences in culture preparation could influence neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects of OEC after transplantation into the injured spinal cord. Primary OEC cultures were purified using method of differential cell adhesion (a-OEC) or separated with immunomagnetic beads (b-OEC). After cervical C4 hemisection in adult rats, short-term (3weeks) or long-term (7weeks) cultured OEC were transplanted into the lateral funiculus at 1mm rostral and caudal to the transection site. At 3-8weeks after transplantation, labeled OEC were mainly found in the injection sites and in the trauma zone. Short-term cultured a-OEC supported regrowth of rubrospinal, raphaespinal and CGRP-positive fibers, and attenuated retrograde degeneration in the red nucleus. Short-term cultured b-OEC failed to promote axonal regrowth but increased the density of rubrospinal axons within the dorsolateral funiculus and provided significant neuroprotection for axotomized rubrospinal neurons. In addition, short-term cultured OEC attenuated sprouting of rubrospinal terminals. In contrast, long-term cultured OEC neither enhanced axonal growth nor prevented retrograde cell death. The results suggest that the age of OEC in culture and the method of cell purification could affect the efficacy of OEC to support neuronal survival and regeneration after spinal cord injury.

  • 23.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Mosahebi, Afshin
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Terenghi, Giorgio
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alginate hydrogel and matrigel as potential cell carriers for neurotransplantation.2006In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research part A, ISSN 1549-3296, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 242-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of biosynthetic conduits carrying extracellular matrix molecules and cell lines expressing neurotrophic growth factors represents a novel and promising strategy for spinal cord and peripheral nerve repair. In the present in vitro study, the compatibility and growth-promoting effects of (i) alginate hydrogel, (ii) alginate hydrogel complemented with fibronectin, and (iii) matrigel were compared between olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), Schwann cells (SCs), and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Neurite outgrowth from embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons was used to assess the efficacy of the hydrogels alone or in combination with cultured cells to promote axonal regeneration. The result showed that alginate hydrogel transformed OECs, SCs, and BMSCs into atypical cells with spherical shape and inhibited their metabolic activity. Combination of alginate hydrogel with fibronectin promoted only OECs proliferation. Alginate hydrogel also inhibited outgrowth of DRG neurites, although this effect was attenuated by addition of fibronectin, SCs, or BMSCs. In contrast, matrigel stimulated cell proliferation, preserved the typical morphological features of the cultured cells and induced massive sprouting of DRG neurites. Addition of cultured cells to matrigel did not further improve DRG neurite outgrowth. The present findings suggest that addition of extracellular matrix should be considered when engineering biosynthetic scaffolds on the basis of alginate hydrogels.

  • 24.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kellerth, J O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    BDNF abolishes the survival effect of NT-3 in axotomized Clarke neurons of adult rats2000In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 428, no 4, p. 671-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have previously been shown to support survival and axonal regeneration in various types of neurons. Also, synergistic neuroprotective effects of these neurotrophins have been reported in descending rubrospinal neurons after cervical spinal cord injury (Novikova et al., [2000] Eur. J. Neurosci. 12:776-780). The present study investigates the effects of intrathecally delivered NT-3 and BDNF on the survival and atrophy of ascending spinocerebellar neurons of Clarke nucleus (CN) after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats. At 8 weeks after cervical spinal cord hemisection, 40% of the axotomized CN neurons had been lost, and the remaining cells exhibited marked atrophy. Microglial activity was significantly increased in CN of the operated side. Intrathecal infusion of NT-3 for 8 weeks postoperatively resulted in 91% cell survival and a reduction in cell atrophy, but did not reduce microglial activity. In spite of the fact that the CN neurons expressed both TrkC and TrkB receptors, only NT-3 had a neuroprotective effect, whereas BDNF was ineffective. Furthermore, when a combination of BDNF and NT-3 was administered, the neuroprotective effect of NT-3 was lost. The present results indicate a therapeutic potential for NT-3 in the treatment of spinal cord injury, but also demonstrate that in certain neuronal populations the neuroprotection obtained by a combination of neurotrophic factors may be less than that of a single neurotrophin.

