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  • 1.
    Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Häggblom, Anette
    Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Faculty of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Inner strength: associated with reduced prevalence of depression among older women2015Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, nr 12, s. 1078-1083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore if inner strength is independently associated with a reduced prevalence of depression after controlling for other known risk factors associated with depression.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was performed, where all women living in Åland, a Finnish self-govern island community in the Baltic Sea, aged 65 years or older were sent a questionnaire including the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Inner Strength Scale along with several other questions related to depression. Factors associated with depression were analyzed by means of multivariate logistic regression.

    Results: The results showed that 11.2% of the studied women (n = 1452) were depressed and that the prevalence increased with age and was as high as 20% in the oldest age group. Non-depressed women were more likely to never or seldom feel lonely, have a strong inner strength, take fewer prescription drugs, feeling needed, being able to engage in meaningful leisure activities, as well as cohabit.

    Conclusion: Our results showed an association between stronger inner strength and being non-depressed. This can be interpreted to mean that inner strength might have a protective effect against depression. These findings are interesting from a health-promotion perspective, yet to verify these results, further longitudinal studies are required.

  • 2.
    Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Haggblom, Anette
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Åland University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Finland.
    Inner Strength as Identified in Narratives of Elderly Women A Focus Group Interview Study2015Ingår i: Advances in Nursing Science, ISSN 0161-9268, E-ISSN 1550-5014, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 7-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By identifying sources of inner strength, health care personnel can be given valuable information about elderly people's capacities regardless of frailty. The focus of this interview-based study was to explore how inner strength and its dimensions can be identified in narratives of elderly women. The analysis was based on a theoretical model where inner strength is composed of 4 interacting dimensions of connectedness, creativity, firmness, and flexibility. Our findings add nuance to the notion of inner strength and deepen empirical knowledge about the concept.

  • 3.
    Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Häggblom, Anette
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Nursing, Åland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Identifying variables in relation to health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older women: knowledgebase for health-promoting activities2016Ingår i: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 20-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated variables among all community-dwelling older women (565 years) (n¼2724) on A ° land, a Finnish self-governing island community. A total of 1023 women participated (mean age 72.96.8 years). Absence of depression, absence of diagnosed disease(s), having the opportunity to engage in meaningful leisure activities, and never or seldom feeling lonely explained, together with socioeconomic control variables (i.e. age, education and economic situation), 34.4% of the variation in physical health. Absence of depression, strong inner strength, and never or seldom feeling lonely explained, together with socio-economic control variables, 27.7% of the variation in mental health. HRQoL was rated as relatively good, although special attention should be paid to women aged 80þ years. To promote HRQoL, interventions aimed at preventing, detecting and treating depression should be prioritised. In addition, interventions aimed at reducing feelings of loneliness are also recommended in order to enhance overall HRQoL.

  • 4.
    Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, B
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Årestedt, K
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Inner strength and its relationship to healththreats in ageing – a cross-sectional studyamong community-dwelling older womenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Boman, Erika
    et al.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Inner strength and its relationship to health threats in ageing: a cross-sectional study among community-dwelling older women2017Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 2720-2729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore the relationship between inner strength and health threats among community-dwelling older women. Background: Inner strength is described as a resource that promotes experiences of health, despite adversities. Inner strength and its dimensions (i.e. connectedness, creativity, firmness and flexibility) can be assessed using the Inner Strength Scale (ISS). Exploring attributes of weaker inner strength may yield valuable information about areas to focus on in enhancing a person's inner strength and may ultimately lead to the perception of better health. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Methods: The study is based on responses from 1270 community-dwelling older women aged 65 years and older; these were collected in the year 2010 and describe the situation that still exists today for older women. The questionnaire included the ISS, background characteristics and explanatory variables known to be health threats in ageing. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Poorer mental health was related to weaker inner strength in total and in all the dimensions. Symptoms of depressive disorders and feeling lonely were related to three of the dimensions, except firmness and creativity respectively. Furthermore, poor physical health was associated with the dimensions firmness and flexibility. Other health threats were significantly related to only one of the dimensions, or not associated at all. Conclusion: Mental ill health has overall the strongest association with weaker inner strength. Longitudinal studies are recommended to confirm the results. However, the ISS does not only estimate inner strength but can also be a tool for discovering where (i.e. dimension) interventions may be most profitable.

