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  • 1.
    Andersson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En gemensam europeisk skogspolitik?: En integrationsteoretisk studie av ett politikområde på tillväxt2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines efforts to integrate a “new” policy sector – forest and forestry – into the European Union (EU). There is currently no legal foundation for a common forest policy and some member states (not least Sweden), as well as parts of the forestry sector, have been strongly opposed to one. At the same time, administrative units and structures within the EU have been created and they and some member states have promoted a common policy. This raises the question how can we understand and explain this?

    The purpose of this dissertation is to problematise, map and analyse mainly Swedish actors’ attitudes to efforts to create a common forest policy within the EU. The study is based on neofunctionalism, which is a classic theory of integration, but it uses newer theorising (from intergovernmentalism and modern versions of neofunctionalism) to address some of the weaknesses of the approach.

    I investigate the role, preferences and strategies of the main actors. This includes EU institutions and member states. I also map European industry interests and other associations, interest groups and active networks and study their role in the process. In these multi-national settings, I pay particular (although not exclusive) attention to their Swedish members. Within Sweden, I examine how governmental and non-governmental forest actors behave vis-à-vis the EU.

    The empirical investigation shows that some of Swedish actors, for example the private forest owners’ organisation and forest industries associations, have change their preferences and strate gies over time. They have come to believe that whether they like it or not, other policy areas affect forest and forestry both directly and indirectly. Because of this, they now take the position that it is better to promote a limited European forest policy rather than remaining aloof and risk the creation of a much more comprehensive and centralised policy. At the same time (and for now at least), the Swedish government and most party politicians remain opposed to any attempt to formalise a forest policy within the EU.

    This study contributes new knowledge about how new policy areas become integrated within EU, including knowledge about the roles that different actors can have in such processes. The results are of interest to researchers, decision makers and the interested public. They can also influence thinking about Sweden’s influence in, and relation to, EU forest policy.

    Based on the empirical results, my theoretical conclusion is that organised interests have an important role in the integration process. The integration process of forest and forestry is not driven by one actor, but by many different actors, who operate on different levels and who have different interests.

    This study shows that forest and forestry-related questions have come to the EU, and they will remain there. The important question for the future is not if there will be some kind of European level policy on forest and forestry, but rather what form European policy will take.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Unionens byråkrater: kommissionen och de svenska statstjänstemännen2005In: EU och Sverige: ett sammanlänkat statsskick, Liber förlag, Malmö , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Does collaboration lead to sustainability?: A study of public–private partnerships in the Swedish mountains2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts that are frequently manifested in the Swedish mountains often stem from the use and preservation of natural resources: resistance against protected area proposals, protests concerning the management of large carnivores, felling of old-growth forests, and disputes over who should be allowed to hunt or fish are commonplace. There are currently strong trends, both in national and international policy making, towards leaning on various forms of collaborative governance arrangements to deal with such policy failures. Consequently, various forms of partnerships have been initiated to promote more sustainable practices in mountain regions of Sweden. But to what extent does the creation of collaborative arrangements in natural resource management improve policy output and sustainability outcomes? To examine the issue, data was extracted from 47 semi-structured interviews with 39 project leaders and eight county officials, the sample being randomly selected from a database of 245 public-private collaborative projects in the Swedish mountains. The results indicate that partnerships do lead to improved sustainability – especially when it comes to social outcomes. There is, however, a need for more systematic follow-ups by practitioners, particularly on ecological outcomes where the country administrative boards should take a leading role and facilitate such evaluations in the future.

  • 4.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Grön översiktsplan i Vilhelmina kommun: Ett exempel på deltagande landskapsplanering2017In: Landskapsforum 2017 – Landskapsperspektiv i fysisk planering: Helhetssyn för hållbara lösningar / [ed] Anders Esselin, KSLA , 2017, Vol. 156, p. 21-22Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Slutrapport för projektet: hur kan skogens sociala värden bidra till en hållbar landsbygdsutveckling?2016Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 26, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU; utilizing a revisited neo-functional framework focusing on cultivated spillover and non-governmental forest stakeholders' preferences and strategies. The study is based on in-depth interviews with central non-governmental representatives divided into four categories: forest owners, forest industry, environmental representatives and other representatives. The paper shows that, in spite of lacking interest and engagement in this issue on the Swedish government's side, the Swedish forest owners and the forest industry have made a U-turn and now welcome some form of formalized forest policy in the EU, as it would benefit their interests. They also believe they can influence the content of the integration process. This confirms the theoretical premise that organized interests, in this case non-governmental forestry stakeholders in Sweden, can act as pressure groups for further coordination and integration. National and transnational elites and their work in transnational networks and associations seem particularly important in this context.