  • 25.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kellerth, J O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Survival effects of BDNF and NT-3 on axotomized rubrospinal neurons depend on the temporal pattern of neurotrophin administration2000In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 776-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that both BDNF and NT-3 can prevent cell death in axotomized adult rat rubrospinal neurons (RSNs), but that the efficacy of neuroprotection depends on the temporal pattern of treatment. At 8 weeks after cervical spinal cord injury, 51% of the RSNs had died. Subarachnoidal BDNF infusion into the cisterna magna for 4 weeks resulted in neuronal hypertrophy and 71% survival. Continuous infusion for 8 weeks into the lumbar subarachnoidal space with either BDNF or NT-3 gave similar survival rates, while a combination of BDNF and NT-3 resulted in 96% survival, although the cells were atrophic. When administration of either BDNF or NT-3 was delayed and performed during postoperative weeks 5-8, the number of surviving neurons was increased compared to early treatment. Delayed treatment with a combination of BDNF and NT-3 resulted in complete survival and a reduction in neuronal atrophy. A decreased expression of TrkB receptors and microtubule-associated protein-2 in the RSNs after axotomy was counteracted by BDNF and NT-3. Microglial activity remained increased even when complete cell survival was achieved. Thus, the combination of neurotrophins as well as the temporal pattern of treatment need to be adequately defined to optimize survival of injured spinal tract neurons.

  • 26.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Biopolymers and biodegradable smart implants for tissue regeneration after spinal cord injury.2003In: Current Opinion in Neurology, ISSN 1350-7540, E-ISSN 1473-6551, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 711-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent experimental advances in the development of biosynthetic implants for repair of spinal cord injury.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Various important advances in the development of biosynthetic conduits for spinal cord repair have recently been reported. It was found that implantation of freeze dried alginate sponge into completely transected spinal cord supports axonal regeneration across the lesion site. A poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold seeded with neural stem cells has been developed that promotes axonal regeneration across the gap. It was found that polyethylene glycol can reseal damaged spinal cord axons and restore impulse conduction. Findings have been reported that poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate conduits in combination with alginate and fibronectin provide neuroprotection for axotomized descending neurones. It has been reported that conduits made of fibronectin mats or fibrin in combination with neurotrophic growth factors promote axonal growth into the grafts. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging after experimental spinal cord injury has been used to monitor regeneration in biosynthetic conduits in vivo over time.

    SUMMARY: Biosynthetic conduits carrying extracellular matrix molecules and different cell lines, and supplemented with neurotrophic growth factors have yielded encouraging results in the treatment of experimental spinal cord injury. These findings provide a basis for further development of techniques aimed at spinal cord repair in humans.

  • 27.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Differential effects of neurotrophins on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult rats.2002In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 452, no 3, p. 255-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces retrograde cell death in descending pathways, which can be prevented by long-term intrathecal infusion of neurotrophins (Novikova et al. [2000] Eur J Neurosci 12:776-780). The present study investigates whether the same treatment also leads to improved regeneration of the injured tracts. After cervical SCI in adult rats, a peripheral nerve graft was attached to the rostral wall of the lesion cavity. The animals were treated by local application into the cavity of Gelfoam soaked in (1) phosphate buffered saline (untreated controls) or (2) a mixture of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) (local treatment), or by intrathecal infusion of BDNF + NT-3 for (3) 2 weeks (short-term treatment) or (4) 5-8 weeks (long-term treatment). Despite a very strong survival effect, long-term treatment failed to stimulate ingrowth of descending tracts into the nerve graft. In comparison with untreated controls, the latter treatment also caused 35% reduction in axonal sprouting of descending pathways rostral to the lesion site and 72% reduction in the number of spinal cord neurons extending axons into the nerve graft. Local and short-term treatments neither prevented retrograde cell death nor enhanced regeneration of descending tracts, but induced robust regeneration of spinal cord neurons into the nerve graft. These results indicate that the signal pathways promoting neuronal survival and axonal regeneration, respectively, in descending tracts after SCI respond differently to neurotrophic stimuli and that efficient rescue of axotomized tract neurons is not a sufficient prerequisite for regeneration.

  • 28.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Brohlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Biodegradable poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate scaffold seeded with Schwann cells to promote spinal cord repair2008In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1198-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity formation is an important obstacle impeding regeneration after spinal cord injury and bridging strategies are essential to provide physical substrate allowing axons to grow across the lesion site. In this study we evaluated effects of biodegradable tubular conduit made from poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold with predominantly unidirectional fiber orientation and supplemented with cultured adult Schwann cells on axonal regeneration after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats. After transplantation into the injured spinal cord, plain PHB conduit was well-integrated into posttraumatic cavity and induced modest astroglial reaction. Regenerating axons were found mainly outside the PHB with only single fibers crossing the host-graft interface. No host Schwann cells migrated into the graft. In contrast, when suspension of adult Schwann cells was added to the PHB during transplantation, neurofilament-positive axons filled the conduit and became associated with the implanted cells. Although rubrospinal fibers did not enter the PHB, numerous raphaespinal and CGRP-positive axons were found within the conduit. Modification of PHB surface with fibronectin, laminin or collagen significantly increased Schwann cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. However, transplantation of PHB conduit pre-coated with fibronectin and seeded with Schwann cells did not alter axonal growth response. The results demonstrate that a PHB scaffold promotes attachment, proliferation and survival of adult Schwann cells and supports marked axonal regeneration within the graft.

