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  • 1.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mohamud, Khalif Bile
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Freij, Lennart
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dalmar, Abdirisak Ahmed
    Ibrahim, Abdirashid Omer
    Hagi, Abdisamad Abikar
    Abdi, Abshir Ali
    Hussein, Abdullahi Sheik
    Shirwa, Abdulkadir Mohamed
    Warsame, Amina
    Ereg, Derie Ismail
    Aden, Mohamed Hussain
    Qasim, Maryan
    Ali, Mohamed Khalid
    Elmi, Abdullahi
    Afrah, Abdullahi Warsame
    Sabtiye, Faduma Omar
    Guled, Fatuma Ege
    Ahmed, Hinda Jama
    Mohamed, Halima
    Tinay, Halima Ali
    Mohamud, Kadigia Ali
    Yusuf, Mariam Warsame
    Omar, Mayeh
    Abdi, Yakoub Aden
    Abdulkadir, Yusuf
    Johansson, Annika
    Kulane, Asli Ali
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Essen, Birgitta
    Kalengayi, Faustine Nkulu
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norder, Helene
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlen, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Persson, Lars-Ake
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Hasselberg, Marie
    Klingberg, Marie
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hogberg, Ulf
    Sjostrom, Urban
    Omar, Saif
    Healing the health system after civil unrest2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Kalengayi, Faustine K Nkulu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nordstrand, Annika
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlberg, Beth M
    'It is a dilemma': perspectives of nurse practitioners on health screening of newly arrived migrants2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 27903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Screening newly arrived migrants from countries with high burden of communicable diseases of public health significance is part of the Swedish national strategy against the spread of these diseases. However, little is known about its implementation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring caregivers' experiences in screening newly arrived migrants to generate knowledge that could inform policy and clinical practice.

    DESIGN: Using an interpretive description framework, we conducted semistructured interviews between November and December 2011 in four Swedish counties, with 15 purposively selected nurses with experience in screening migrants. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Participants described a range of challenges including discordant views between migrants and the nurses about medical screening, inconsistencies in rules and practices, and conflicting policies. Participants indicated that sociocultural differences resulted in divergent expectations with migrants viewing the participants as agents of migration authorities. They also expressed concern over being given a new assignment without training and being expected to share responsibilities with staff from other agencies without adequate coordination. Finally, they indicated that existing policies can be confusing and raise ethical issues. All these were compounded by language barriers, making their work environment extremely complex and stressful.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings illuminate complex challenges that could limit access to, uptake, and delivery of health screening and undermine public health goals, and highlight the need for a multilevel approach. This entails avoiding the conflation of migration with health issues, harmonizing existing policies to make health care services more accessible and acceptable to migrants, and facilitating health professionals' work in promoting public health, improving interagency collaboration and the skills of all staff involved in understanding and effectively responding to migrants' needs, and improving migrants' health literacy through community outreach interventions.

  • 3.
    Kalengayi, Faustine Nkulu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Krantz, I.
    Fear of deportation may limit legal immigrants' access to HIV/AIDS-related care - a survey of Swedish language school students in Northern Sweden2011In: Special Issue: Abstracts of the 7th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health. 3-6 October 2011 Barcelona, Spain., Oxford, England: Blackwell Science , 2011, Vol. 16, p. 350-351Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    A world on the move: challenges and opportunities for hiv/aids and tuberculosis care and prevention among vulnerable migrant populations in Sweden2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Migration is a global phenomenon that characterize today’s globalized world. Although, the relationship between migration and health in the host countries is not always negative, many countries, including Sweden are concerned about possible spread of infectious diseases of public health significance such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, apart from disease profiles, migrants also have different socio-cultural backgrounds, which may challenge health care access and provision.

    Objectives: To investigate, identify, and delineate potential challenges of relevance in the care and prevention of communicable diseases of public health significance in general and particularly HIV/AIDS and TB among migrants from countries where these infections are endemic, and eventually generate knowledge that could inform policies and practice.

    Methods: Data for this thesis were collected in four of the five counties of the Northern region in Sweden. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used including a survey of 268 migrant students in two language schools (I & II); an interview study with 10 care providers caring for patients with migrant backgrounds and observations of care encounters (III) and an interview study with 15 care providers experienced in screening migrants (IV). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to summarize survey data whereas a thematic analysis approach was applied to the qualitative data within the interpretive description framework.