  • 6.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Persson, Chatrin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Rising, Inger
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Clinical challenges and ongoing role changes for primary health-care nurses2012Ingår i: British Journal of Community Nursing, ISSN 1462-4753, E-ISSN 2052-2215, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 68-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions of primary health-care nurses (PHNs) about clinical demands and future challenges.

    METHOD: Qualitative content-analysis of open questions from a questionnaire. A total of 121 PHNs from health-care districts in northern Sweden filled in a questionnaire during a mandatory educational day.

    RESULTS: Key issues that were raised included: defending the specific professional role of the PHNs; strengthening their self-governance and authority; and ensuring adequate care in the future through education that focuses more on nursing practice than on academic work.

    CONCLUSION: To ensure that the role of the PHN continues to develop, it is necessary to enable them to articulate, discuss, and evaluate their profession and to learn, in concrete forms, how to implement science in clinical practice.

  • 7.
    Brännström, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Bäckman, Margit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Walking on the edge: meanings of living in an ageing body and using a walker in everyday life - a phenomenological hermeneutic study2013Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 116-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.  In order to maintain one’s state of health whilst growing older, the ability to walk is essential.

    Aim and objective.  The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of the lived experience of living in an ageing body and using a walker in daily life.

    Methods.  Narrative interviews were performed with seven older persons aged 79–95 years. The transcribed text was analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method.

    Results.  The key finding of the study was that the lived experience of living in an ageing body and using a walker in daily life was interpreted as ‘walking on the edge’ based on the themes ‘Being vulnerable and dependent’ and ‘Being confident and independent’.

    Conclusions.  The results highlight the importance of reflecting on this phenomenon as a health care professional while meeting the care needs of older persons who use walkers.

    Implications for practice.  Nurses need to consider the walker as a personal and valued possession of the individual and handle the walker in agreement with the older person, placing the walker close at hand with the brakes locked to give secure support.

  • 8.
    Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Feeling whole: the meaning of being consoled narrated by very old people2010Ingår i: The journal of pastoral care & counseling : JPCC, ISSN 1542-3050, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 3.1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with 13 people, over 85 years, with high scored Self-transcendence, were analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. The meaning of being consoled was interpreted to Feeling whole, an immediate experience of: being carried and embraced by God (Feeling connected to God), supported by the loving care and affection from others (Feeling connected to fellow beings and the world), being relaxed, peaceful and full of joy and experiencing hope (Being connected to self).

  • 9.
    Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Embracing opposites: meanings of growing old as narrated by people aged 852008Ingår i: The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, ISSN 0091-4150, E-ISSN 1541-3535, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 259-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many old people suffer from prolonged and multiple bodily ailments, new diseases, and increased risk for disadvantages and losses in life. Aging also means becoming mature and wise. This study illuminates the meaning of the lived experience with respect to changes in late life. Using a phenomenological hermeneutic method, this study analyzes transcribed interviews of 15 85-year-old people. Four themes were formulated: embracing weakness and strength, embracing slowness and swiftness of time, embracing reconciliation and regret, and embracing connectedness and loneliness. From these analyses, growing old was described as—maintaining one's identity in spite of the changes that come with aging and, embracing opposites—being changed and feeling being the same.

  • 10.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki-Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Supporting the oldest old when completing a questionnaire: risking bias or gaining reliable results?2007Ingår i: Research on aging, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 576-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Inner strength in relation to functional status, disease, living arrangements, and social relationships among people aged 85 years and older2012Ingår i: Geriatric Nursing, ISSN 0197-4572, E-ISSN 1528-3984, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 167-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inner strength is described as an important resource that promotes well-being. We used data from a sample of 185 people in the Umeå 85+ cohort study to relate inner strength and its attributes to objective health variables. The Resilience, Sense of Coherence, Purpose in Life, and Self-Transcendence scales were used to assess aspects of inner strength, and strong correlations between the scales were found. Prevalence of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, osteoporosis, or diagnosed depression was associated with low inner strength. Significant relationships were also found between high inner strength and various measures of social relationships. Participants with a higher degree of inner strength had better physical health and more satisfying social relationships. The promotion of inner strength should be a major aim of geriatric nursing.