  • 29.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kalbermatten, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    McGrath, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Biodegradable fibrin conduit promotes long-term regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats2010In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, ISSN 1748-6815, E-ISSN 1532-1959, Vol. 63, no 11, p. 1893-1899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injuries are often associated with loss of nerve tissue and require autologous nerve grafts to provide a physical substrate for axonal growth. Biosynthetic neural conduits could be an alternative treatment strategy in such injuries. The present study investigates the long-term effects of a tubular fibrin conduit on neuronal regeneration, axonal sprouting and recovery of muscle weight following peripheral nerve injury and repair in adult rats. Sciatic axotomy was performed proximally in the thigh to create a 10-mm gap between the nerve stumps. The injury gap was bridged by using a 14-mm-long fibrin glue conduit, entubulating 2mm of the nerve stump at each end. A reversed autologous nerve graft was used as a control. The regenerative response from sensory and motor neurones was evaluated following retrograde labelling with Fast Blue fluorescent tracer. In control experiments, at 16 weeks following peripheral nerve grafting, 5184 (+/-574 standard error of mean (SEM)) sensory dorsal root ganglion neurones and 1001 (+/-37 SEM) spinal motor neurones regenerated across the distal nerve-graft interface. The fibrin conduit promoted regeneration of 60% of sensory neurones and 52% of motor neurones when compared to the control group. The total number of myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump in the fibrin-conduit group reached 86% of the control and the weight of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles recovered to 82% and 89% of the controls, respectively. The present results suggest that a tubular fibrin conduit can be used to promote neuronal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  • 30.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lobov, Sergei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Labeling of olfactory ensheathing glial cells with fluorescent tracers for neurotransplantation2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of cell-based treatment strategies for repair of the injured nervous system requires cell tracing techniques to follow the fate of transplanted cells and their interaction with the host tissue. The present study investigates the efficacy of fluorescent cell tracers Fast Blue, PKH26, DiO and CMFDA for long-term labeling of olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEC) in culture and following transplantation into the rat spinal cord. All tested dyes produced very efficient initial labeling of p75-positive OEC in culture. The number of Fast Blue-positive cells remained largely unchanged during the first 4 weeks but only about 21% of the cells retained tracer 6 weeks after labeling. In contrast, the number of cells labeled with PKH26 and DiO was reduced to 51-55% after 2 weeks in culture and reached 8-12% after 4-6 weeks. CMFDA had completely disappeared from the cells 2 weeks after labeling. AlamarBlue assay showed that among four tested tracers only CMFDA reduced proliferation rate of the OEC. After transplantation into spinal cord, Fast Blue-labeled OEC survived for at least 8 weeks but demonstrated very limited migration from the injection sites. Additional immunostaining with glial and neuronal markers revealed signs of dye leakage from the transplanted cells resulted in weak labeling of microglia and spinal neurons. The results show that Fast Blue is an efficient cell marker for cultured OEC. However, transfer of the dye from the transplanted cells to the host tissue should be considered and correctly interpreted.

  • 31.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    McGrath, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kalbermatten, Daniel
    University Hospital of Basel.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kingham, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Muscle recovery after repair of short and long peripheral nerve gaps using fibrin conduits2011In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 500, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injuries with loss of nervous tissue are a significant clinical problem and are currently treated using autologous nerve transplants. To avoid the need for donor nerve, which results in additional morbidity such as loss of sensation and scarring, alternative bridging methods have been sought. Recently we showed that an artificial nerve conduit moulded from fibrin glue is biocompatible to nerve regeneration. In this present study, we have used the fibrin conduit or a nerve graft to bridge either a 10 mm or 20 mm sciatic nerve gap and analyzed the muscle recovery in adult rats after 16 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle weights of the operated side were similar for both gap sizes when treated with nerve graft. In contrast, muscle weight was 48.32 ± 4.96% of the contra-lateral side for the 10 mm gap repaired with fibrin conduit but only 25.20 ± 2.50% for the 20 mm gap repaired with fibrin conduit. The morphology of the muscles in the nerve graft groups showed an intact, ordered structure, with the muscle fibers grouped in fascicles whereas the 20 mm nerve gap fibrin group had a more chaotic appearance. The mean area and diameter of fast type fibers in the 20 mm gap repaired with fibrin conduits were significantly (P < 0.01) worse than those of the corresponding 10 mm gap group. In contrast, both gap sizes treated with nervegraft showed similar fiber size. Furthermore, the 10 mm gaps repaired with either nerve graft or fibrin conduit showed similar muscle fiber size. These results indicate that the fibrin conduit can effectively treat short nerve gaps but further modification such as the inclusion of regenerative cells may be required to attain the outcomes of nerve graft for long gaps.

