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  • 1.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 2.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners2018In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

  • 3.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Drössler, Lars
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Holmström, Emma
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Klapwijk, Maartje
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Niklasson, Mats
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU)/Foundation Nordens Ark.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 4.
    Kardell, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogsgödslingen i backspegeln: debatten om storskogsbrukets kvävegödsling i Sverige ca 1960-20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kardell, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogsgödslingen i backspegeln: debatten om storskogsbrukets kvävegödsling i Sverige ca 1960-20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mid-1960s, fertilization (with nitrogen) had a breakthrough as a forest management method in Swedish company owned forests. The activity grew and peaked during the 1970s but then lost ground and stabilized on a low level in the 1990s and early 2000s. Over the last five years, however, interest in fertilizing Swedish forests has increased again. In this article factors that have shaped these fluctuations are explored. A specific task is to investigate to what extent the fluctuations correlate with debates on environmental issues. Furthermore, conflicting “fundamental ideas” within interest groups, representing forestry and the environmental movement respectively, are identified and analyzed. The study thus sheds some light on how the relationship between forestry and the environmental movement has evolved, from the 1960s until today.

  • 6.
    Kardell, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogsgödslingen i storskogsbrukets backspegel2010In: Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 76-94Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Alternative pathways to sustainability?: Comparing forest governance models2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    'Aa - her er ein herlig provins til lande lagt': från emigration till inre kolonisation i 1900-talets Norge och Sverige2003In: Heimen, ISSN 0017-9841, E-ISSN 1894-3195, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "0h! A lovely province is added to the country". From emigration to internal colonisation in 20th century Norway and Sweden

    The article discusses the Swedish National Association against Emigration (NAE), established 1907, and its Norwegian counterpart, The Society for the Reduction of Emigration, established 1908 and later known as The New Land Society. These societies arose from nationalistic currents that followed the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905. There had been large scale emigration from both countries for nearly 50 years, and more than every fifth Swede and Norwegian was living abroad. The societies were not only supposed to combat emigration but also, as non-public agencies, to promote "internal colonisation" within their respective national borders. This study points to several similarities as well as differences between the two societies. They were led by individuals with similar political backgrounds, the Swedish publicist Adrian Molin (1880-1942) and the Norwegian politician Johan E. Mellbye (1866-1954), both of whom can be regarded as nationalist right-wing radicals. The boards of directors were dominated by employment interests. The Swedish board also contained a large proportion of politicians from the national assembly and the govern-ment, above all right-wingers and liberals, but also some from the left-wing. Even the business of the societies followed similar lines with "internal colonisation" as their primary goal. By "internal colonisation" the societies meant the establishment of small scale farming and the cultivation of new land within their national borders. The Norwegian society was to a greater degree to engage in the cultivation of new land, while the NAE concentrated its efforts on the estates of mid Sweden. There was great interest in internal colonisation throughout Europe at the time, and both in Noway and in Sweden there were other groups working with colonisation issues. The National Association against Emigration and The Society for the Reduction of Emigration/The New Land Society were however powerful agencies within their respective countries, and the Norwegian society would continue to be so until 1950. With the "internal colonisation" of Prussia as a model, they wished to improve the workers in industry and agriculture, economically, socially and mentally, while at the same time increasing national power. Sweden and Norway were to be expanded within their own borders.

  • 9.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En lappmissionärs dagböcker berättar2008In: Västerbotten, ISSN 0346-4938, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Jorden åt folket: nationalföreningen mot emigrationen 1907-1925.2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the National Society Against Emigration (Sw.Nationalföreningen mot emigrationen) – referred to as the NE – and its radical right-wing leader Adrian Molin. Th e NE was founded in 1907 in order to stem the tide of emigration from Sweden and facilitate re-immigration by providing jobs and accomodation. Its many bureaus served as employment offi ces, land distribution centres and own-your-own-home companies, mainly aimed at creating smallholdings for Swedish working-class families.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the organization, concept and practise of the internal colonization of rural Sweden between 1907 and 1925. By following both the successes and setbacks of the NE during the first decades of the twentieth century, ideas and opportunities circulating in Swedish society in a time of wide-ranging ideological and material change are discussed. Questions in focus include why a society to prevent