    Results: The students scored on average low on both HIV/AIDS and TB knowledge and displayed misconceptions and negative attitudes towards the two diseases and infected/sick persons. Knowledge level and attitude could be predicted by prior knowledge, years of previous education and geographic origin. In contrast, no association was found between being screened and the level of TB knowledge or attitude towards TB and infected/sick persons. However, fear of being deported appeared to be the main predictor of reluctance to seek HIV/AIDS care after controlling for socio-demographic factors, knowledge level, stigmatizing attitudes and fear of disclosure. Health care providers described complex and intertwined challenges that influenced both care delivery and receipt. The challenges described included language, the socio-cultural diversity within migrant groups and between migrants and the caregivers. These often resulted in divergent perceptions and expectations about care and caring. The participants highlighted the complexities of caring for diverse patients within different institutions with conflicting policies and frameworks. They also described the difficulties the migrants face in navigating the Swedish care system.

    Conclusions: This thesis illuminates complex challenges in the care of migrants. The findings emphasize the need for multilevel strategies in order to remove identified barriers. This requires accommodating diversity by improving care providers’ cultural competence and migrants’ health literacy. It further requires policies and practices that emphasize health services responsiveness in order to provide equal access and equitable care. Finally, it entails revisiting existing policies and legislative frameworks to promote a change in ways of thinking about and approaching migration, HIV/AIDS and TB issues, to address the specific vulnerabilities of mobile populations in a world on the move.

  • 5.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonzon, R.
    Deogan, C.
    HIV/STI prevention targeting migrants in host countries: a scoping review2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 83-84Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nordstrand, Annika
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Perspectives and experiences of new migrants on health screening in Sweden2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, migrants from countries considered to have a high burden of certain infectious diseases are offered health screening to prevent the spread of these diseases, but also identify their health needs. However, very little is known about their experiences and perceptions about the screening process. This study aimed at exploring these perceptions and experiences in order to inform policy and clinical practice. Method: Using an interpretive description framework, 26 new migrants were interviewed between April and June 2013 in four Swedish counties. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Results: The three themes developed include: new country, new practices; new requirements in the new country; and unmet needs and expectations. Participants described what it meant for them to come to a new country with a foreign language, new ways of communicating with caregivers/authorities and being offered health screening without clarification. Participants perceived health screening as a requirement from the authorities to be fulfilled by all newcomers but conceded that it benefits equally the host society and themselves. However, they also expressed concern over the involvement of the Migration Board staff and feared possible collaboration with health service to their detriment. They further stated that the screening program fell short of their expectations as it mainly focused on identifying infectious diseases and overlooked their actual health needs. Finally, they expressed frustration over delay in screening, poor living conditions in reception centers and the restrictive entitlement to care. Conclusions: Migrants are aware of their vulnerability and the need to undergo health screening though they view it as an official requirement. Thus, those who underwent the screening were more concerned about residency rather than the actual benefits of screening. The issues highlighted in this study may limit access to and uptake of the screening service, and compromise its effectiveness. To maximize the uptake: (1) linguistically and culturally adapted information is needed, (2) other screening approaches should be tried, (3) trained medical interpreters should be used, (4) a holistic and human right approach should be applied, (5) the involvement of migration staff should be reconsidered to avoid confusion and worries. Finally, to improve the effectiveness, (6) all migrants from targeted countries should be offered screening and efforts should be taken to improve the health literacy of migrants and the living conditions in reception centers.

  • 7.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlberg, BM
    Perspectives of caregivers on screening migrants: managing conflicting discourses, policies and practicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Krantz, Ingela
    Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden .
    Screening migrants for tuberculosis - a missed opportunity for improving knowledge and attitudes in high-risk groups: a cross-sectional study of Swedish-language students in Umeå, Sweden2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, p. article nr 349-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Migrants from countries with a high-burden of tuberculosis (TB) are at a particular risk of contracting and developing the disease. In Sweden, new immigrants are routinely offered screening for the disease, yet very little is known about their beliefs about the disease which may affect healthcare-seeking behaviours. In this study we assessed recent immigrant students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards TB, and their relationship with the screening process.