  • 32. Plantman, Stefan
    et al.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Hammarberg, Henrik
    Wallquist, Wilhelm
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Cullheim, Staffan
    Integrin messenger RNAs in the red nucleus after axotomy and neurotrophic administration.2005In: Neuroreport, ISSN 0959-4965, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 709-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrins are cell surface receptors known to be important for regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. We have investigated the expression of integrin messenger RNAs in red nucleus neurons of adult rats after axotomy and administration of neurotrophic factors. Using radioactive in situ hybridization, messenger RNA for integrin subunits beta1, alpha3, alpha7 and alphaV could be detected. No change of any alpha subunit could be detected after axotomy. In contrast, a small upregulation of beta1 was detected after lesion. Administration of neurotrophin-3 induced a robust further increase in beta1 messenger RNA levels, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not. By analogy to the peripheral nervous system, we propose that integrins may be important for a regenerative response in central nervous system neurons.

  • 33.
    Plantman, Stefan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Zelano, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Cullheim, Staffan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Neuronal myosin-X is upregulated after peripheral nerve injury and mediates laminin-induced growth of neurites2013In: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1044-7431, E-ISSN 1095-9327, Vol. 56, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful outcome of peripheral neuronal regeneration is attributed both to the growth permissive milieu and the intrinsic ability of the neuron to initiate appropriate cellular responses such as changes in gene expression and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Even though numerous studies have shown the importance of interactions between the neuron and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in axonal outgrowth, the molecular mechanisms underlying the contact between ECM receptors and the cellular cytoskeleton remain largely unknown. Unconventional myosins constitute an important group of cytoskeletal-associated motor proteins. One member of this family is the recently described myosin-X. This protein interacts with several members of the axon growth-associated ECM receptor family of integrins and could therefore be important in neuronal outgrowth. In this study, using radioactive in situ hybridization, we found that expression of myosin-X mRNA is upregulated in adult rat sensory neurons and spinal motoneurons after peripheral nerve injury, but not after central injury. Thus, myosin-X was upregulated after injuries that can be followed by axonal regeneration. We also found that the protein is localized to neuronal growth cones and that silencing of myosin-X using RNA interference impairs the integrin-mediated growth of neurites on laminin, but has no effect on non-integrin mediated growth on N-cadherin.

  • 34.
    Welin, Dag
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Effects of N-acetyl-cysteine on the survival and regeneration of sural sensory neurons in adult rats2009In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1287, no 1, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microsurgical reconstruction of injured peripheral nerves often results in limited functional recovery. One contributing factor is the retrograde neuronal degeneration of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and of motor neurons in the spinal cord. The present study investigates the neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on sensory DRG neurons and spinal motoneurons after sciatic axotomy and nerve grafting in adult rats. Sciatic axotomy and nerve grafting were performed at 1 week after sural DRG neurons and motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue. To assess the efficacy of axonal regeneration, a second fluorescent dye Fluoro-Ruby was applied distal to the graft at 12 weeks after nerve repair. At 8-13 weeks after axotomy, only 52-56% of the sural sensory neurons remained in the lumbar DRG, while the majority of motoneurons survived the sciatic nerve injury. Nerve grafting alone or continuous intrathecal NAC treatment (2.4 mg/day) improved survival of sural DRG neurons. Combined treatment with nerve graft and NAC had significant additive effect on neuronal survival and also increased the number of sensory neurons regenerating across the graft. However, NAC treatment neither affected the number of regenerating motoneurons nor the number of myelinated axons in the nerve graft or in the distal nerve stump. The present results demonstrate that NAC provides a highly significant effect of neuroprotection in an animal nerve injury model and that combination with nerve grafting further attenuates retrograde cell death and promotes regeneration of sensory neurons.