    emigration from Sweden emerged at that particular time; the function it served for both society and the state; the form internal colonization actually took and how it was conducted in comparison with other governmental and private agricultural reforms; and the attitude of the NE toward modernization in general. Theoretically the dissertation takes its point of departure in theories on nation-building and internal colonization (i.e., the establishment of small-scale farming and the cultivation of new land within the national borders), corporatism and attitudes toward modernization. The ideological analysis has been inspired by political scientist Michael Freeden´s theory of the construction of political ideologies via political concepts, as well as an analysis of the view of social categories such as gender, class and ethnicity. The source material is comprised of magazines, newspaper articles, letters and books and offi cial parliamentary publications. The practise of internal colonization has been studied with the aid of preserved accounts of the NE’s small-scale farming colonies, real estate documents, company reports, correspondance and further press materials.

    The surge of anti-emigration attitudes is explained as a powerful reaction arising at the turn of the century due to the economic upswing in Swedish industry and the social transformations which followed in the 1890s, when the country was seen as a nation with a promising future. That Adrian Molin founded the NE in 1907 is viewed as a consequence of his nationalistic thought. Together with political scientist Prof. Rudolf Kjellén, Molin was one of the country´s foremost advocates of an integrative nationalism.

    The NE was led by an elite of middle- and upper-class men involved in politics, industry and voluntary associations. Female members and representatives of the lower social classes were mostly absent. In general the NE neglected women in both speeches and plans, being preoccupied with ideas concerning the cultivation of middle-class Swedish men.

    The NE became a co-actor in a corporative colonization eff ort sanctioned by government financing during the 1910s. In 1920 the NE’s projects were condemned as hierarchical and undemocratic in comparison with other own-home organizations. Many other own-home companies were built on a cooperative foundation,

    while the NE was run by a national, regional, and local political and financial elite. Suspicions were raised about the raison d´être of the society. The state withdrew its subsidies and loans, and the NE lost it close connections with the government. Though conservative and reactionary in social issues, the NE cannot be characterized as critical of civilization or economic modernization of the country. Its programme intended to aid in the development

    of both agriculture and industry. The creation of more smallholdings would help bridge the problematic transition between two systems, from agrarian to industrial society.

  • 11.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kyrkan och kolonisationen under 1900-talet2005In: Livsfrågor i Lappland: kyrkan och kolonisationen: forskarsymposium i Vilhelmina 30 september-1 oktober 2004 / [ed] Tuuli Forsgren och Sigurd Nygren, Umeå: Johan Nordlander-sällskapet (JNS) , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Landskap och identitet2003In: Värdefulla landskap / [ed] Erland Mårald, Umeå: Landskapet som arena, Umeå universitet , 2003, p. 129-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kardell, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Idéer och värderingar i den svenska skogsgödslingens historia2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sedan 1950-talet har skogsgödsling med kväve framhållits som en av de mest lönsamma skogsvårdsåtgärderna inom skogsbruket. Trots dessa fördelar har intresset för skogsgödsling pendlat kraftigt över tid och endast lockat de stora skogsbolagen i Sverige. Många faktorer har påverkat storskogsbrukets intresse för skogsgödslingen över tid. Ekonomiska överväganden, statliga författningar och påtryckningar från kritiska miljöorganisationer och andra intressegrupper har haft betydelse, men periodvis också en oro över gödslingens ekonomiska och ekologiska konsekvenser för virke och skog. Idéer och värderingar i den svenska skogsgödslingens historia. Osäkerheten kring skogsgödslingens effekter, som byggts upp sedan 1960-talet, har skapat motsättningar mellan gödslingsförespråkare och -motståndare. Konflikterna har underbyggts av seglivade idéer ("tankefigurer") som står emot varandra. Idéer och frågor som uttrycktes på 1960-talet har fortfarande inflytande över dagens debatt och framstår därmed som relativt stabila. Detta innebär att motsättningarna sannolikt kommer att kvarstå inom den närmaste framtiden.