    Methods: Data were collected over a one-year period through a survey questionnaire completed by 268 immigrants consecutively registered at two Swedish-language schools in Umea, Sweden. Participants originated from 133 different countries and their ages varied between 16-63 years. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed.

    Results: Though most of them (72%) were screened, knowledge was in general poor with several misconceptions. The average knowledge score was 2.7 +/- 1.3 (SD), (maximum = 8). Only 40 (15 %) of the 268 respondents answered at least half of the 51 knowledge items correctly. The average attitude score was 5.1 +/- 3.3 (SD) (maximum = 12) which meant that most respondents held negative attitudes towards TB and diseased persons. Up to 67% lacked knowledge about sources of information while 71% requested information in their vernacular. Knowledge level was positively associated with having more than 12 years of education and being informed about TB before moving to Sweden. Attitude was positively associated with years of education and having heard about the Swedish Communicable Disease Act, but was negatively associated with being from the Middle East. Neither knowledge nor attitude were affected by health screening or exposure to TB information after immigration to Sweden.

    Conclusions: Though the majority had contact with Swedish health professionals through the screening process, knowledge about tuberculosis among these immigrants was low with several misconceptions and negative attitudes. Information may currently be inaccessible to most of these immigrants due to the language barrier and unfamiliarity with the Swedish healthcare system. If TB education was included as a component of screening programmes, ensuring that it was tailored to educational background, addressed misconceptions and access problems, it could well help improve TB control in these communities.

  • 9.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine Kyungu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    "It is a challenge to do it the right way": an interpretive description of caregivers' experiences in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden2012In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 12, p. 433-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Experiences from nations with population diversity show extensive evidence on the need for cultural and linguistic competence in health care. In Sweden, despite the increasing diversity, only few studies have focused on challenges in cross-cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers in caring for migrant patients in Northern Sweden in order to understand the challenges they face and generate knowledge that could inform clinical practice.

    METHODS: We used an interpretive description approach, combining semi-structured interviews with 10 caregivers purposively selected and participant observation of patient-provider interactions in caring encounters. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis approach. Field notes were also used to orient data collection and confirm or challenge the analysis.

    RESULTS: We found complex and intertwined challenges as indicated in the three themes we present including: the sociocultural diversity, the language barrier and the challenges migrants face in navigating through the Swedish health care system. The caregivers described migrants as a heterogeneous group coming from different geographical areas but also having varied social, cultural and religious affiliations, migration history and status all which influenced the health care encounter, whether providing or receiving. Participants also described language as a major barrier to effective provision and use of health services. Meanwhile, they expressed concern over the use of interpreters in the triad communication and over the difficulties encountered by migrants in navigating through the Swedish health care system.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study illuminates complex challenges facing health care providers caring for migrant populations and highlights the need for multifaceted approaches to improve the delivery and receipt of care. The policy implications of these challenges are discussed in relation to the need to (a) adapt care to the individual needs, (b) translate key documents and messages in formats and languages accessible and acceptable to migrants, (c) train interpreters and enhance caregivers' contextual understanding of migrant groups and their needs, (d) and improve migrants' health literacy through strategies such as community based educational outreach.

  • 10.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine Kyungu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Krantz, Ingela
    Skaraborg Inst Res & Dev, Skövde, Sweden.
    Fear of deportation may limit legal immigrants' access to HIV/AIDS-related care: a survey of Swedish language school students in Northern Sweden2012In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing rates of HIV infection that are currently being reported in high-income countries can be partly explained by migration from countries with generalized epidemics. Yet, early diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in immigrants remains a challenge. This study investigated factors that might be limiting immigrants' access to HIV/AIDS care. Data from 268 legal immigrant students of two Swedish language schools in Northern Sweden were analyzed using logistic regression. Thirty-seven percent reported reluctance to seek medical attention if they had HIV/AIDS. Fear of deportation emerged as the most important determinant of reluctance to seek care after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, knowledge level, stigmatizing attitudes and fear of disclosure. Targeted interventions should consider the heterogeneity of migrant communities and the complex interplay of various factors which may impede access to HIV-related services. The myth about deportation because of HIV/AIDS should be countered.

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