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  • 1.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 44-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Challenges to the Legitimacy of Private Forest Governance: the Development of Forest Certification in Sweden2012Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 424-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial scholarly attention has been given to the effectiveness and legitimacy of private forest governance, especially the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Research has suggested that such cooperation between forest corporations and ENGOs may develop shared norms for responsible forestry. At least initially, however, conflicts are likely to occur since these stakeholders are accountable to different constituencies.Yet there are comparatively few studies on how such conflicts have affected the development and legitimacy of forest certification on the national level, which is where conflicts must be managed. This study explores how stakeholders’ search for accountability has influenced the legitimacy of forest certification schemes, drawing on developments in Sweden. The study relies on the theoretical foundations of governance, legitimacy and accountability, and on reports from forest corporations and ENGOs. The results show that these stakeholders have continuously disagreed on the input and output legitimacy of forest certification, though the positions have changed over time, eventually making ENGOs reject forest certification schemes. These repeated conflicts have been fuelled by the stakeholders’ search for public reputational accountability and market accountability. In effect, the very meaning of the FSC label is today being questioned. Thereby forest certification in Sweden has, at least temporarily, left the suggested path to the evolution of shared norms. These results call for related studies on how to manage accountability issues and power relations in forest certification.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Constructing and contesting the legitimacy of private forest governance: The case of forest certification in Sweden2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, political scientists have devoted substantial attention to the changing role of the state towards more inclusion of non-state actors in policymaking. This deliberative turn, or move towards governance, may signal inability to handle complex problems without cooperation with nonstate actors. On the other hand, governance is frequently credited with generating legitimate decision-making processes and results. In some instances, non-governmental actors have even taken the lead in policymaking. One archetype of such private governance, which has received significant scholarly attention, is forest certification. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is frequently described as the most democratic and therefore legitimate forest certification organization since it grants equal voting rights to three stakeholder groups in the formulation of criteria for responsible forestry: environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), social groups (indigenous peoples and labor organizations) and forest owners. However, in Sweden, a country often described as a role model in forest certification, the FSC has increasingly received critique for failing to generate legitimate processes and results, and recently three of five ENGOs have chosen to exit the FSC organization. Such processes of de-legitimation have received little attention in the forest certification literature.

    This thesis therefore provides a critical assessment of the legitimacy of forest certification in Sweden. Legitimacy is analyzed through concerned stakeholders’ perceptions of both procedural qualities (input legitimacy) and problem-solving capacity (output legitimacy). This study of legitimacy is combined with an assessment of the ability of certification to enhance environmental protection, defined as changes in both forest management practices and biophysical conditions. The thesis focuses not the least on legitimacy on the local level, which is where the actual implementation takes place. Today local studies of the legitimacy of forest certification are rare.

    Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are applied and a number of sources are analyzed: forest monitoring data, survey data, interviews with and documents produced by the participating stakeholders. Papers I and IV analyze the perceived legitimacy of forest certification, while Papers II and III analyze forest certification schemes’ ability to enhance environmental protection.

    The results show that a process of de-legitimation is occurring in Swedish forest certification. In particular, certification has lost legitimacy with ENGOs, which increasingly consider Swedish forest certification to lack both input legitimacy and output legitimacy. Moreover, although the Swedish FSC standard pays attention to reindeer husbandry, the results show that reindeer herders consider themselves to have limited power to influence long-term forest planning and management (low output legitimacy). The forest industry, on the other hand, increasingly grants legitimacy to forest certification due to customer demands, which are created not the least by pressures from international ENGOs and by EU regulation. The results also show that Swedish forest companies have paid more attention to their environmental practices after obtaining certification. However, to what extent these changes result in positive environmental impacts remains uncertain, especially since forests in Sweden grow slowly, which requires analyses over time. There are also measurement problems resulting from the low certification rate among small-scale forest owners and from the fact that certified small-scale owners tend to be more active in their management.