  • 14.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kardell, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Intensive Forestry as Progress or Decay?: An Analysis of the Debate about Forest Fertilization in Sweden, 1960–20102011In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 112-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mid-1960s, fertilization (with nitrogen) had a breakthrough as a promising forest management method in Swedish company owned forests. The activity grew and peaked during the 1970s but then lost ground and stabilized at a low level in the 1990s and early 2000s. Over the last five years, however, interest in fertilizing Swedish forests has increased again. In this article both the forestry industry’s, and the environmental movement’s, attitudes toward forest fertilization over time are investigated. Furthermore, conflicting persistent ideas about nature and future, i.e., “figures of thought”, within interest groups, representing forestry and the environmental movement respectively, are identified and analyzed in relation to the debate on fertilization. The analysis reveals mainly three figures of thought that have influenced this debate during the period, “the idea of progress”, “the idea of decay” and “the idea of the great chain of being”. The study thus sheds light on how the relationship between forestry and the environmental movement has evolved from the 1960s until today and uncovers thought patterns that have stood, and continue to stand, in opposition to one another.

  • 15.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mineur, Eva
    The Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Attitudes on intensive forestry: an investigation into perceptions of increased production requirements in Swedish forestry2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 438-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the Swedish government launched an inquiry into the possibilities, benefits and requirements for conducting intensive forestry in part of the Swedish countryside, including fertilization, genetically improved plant material and fastgrowing species beyond what is currently allowed in Swedish legislation. Drawing upon part of that governmental investigation, this paper analyzes attitudes toward intensive forestry over time. The study draws upon studies of points of conflict written in the 1970s and 1980s, attitudes among different stakeholder groups, and interviews with forest owners and stakeholder groups potentially affected by intensive forestry. The study concludes that the diverging opinions as to what constitutes acceptable forest use have remained largely the same over the years. Radical landscape change is generally not seen as desirable, but views diverge over the use of novel tree species and the use of fertilization.

  • 16.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogslandskapet som arena: en idé och miljöhistorisk bakgrundsanalys2009In: Konflikt och konsensus i skogen: intensivodling av skog ur ett humanistiskt och samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv, Umeå: SLU , 2009, p. 2-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delstudien syftar till att ge en bakgrund till dagens skogsbruk i Sverige och att sätta in skogspolitiken i ett idé- och miljöhistoriskt sammanhang. Sammantaget handlar undersökningen om hur skogen har brukats och hur detta brukande har motiverats, institutionaliserats, reglerats och ifrågasatts under de senaste århundradena. Den består av två delar. Den första delen inleds med en historik som tar upp maktförhållandena i skogen och hur skogen har nyttjats genom tiderna. Därefter följer en redogörelse över skogsbrukets och skogsvårdslagens förändring över tid fram till att miljörörelsen, rennäringen, kulturminnesvården och andra "allmänna intressen" som värnar om skogen tar plats i skogsvårdslagen. I den andra delen diskuteras ett urval av konflikter som uppkommit i anslutning till skogen och skogsbruket, främst med tyngdpunkt på 1970- och 1980-talen: debatten om plantering av skog i öppna landskap, kalhyggesdebatten, reaktionerna vid inplantering av främmande trädslag, debatten om bruket av bekämpningsmedel samt visionen om att utveckla och nyttja genmodifierade träd. Flera av dessa konflikter kan rimligen åter aktualiseras vid ett intensifierat skogsbruk av det slag som utredningen behandlar.