  • 12.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Inner strength-A theoretical analysis of salutogenic concepts.2010Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, International journal of nursing studies, ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 251-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Theoretical and empirical overlaps between the concepts of resilience, sense of coherence, hardiness, purpose in life, and self-transcendence have earlier been described as some kind of inner strength, but no studies have been found that focus on what attributes these concepts have in common. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a theoretical analysis of the concepts of resilience, sense of coherence, hardiness, purpose in life, and self-transcendence, in order to identify their core dimensions in an attempt to get an overarching understanding of inner strength. PRINT METHOD: An analysis inspired by the procedure of meta-theory construction was performed. The main questions underlying the development of the concepts, the major paradigms and the most prominent assumptions, the critical attributes and the characteristics of the various concepts were identified. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the identification of four core dimensions of inner strength and the understanding that inner strength relies on the interaction of these dimensions: connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity. These dimensions were validated through comparison with the original descriptions of the concepts. CONCLUSION: An overarching understanding of inner strength is that it means both to stand steady, to be firm, with both feet on the ground and to be connected to; family, friends, society, nature and spiritual dimensions and to be able to transcend. Having inner strength is to be creative and stretchable, which is to believe in own possibilities to act and to make choices and influence life's trajectory in a perceived meaningful direction. Inner strength is to shoulder responsibility for oneself and others, to endure and deal with difficulties and adversities. This knowledge about inner strength will raise the awareness of the concept and, in turn, hopefully increase our potential to support people's inner strength.

  • 13.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Syn på åldrande och äldre personer2012Ingår i: Det goda åldrandet / [ed] Astrid Norberg, Berit Lundman, Regina Santamäki Fischer, Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 1, s. 17-40Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Viglund, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Development and psychometric properties of the Inner Strength Scale.2011Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 48, nr 10, s. 1266-1274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

    METHOD: An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability.

    RESULTS: CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79).

    CONCLUSION: The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies.

  • 15.
    Lundman, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norberg, Catharina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Åland University of Applied Science, Finland.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Self-Transcendence Scale among very old people2015Ingår i: Journal of Nursing Measurement, ISSN 1061-3749, E-ISSN 1945-7049, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 96-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study tested the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Self-Transcendence Scale (STS).

    METHODS: Cohen's weighted kappa, agreement, absolute reliability, relative reliability, and internal consistency were calculated, and the underlying structure of the STS was established by exploratory factor analysis. There were 2 samples available: 1 including 194 people aged 85-103 years and a convenience sample of 60 people aged 21-69 years.

    RESULTS: Weighted kappa values ranged from .40 to .89. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the original STS was .763, and the least significant change between repeated tests was 6.25 points.

    CONCLUSION: The revised STS was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and 2 of the 4 underlying dimensions in Reed's self-transcendence theory were supported.

  • 16. Melder, Cecilia
    et al.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Validating WHOQOL-SRPB in Sweden: instrument adaption for measuring existential aspects of health-related quality of life [HRQL] in secular contexts2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Norberg, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Andlighet och åldrande2012Ingår i: Det goda åldrandet / [ed] Astrid Norberg, Berit Lundman, Regina Santamäki Fischer, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, s. 121-139Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Norberg, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Norberg, Catharina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Nursing Education, Åland University of Applied Science, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Self-transcendence (ST) among very old people: its associations to social and medical factors and development over five years2015Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 247-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe the associations between ST and psychological and physical wellbeing among oldest old people and to test the influence of negative life events on ST, and the predictive value of the self-transcendence scale (STS) for mortality.

    BACKGROUND: ST has been identified as a valuable resource for transcending psychological and physical suffering and has been related to psychological wellbeing and higher quality of life.

    DESIGN: The study design was correlational, prospective, and longitudinal.

    SETTINGS: The participants were recruited from a medium-sized town and from an adjacent rural area in northern Sweden.

    METHOD: The sample consisted of 190 participants (123 women and 67 men) who completed the STS. At a 5-year follow-up, 55 people (29.5%) were alive and able to complete the assessments again.

    RESULTS: ST was positively associated with psychological wellbeing, self-rated health, having someone to talk with and being able to go outdoors independently. Diagnoses of depression, dementia disease, and osteoporosis were associated with lower STS scores as were living in a residential care facility, and feeling lonely. There was a significant relationship between the index of negative life events and ST between baseline and follow-up. More negative life events were associated with a larger decline in STS scores over five years.

    CONCLUSION: ST is an important source for wellbeing among the oldest old, and the accumulation of negative life events might threaten the ability to transcend setbacks.