    These findings highlight that research on private forest governance should not neglect the role of the state, neither as a buyer nor as a regulator. These findings also suggest that further research should pay attention to power asymmetries in private governance and develop methods for better understanding and evaluating the certification schemes’ environmental and social impacts.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013-2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Towards democratic and effective forest governance?: The discursive legitimation of forest certification in northern Sweden2014Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 803-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, particularly that of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), is frequently claimed to constitute an effective and democratic private governance arrangement for responsible forestry. It has, however, recently been questioned whether this view holds true for the northernmost countries, which have traditionally been presented as successful examples of forest certification. Yet there is little research on the perceived legitimacy of forest certification at the local level, which is where the standard implementation takes place. This paper examines how the perceived legitimacy of forest certification is created as well as challenged at the local level in Sweden, drawing on Steffek's [2009. Discursive legitimation in environmental governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 11, 313–318] conceptualisation of discursive legitimation and Bernstein's [2011. Legitimacy in intergovernmental and non-state global governance. Review of International Political Economy, 18 (1), 17–51] definition of legitimacy as well as semi-structured interviews with forest companies, reindeer husbandry (indigenous Sámi) and environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs). The results reveal that local ENGOs question the FSC's decision-making process and results, while both the ENGOs and reindeer husbandry see few opportunities to influence long-term forest management. These findings highlight the difficulties of managing power asymmetries in certification and the challenges involved when certification standards are translated from policy to practice.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Why do forest companies change their CSR strategies? Responses to market demands and public regulation through dual-certification2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 349-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification represents a comparatively new means of CSR, which is important in the forest industry. Forest companies and industries have previously certified their management and products in accordance with one of the competing systems (FSC: Forest Stewardship Council and PEFC: Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes), but recently, important large-scale companies in several countries have started to certify under both schemes. This study explores the causes and effects of this change in strategies, drawing on semi-structured interviews with Swedish forest companies and industries and European retailers. The results show that public bodies, not the least in the EU, as well as ENGOs, have transformed customer demands, resulting in dual-certification. This change in strategies has the potential to alter corporate environmental practices throughout the supply chains. These results call for further research on the under-studied issue of the interaction between public regulation and private forest governance.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden2014Ingår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 117-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of multi-level governance is well illustrated by forest management in one of Europe’s large forested states, Sweden. Deregulated government policies emphasise “freedom with responsibility,” largely expecting the forest sector to determine ways in which policy goals and legal requirements are reached. In relation to this, Sweden has become one of the countries with the largest share of forests certified by third-party organisations, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), in accordance with specific environmental and social criteria. This multi-level case study draws on official documents and semi-structured interviews to analyse Swedish forest governance; specifically, the impact of multiplicity and complexity of environmental considerations on agreement over goal coordination, implementation, and evaluation for feedback and accountability. This contributes to previous research by analysing interactions between state regulation and certification at multiple levels.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 191-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 9.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tysiachniouk, Maria
    Centre for Independent Social Research, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local consequences of applying international norms: differences in the application of forest certification in northern Sweden, northern Finland, and northwest Russia2009Ingår i: Ecology and Society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, developed in the early 1990s, is a process in which independent assessors grant use of the certification label to producers who meet certain environmental and social criteria set for their forest products. This label was quickly seen to offer a market advantage and to signal corporate social and environmental responsibility. This paper focuses on international norms pertaining to environmental and indigenous rights, as manifested in cases of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)- and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)-compatible certification, and how these norms have been applied domestically and perceived locally in different states. Case studies are drawn from northern Sweden, northern Finland, and three regions in northwest Russia. The studies illustrate that the choice and implementation of certification type depend considerably on national infrastructure and market characteristics and result in substantial differences in the impact that international norms have at the local level.

  • 10. Meinderts, Sanne M.
    et al.
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Beuger, Boukje M.
    Klei, Thomas R. L.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Kuijpers, Taco W.
    Matozaki, Takashi
    Huisman, Elise J.
    De Haas, Masja
    Van den Berg, Timo K.
    Van Bruggen, Robin
    Human and murine splenic neutrophils are potent phagocytes of IgG-opsonized red blood cells2017Ingår i: Blood Advances, ISSN 2473-9529, Vol. 1, nr 14, s. 875-886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Red blood cell (RBC) clearance is known to occur primarily in the spleen, and is presumed to be executed by red pulp macrophages. Erythrophagocytosis in the spleen takes place as part of the homeostatic turnover of RBCs to remove old RBCs. It can be strongly promoted by immunoglobulin G (IgG) opsonization of RBCs, a condition that can occur as a consequence of autoantibody or alloantibody formation. The purpose of our study was to investigate which phagocytes are involved in IgG-mediated RBC clearance in the human spleen. We developed a highly specific in vitro assay to monitor RBC phagocytosis in total human splenocytes. Surprisingly, we have found that whereas homeostatic clearance of RBCs is primarily a task for splenic macrophages, neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, also monocytes can be a major factor in clearance of IgG-opsonized RBCs. Erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils is strongly dependent on the degree of opsonization of the RBCs. Additionally, the process is enhanced after blocking the "do not eat me" signal CD47 on the opsonized RBCs, which binds signal regulatory protein a, a myeloid inhibitory receptor that restricts phagocytosis. Moreover, RBCs isolated from autoimmune hemolytic anemia patients, opsonized by auto-IgGs, were shown to be readily phagocytosed by neutrophils. Finally, priming of neutrophils by inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor a and lipopolysaccharide further increases the magnitude of erythrophagocytosis. Collectively, our data suggest that neutrophils contribute significantly to the phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized RBCs, especially under inflammatory conditions. This indicates a hereto unanticipated contribution of neutrophils in RBC phagocytosis, especially under pathological conditions such as alloimmunization or autoimmunization.

  • 11.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Annika, Nordin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Södertörns högskola.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H. (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Laudon, Hjalmar (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years' rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 12.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 87-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

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