  • 17.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mineur, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konflikt och konsensus i skogen: intensivodling av skog ur ett humanistiskt och samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv. Faktaunderlag till utredning om Möjligheter till intensivodling av skog2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första delstudien, ”Skogslandskapet som arena”, syftar till att ge en bakgrund till dagens skogsbruk i Sverige och att sätta in skogspolitiken i ett idé- och miljöhistoriskt sammanhang. Sammantaget handlar undersökningen om hur skogen har brukats och hur detta brukande har motiverats, institutionaliserats, reglerats och ifrågasatts under de senaste århundradena. Den består av två delar. Den första delen inleds med en historik som tar upp maktförhållandena i skogen och hur skogen har nyttjats genom tiderna. Därefter följer en redogörelse över skogsbrukets och skogsvårdslagens förändring över tid fram till att miljörörelsen, rennäringen, kulturminnesvården och andra ”allmänna intressen” som värnar om skogen tar plats i skogsvårdslagen. I den andra delen diskuteras ett urval konflikter som uppkommit i anslutning till skogen och skogsbruket, främst med tyngdpunkt på 1970- och 1980-talen: debatten om plantering av skog i öppna landskap, kalhyggesdebatten, reaktionerna vid inplantering av främmande trädslag, debatten om bruket av bekämpningsmedel samt visionen om att utveckla och nyttja genmodifierade träd. Flera av dessa konflikter kan rimligen åter aktualiseras vid ett intensifierat skogsbruk av det slag som utredningen behandlar.Den andra delstudien, ”Attityder och värderingar”, undersöker privatpersoners och skogsägares inställningar till den svenska skogen i allmänhet och till intensivodling av skog i synnerhet. Privatpersoner betraktar vanligen skogen som en rekreationsresurs, medan skogsägare håller skogens traditionella, ekonomiska värden närmare hjärtat. När attityder mot skogen väl förändras beror det ofta på generationsväxlingar, ökat miljömedvetande och urbaniseringstrender. Sveriges stora demografiska och kulturella skillnader har även bidragit till att skogen idag uppfattas olika i olika delar av landet. Samtidigt som vi bor längre bort från skogen än tidigare ökar vår efterfrågan på dess sociala värden, vilket innebär att ungefär hälften av våra skogsbesök numera sker i tätortsnära skog, som främst är förknippad med rekreation och vila. Skogens ekonomiska värden är emellertid fortfarande viktiga, inte minst när det gäller skogens roll som framtida energikälla. Intervjuade skogsägare har visat sig vara förhållandevis positiva till intensivodling av skog, samtidigt som det av miljömässiga och ekonomiska skäl finns ett starkt motstånd mot att öka användningen av gödsel. Privatpersoner som intervjuats anser i regel att intensivodlade områden begränsar naturupplevelsen, skadar miljön och missgynnar mångfalden. Fördelar som ökad möjlighet att utvinna alternativa energibränslen och ökade exportmöjligheter för svensk industri har emellertid också nämnts.Den tredje delstudien, ”Potentiella synergier och målkonflikter”, relaterar intensivodling av skog dels till de av riksdagen fastställda miljömålen dels till eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av ett förändrat nyttjande av jordbruksmark. De målkonflikter som identifieras, främst mellan miljömålen ’Begränsad klimatpåverkan’ och ’Ett rikt växt- och djurliv’, kan inte enbart lösas på teknisk väg utan kräver någon form av politisk avvägning. För att ansvariga myndigheter ska kunna göra en sådan avvägning krävs dock att det utarbetas någon form av politisk prioriteringsordning som kan vägleda myndigheterna i det arbetet. När det gäller eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av intensivodling framgår det av intervjuer med olika intresseorganisationer att många konflikter sannolikt kan undvikas om synpunkter från olika intressen beaktas i samband med planering av förändrat marknyttjande.