  • 35.
    Welin, Dag
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kellerth, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Novikov, Lev
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Survival and regeneration of cutaneous and muscular afferent neurons after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats2008In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 186, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injury induces the retrograde degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which affects predominantly the small-diameter cutaneous afferent neurons. This study compares the time-course of retrograde cell death in cutaneous and muscular DRG cells after peripheral nerve transection as well as neuronal survival and axonal regeneration after primary repair or nerve grafting. For comparison, spinal motoneurons were also included in the study. Sural and medial gastrocnemius DRG neurons were retrogradely labeled with the fluorescent tracers Fast Blue (FB) or Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the homonymous transected nerves. Survival of labeled sural and gastrocnemius DRG cells was assessed at 3 days and 1-24 weeks after axotomy. To evaluate axonal regeneration, the sciatic nerve was transected proximally at 1 week after FB-labeling of the sural and medial gastrocnemius nerves and immediately reconstructed using primary repair or autologous nerve grafting. Twelve weeks later, the fluorescent tracer Fluoro-Ruby (FR) was applied 10 mm distal to the sciatic lesion in order to double-label sural and gastrocnemius neurons that had regenerated across the repair site. Counts of labeled gastrocnemius DRG neurons did not reveal any significant retrograde cell death after nerve transection. In contrast, sural axotomy induced a delayed loss of sural DRG cells, which amounted to 22% at 4 weeks and 43-48% at 8-24 weeks postoperatively. Proximal transection of the sciatic nerve at 1 week after injury to the sural or gastrocnemius nerves neither further increased retrograde DRG degeneration, nor did it affect survival of sural or gastrocnemius motoneurons. Primary repair or peripheral nerve grafting supported regeneration of 53-60% of the spinal motoneurons and 47-49% of the muscular DRG neurons at 13 weeks postoperatively. In the cutaneous DRG neurons, primary repair or peripheral nerve grafting increased survival by 19-30% and promoted regeneration of 46-66% of the cells. The present results suggest that cutaneous DRG neurons are more sensitive to peripheral nerve injury than muscular DRG cells, but that their regenerative capacity does not differ from that of the latter cells. However, the retrograde loss of cutaneous DRG cells taking place despite immediate nerve repair would still limit the recovery of cutaneous sensory functions.

  • 36.
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Jonsson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Novikova, Liudmila N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0142699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury.

  • 37.
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Kingham, Paul J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    A Morphological and Molecular Characterization of the Spinal Cord after Ventral Root Avulsion or Distal Peripheral Nerve Axotomy Injuries in Adult Rats2017In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 652-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrograde cell death in sensory dorsal root ganglion cells following peripheral nerve injury is well established. However, available data regarding the underlying mechanism behind injury induced motoneuron death are conflicting. By comparing morphological and molecular changes in spinal motoneurons after L4-L5 ventral root avulsion (VRA) and distal peripheral nerve axotomy (PNA) 7 and 14 days postoperatively, we aimed to gain more insight about the mechanism behind injury-induced motoneuron degeneration. Morphological changes in spinal cord were assessed by using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Neuronal degeneration was revealed by decreased immunostaining for microtubuleassociated protein-2 in dendrites and synaptophysin in presynaptic boutons after both VRA and PNA. Significant motoneuron atrophy was already observed at 7 days post-injury, independently of injury type. Immunostaining for ED1 reactive microglia was significantly elevated in all experimental groups, as well as the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the ventral horn from L4-L5 spinal cord segments revealed a significant upregulation of genes involved in programmed cell death including caspase-3, caspase-8, and related death receptors TRAIL-R, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-R, and Fas following VRA. In contrast, following PNA, caspase-3 and the death receptor gene expression levels did not differ from the control, and there was only a modest increased expression of caspase-8. Moreover, the altered gene expression correlated with protein changes. These results show that the spinal motoneurons reacted in a similar fashion with respect to morphological changes after both proximal and distal injury. However, the increased expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and related death receptors after VRA suggest that injury- induced motoneuron degeneration is mediated through an apoptotic mechanism, which might involve both the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways.

  • 38.
    Wiberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Evaluation of apoptotic pathways in dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral nerve injury2018In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, p. 779-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral nerve injuries induce significant sensory neuronal cell death in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG); however, the role of specific apoptotic pathways is still unclear. In this study, we performed peripheral nerve transection on adult rats, after which the corresponding DRGs were harvested at 7, 14, and 28 days after injury for subsequent molecular analyses with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Nerve injury led to increased levels of caspase-3 mRNA and active caspase-3 protein in the DRG. Increased expression of caspase-8, caspase-12, caspase-7, and calpain suggested that both the extrinsic and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptotic pathways were activated. Phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like ER kinase further implied the involvement of ER-stress in the DRG. Phosphorylated protein kinase R-like ER kinase was most commonly associated with isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons in the DRG and this may provide an explanation for the increased susceptibility of these neurons to die following nerve injury, likely in part because of an activation of the ER-stress response.

1 - 38 of 38
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