  • 19.
    Norberg, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, BeritUmeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.Santamäki Fischer, ReginaUmeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Det goda åldrandet2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken syftar till att belysa ett gott åldrande och hot mot ett gott åldrande ur ett salutogent perspektiv samt till att spegla komplexiteten i åldrandet. Huvudbudskapet är att många äldre personer har det bra under åldrandet, men att det är möjligt att främja upplevelse av hälsa även hos de som lever med olika former av illabefinnande i samband med förluster, ohälsa eller under den sista tiden i livet. Att främja hälsa handlar om att ta tillvara yttre och inre resurser hos äldre personer, hos deras närmaste och i samhället samt att ge adekvat omsorg, medicinsk behandling och rehabilitering. I boken medverkar 13 forskare inom arbetsterapi, geriatrik, omvårdnad och sjukgymnastik. Alla har omfattande erfarenhet av forskning om äldre personer. De olika perspektiven ger en bild av aktuell forskning om äldre personers situation. Boken är i första hand avsedd för studenter på grundläggande nivå och för vidareutbildning av personal inom vård och omsorg, men den är också lämplig att använda inom praktisk verksamhet.

  • 20.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Ersta Sköndal University College , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Åland University of Applied Sciences , Åland , Finland.
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientation Among the Very Old2012Ingår i: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, ISSN 1552-8030, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 314-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to test a shortened version of the Swedish Religious Orientation Scale's (SROS) appropriateness, feasibility, and ability to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among very old people. The participants (n = 43) were Lutheran believers aged ≥85 years. They scored high on both the intrinsic and extrinsic sub-scales and a cluster analysis revealed three clusters of items, one measuring intrinsic religious orientation and two measuring extrinsic religious orientation. The shortened version of the SROS appears appropriate for distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among very old people.

  • 21.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Health Sciences, Åbo AkademiUniversity, Vasa, Finland.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Something wonderful and incomprehensible: Expressions and experiences of spirituality among very old people2019Ingår i: Journal for the Study of Spirituality, ISSN 2044-0243, E-ISSN 2044-0251, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 125-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to illuminate very old people’s experiences and expressions of spirituality and is a part of the Umeå 85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA). The participants (n = 12) had declared an interest in spirituality, were 86–99 years of age, and were interviewed in their own homes. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed that spirituality was experienced as being in communion, transcending life’s circumstances, and living in a spiritual reality. Spirituality was expressed as an inner sense of communion with God and with other people, and as a spiritual reality. The participants expressed a desire to talk about spiritual experiences and personal beliefs but regarded spirituality as an uncommon topic. Nurses and other professionals need to be aware of spiritual needs and prepared to give spiritual care.

  • 22.
    Norberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Spirituality as it is perceived and expressed by the very old peopleManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Viglund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Palliative Care Research, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Santamäki Fischer, Regina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Nursing Education, University of Applied Sciences, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the selection, optimization, compensation questionnaire2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 460-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The model of selection, optimization and compensation has been proposed as a model of adaptive management strategies throughout the lifespan.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a translated Swedish version of the 12-item selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) questionnaire.

    Method: The 12-item SOC questionnaire is composed of four subscales: elective selection (ES), loss-based selection, optimization and compensation. A convenience sample of 122 Swedish-speaking people, aged 19-85, participated in a study of the validity and reliability of the SOC questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, corrected item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha if item deleted were used for reliability testing. Two other scales, the ways of coping questionnaire and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, were used to test convergent validity, and the geriatric depression scale was used to test discriminant validity. Stability over time was evaluated using a test-retest model with a 2-week interval.

    Results: The 12-item SOC questionnaire showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.50, and the subscales ranged from α=0.16 to α=0.64. Two items in the ES subscale had negative values on the corrected item-total correlation and showed substantial improvement (>0.05) in Cronbach's alpha when item deleted. When these two items that influenced internal consistency were deleted, Cronbach's alpha rose to 0.68.

    Conclusion: The Swedish version of the 12-item SOC questionnaire showed deficiencies in a test of internal consistency because of two items in the ES subscale, and these two items were deleted. A consequence of the reduction is a weakening of the ES subscale and thereby to some extent the SOC questionnaire in total. Further testing is advisable. However, the 10-item SOC questionnaire was acceptable in a test of validity and reliability.

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