  • 18.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Langston, Nancy
    Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader—and often ecologically focused—concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  • 19.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Annika, Nordin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin (Contributor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika (Contributor)
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna (Contributor)
    Södertörns högskola.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H. (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Laudon, Hjalmar (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf (Contributor)
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas (Contributor)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria (Contributor)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan (Contributor)
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years' rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 20. Nummelin, Tuomas
    et al.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Riala, Maria
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Forest futures by Swedish students: developing a mind mapping method for data collection2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 807-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are an important natural resource in Sweden. They are used for multiple purposes, for example, providing economic returns from timber harvest, conservation of biodiversity, provision of wild berries and mushrooms and recreational benefits. People's perceptions of forests and forest use are currently under transformation due to drivers like globalization and urbanization. The aim of this study was to analyse in particular Swedish university student's visions of future forests using a newly developed survey method based on mind mapping. An online survey with mind map technique was used to collect data from university students in Umeå, northern Sweden. The study focused on features of forests, products derived from forests and activities in forests. The results indicate that students regard ecological, social and economic aspects of forests as important for future forests and the use of them. In particular, the role of non-wood forest products, like berries and mushrooms, as well as recreational features of forests were central to many of the students. The multitude of different visions suggests that forest management decisions of today, directing the future of forests, need to consider the multiple use of forests to be able to satisfy forest preferences also of younger generations.

  • 21. Ranius, Thomas
    et al.
    Hämäläinen, Aino
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Olsson, Bengt
    Eklöf, Karin
    Stendahl, Johan
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Felton, Adam
    The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: a synthesis2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 209, p. 409-425Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization), though these may also be associated with adverse environmental impacts.

  • 22.
    Ranius, Thomas
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Erland, Mårald
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

  • 23.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Björkman, Christer
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Southern Swedish Forest Res Ctr, Rorsjovagen 1,Box 49, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Granström, Anders
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 109-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  • 24.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Comparing forest governance models2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Öhman, Karin
    SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management.
    Governing competing demands for forest resources in Sweden2011In: Forests, ISSN ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 218-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing and competing land use, where we make use of a growing share of resources, potentially undermines the capacity of forests to provide multiple functions such as timber, biodiversity, recreation and pasture lands. The governance challenge is thus to manage trade-offs between human needs and, at the same time, maintain the capacities of forests to provide us with these needs. Sweden provides a clear example of this kind of challenge. Traditionally, timber has been the most apparent contribution of the forest to Swedish national interests. However, due to competing land use, the identification of the wider role of forests in terms of multifunctionality has been recognized. Today, a number of functions, such as water quality and biodiversity together with cultural and social activities related to forests, are increasingly included as potential demands on forests in competition with traditional functions such as timber production. The challenge is thus related to trade-offs between different functions. How to balance the relationship and guide trade-offs between different functions of forests is, to a large extent, a matter of policy choice and the design of appropriate governance institutions and pro-active management activities. Based on perceptions among stakeholders on future competing demands and a literature review, the paper explore the multifunctionality of the Swedish forests and how it is affected by competing demands for land use; how multifunctionality is currently governed; and concludes by suggesting promising decision support methods to manage trade-offs between different functions.

  • 26.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Competing land use associated with Sweden´s forests: External drivers affecting Swedish forests and forestry2009Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dilemmas in forest policy development: the Swedish forestry model under pressure2015In: The future use of nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Springer, 2015, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter brings back the discussion to the Swedish situation and describes the forest policy dilemmas related to a transition of forest governance. The expected transition implies a shift in forest policy and practice in developed countries with a reduced "emphasis on timber production relative to the provision of environmental goods and services". The chapter describes a number of dilemmas and concludes that Swedish forestry policy has not managed to handle the gap between key stakeholders. Now this gap seems too wide to expect any joint contribution to the development of Swedish forest policy. Instead, the disagreements have resulted in putting pressure on the Swedish forestry model 

  • 28.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Konflikten om bärplockning är av gammalt datum2012In: Skogshistoriska sällskapet. Årsskrift 2012, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 44-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den politiska majoriteten i riksdagen har hela tiden gått emot förslagen om inskränkningar av allemansrätten till skogens vilda bär. Man har erkänt att det förekommer konflikter kring resursen, men menat att de kan förebyggas och lösas genom undervisning och information om vilka lagar och regler som gäller i skog och mark och inte via hårdare regleringar som stärker markägarnas rätt till bären.

    Avgörande för denna inställning tycks hittills ha varit att bären är alltför lite utnyttjad resurs – även som kommersiell produkt och som växer utan att markägaren behöver göra några investeringar. Det har därför funnits en farhåga att begränsningar av rätten till att plocka skulle göra resursen ännu mindre utnyttjad, vilket setts som en nationalekonomisk nackdel.

    Trots att skogens bär är en så användbar resurs är det nämligen endast en liten del som plockas. Av de uppskattningsvis 300 miljoner kilo bär som växer i de svenska skogarna varje år är det alltjämt uppskattningsvis endast cirka 5–10 procent som tas om hand. Samtidigt importeras stora mängder skogsbär i dag, liksom under hela 1900-talet. Nutida statistik visar exempelvis att när Sverige under 2000-talet exporterat mellan 6 000 och 9 000 ton blåbär per år så har vi också importerat mellan 4 000 och 5 000 ton.

  • 29.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Forskning för ett reflexivt, variationsrikt och hållbart skogsbruk2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbart skogsbruk är en utmaning i en tid präglad av allt större efterfrågan på skogens ekosystemtjänster. Forskning som utförts vid Umeå universitet om skogens sociala värden, inklusive allemansrättens gränser, har påverkat uppfattningen om vilka skogens sociala värden är i ett svenskt perspektiv. Den har också bidragit till uppvärderingen av skogens estetiska och rekreationsmässiga värden. Detta synliggörs i nationella policydokument samt i utbildningssatsningar inom skogssektorn. Forskningen kan på längre sikt bidra till ett mer reflexivt, variationsrikt och socialt hållbart skogsbruk.

    Forskningen har utgjort en del av forskningsprogrammet Future Forests, ett transdisciplinärt forskningsprogram som påbörjades 2009. Huvuddelen av forskningen om skogens sociala värden har pågått mellan 2012 och 2016. Ett stort antal forskare från Umeå universitet och SLU har bidragit. Den nyckelforskare som lyfts fram här är Anna Sténs, fil. dr. i historia och aktiv vid Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Umeå universitet.

    Forskarna har samverkat med en rad aktörer inom skogssektorn, däribland miljörörelsen, Samiska organisationer, myndigheter, friluftslivsorganisationer och skogsindustri. 

  • 30.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ja till förskönade landskap, nej till reglering2014In: Västerbottenskuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kulturella ekosystemtjänster i skoglig planering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar arbetssätt och resultat under projektet ”Integrering av information om kulturella ekosystemtjänster i privata skogsägares skogsbruksplaner”. Projektet pågick 2016-09-15–2016-12-15. Finansiärer var Umeå universitet och Vinnova. Projektledare var Anna Sténs, Umeå universitet. Projektet har avrapporterats till Vinnova.

  • 32.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogen och det sköna2015In: Tänk. Ett vetgirigt magasin från Umeå universitet, ISSN 2001-3418Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogens estetik: Anna Sténs presenterar sin forskning2015In: Norra Skogsmagasinet, ISSN 1653-5154, no 1, p. 30-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbrukets anpassning till estetiska och upplevelsemässiga värden förknippas ofta med tätortsnära skogar och tätbefolkade områden med mycket turism. Anna Sténs vid Future Forests vände på perspektivet och tog reda på hur skogsägare i ett glesbefolkat och skogsrikt Västerbotten tänker.

  • 34.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogens estetiska värden2014In: Grön entreprenör: Skogens sociala värden - Forskningen visar vägen / [ed] Susanna Lundqvist, Lena Johnson, Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2014, 1, p. 72-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogens skönhetsvärden växer i vikt2014In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 2p. 28-29Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 37.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kardell, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Oenigheten består om skogsgödsling2014In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 2p. 26-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kardell, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Skogsdödens "uppgång och fall": vad har vi lärt oss?2014In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 4p. 22-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Managing forest aesthetics in the boreal fringe2014In: International forestry review, ISSN 1465-5489, E-ISSN 2053-7778, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 52-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The value and management of forest aesthetics have been heavily studied since the early 1970s. However, studies moving outsideof urban areas are less frequent. This also holds for Sweden. Previous research has focused on the southern, urban parts of thecountry rather than the sparsely populated, forest dependent, northern interior. However, to increase the quality of livelihood inthese areas, an aesthetically attractive environment is an important component. This paper discusses the attitudes to aestheticalconsiderations among forest owners and consultants in the northern parts of Sweden. It raises questions such as: Whichconsiderations have been taken to aesthetical values in boreal forests? What policies lay behind and what was gained from theseconsiderations? What are the attitudes to forest aesthetics today and who will be responsible for the preservation and creationof aesthetical values in the future? The study has been conducted through a qualitative literary review of previous research andinterviews with present stakeholders. Preliminary results show that the societal interest in forest aesthetics is high, but policiesregulating these values have become more vague. There also seem to be a discrepancy between forest owner’s and consultant’sattitudes when discussing aesthetical considerations in boreal productive forests.

  • 40.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten: Hinder eller möjlighet för grönt entreprenörskap?2014In: Skogens sociala värden: Forskningen visar vägen / [ed] Susanna Lundqvist & Lena Johnson, Alnarp: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2014, 1, p. 52-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten in Sweden: A resistant custom2014In: Landscapes, ISSN 2040-8153, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By studying parliamentary proposals, debates, and reports as well as governmental inquiries and proposals from the first half of the twentieth century, the authors analyse the status of the allemansrätt – ‘every man’s right’ to public access - in Sweden. The founding principles of this use-right have been generally accepted since the late nineteenth century, but for almost as long there has been a feeling that it has been used (and abused) for commercial as well as personal interest, first by ‘for-profit’ berry harvesters and later on by tourist companies. These uses have been questioned by a minority of conservative and (to a less extent) liberal landowners, who have tried to limit the right of public access to private land by addressing the issue in the parliament. At the same time, a political majority of socialists, liberals, and conservatives has defended the right from being either limited or regulated by law. This resistance is explained by the economic characteristics of the resources at stake, and by the difficulties associated with transferring a customary right into law, i.e. an informal institution to a formal institution.

  • 42.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Allemansrätten och bären: vem ska äga "skogens guld"2014In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 2p. 20-21Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Divergent interests and ideas around property rights: the case of berry harvesting in Sweden2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the clash between interests and ideas concerning property rights and regulation by analyzing the ongoing debate on the right of public access in Sweden, which has recently intensified due to an influx of foreign professional berry harvesters. The conflicts in Sweden are found to stem from contradictory concepts concerning property (notably, ownership and the right of public access) and ideological differences in terms of whether forest resources should be regulated by government or governance. While the precise circumstances of this case are somewhat unique to Sweden, differences of opinion concerning property rights and regulations are common and so our findings will be broadly applicable when defining and analyzing forest-related conflicts, especially those involving multiple-use situations.

  • 44.
    Wikström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Problematising refugee migrants in the Swedish forestry sector2019In: Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research, ISSN 1024-2589, E-ISSN 1996-7284, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, ideas behind current Swedish efforts to integrate refugees in ‘green’ industries are analysed. We ask why the employment of refugees in forestry, a sector historically and globally notorious for its abuse of migrant workers, has come to be regarded as a solution in official Swedish migration policy. A discourse analytical approach is applied, analysing what the arguments are for introducing refugees to forestry work and how the forest, as a space, is depicted and used discursively as a means for refugee integration. The sources for the analyses consist of articles appearing in the printed press from 2015 to 2017. Three main problem discourses are identified: the ‘labour shortage’ discourse, the ‘refugees in need of work’ discourse and the ‘forest as a health-promoting learning environment’ discourse. The hazardous aspects of forestry work or the fact that refugees might be overqualified for the jobs offered are generally left unproblematised.

1 - 44 of 44
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