  • 7.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Camilla, Sandström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Public-private partnerships in a Swedish rural context: A policy tool for the authorities to achieve sustainable rural development?2017In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 49, p. 58-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have become a popular tool for governing rural development in a European context. PPPs are often presented as significant solutions for increasing both the effectiveness (problem-solving capacity) and the legitimacy of sustainable rural governance in terms of participation and accountability. In Sweden, where PPPs have played a marginal role, due to the EU cohesion policy they are now gaining ground as a model for the governance and management of natural resources in rural areas. Previous research shows that the state remains crucial in governing the process of governance through partnerships, especially in a rural as opposed to an urban context, where the state plays an ongoing role in initiating, structuring, financing and regulating partnerships. Is this an example of the state trying to counterbalance the increased power of the private sector, or the opposite – that is, an attempt to reduce social exclusion and increase participation by promoting the interest of private actors in local development processes? Our study examines the critical role of the state in these partnerships. We focus on authorities in charge of natural resource management and rural development and assess the enabling role of the authorities in rural areas with a weak or dispersed private sector. Empirical data is collected via group interviews at a workshop in which key representatives from the authorities participated. We identify a number of potential challenges associated to PPPs in a rural context, and in light of this we clarify how the authorities engage in different types of partnership arrangements, as well as their capacity to facilitate these partnerships in attempt to enhance sustainable rural development.

  • 8.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Miljöpolitik: bilden av Sverige som föregångare i ett komplext politikområde2016In: Svensk politik och EU: hur svensk politik har förändrats av medlemskapet i EU / [ed] Daniel Silander & Mats Öhlén, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, 1, p. 79-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lokal samverkan i fjällens miljö- och naturresursförvaltning: var, när och hur behovet av lokal samverkan uppstår – samt om lokalt deltagande bidrar till hållbar utveckling i fjällen?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How to Influence Forest-Related Issues in the European Union? Preferred Strategies among Swedish Forest Industry2013In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although forestry is not a regulated area in the European Union (EU), numerous decisions in other policy areas are related to forestry. However, its position outside of formal policy-making can result in the fact that actors, such as those within the forest industry, may have a larger role when compared to other policy sectors where the state system has an integrated role. This explorative study reviews the ways in which the forest industry in Sweden, one of the EU states with the most forest land, tries to protect and promote its interests on an EU-level. It concludes that a main way to influence  decision-making in the EU is through lobbying, through its own organisations and through the transnational trade association, The Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI). The study shows that collectively conducted lobbying is largely preferred which means that internal communication is important since lobbying at the EU-level is potentially limited by the diverging positions of trade association members as well as among the different trade associations themselves.

  • 11.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    Forest social values in a Swedish rural context: The private forest owners' perspective2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 65, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability paradigm of the European Landscape Convention calls for increased involvement of all affected parties in combination with active leadership to promote social values. As a result, the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA) has requested further development of methods for broad consultation and active participation in order to strengthen the social values of forests. This paper aims to identify in particular the private forest owners' perceived need for collaboration and dialog regarding the social values of forests. The study's primary empirical data was derived from interviews with 40 private forest owners. A framework developed by Emerson et al. (2012) was applied to facilitate analysis of the forest owners' perceptions of procedural and institutional arrangements, existing leadership, the current level of knowledge and access to different types of resources. The paper identifies a need for the SFA to become more proactive and assume more of a leading role. The level of knowledge regarding social values was found to be quite low among the majority of the private forest owners. They wanted more information; they asked for increased support and advice, and they wanted to see improved coordination rather than collaboration on social values.

  • 12.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nygaard, Vigdis
    Riseth, Jan Åge
    Camilla, Sandström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The institutionalisation of Sami interest in municipal comprehensive planning – a comparison between Norway and Sweden.2020In: International Indigenous Policy Journal, ISSN 1916-5781, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindqvist, Sara
    SLU.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    (How) Can adaptive moose management contribute to sustainable rural development?2013In: Welcome to the Anthropocene! The Nordic Environmental Social Science Conference, 11‐13 June 2013: Abstracts / [ed] Boon, T.E., Anker, H.T., Lund, D.H., Sehested, K., University of Copenhagen , 2013, p. 154-154Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of adaptive management (AM) is widely advocated as an alternative to traditional top-down management of natural resources around the world. In Sweden, however, AM has only recently been introduced to manage moose. Based on the analytical framework, developed by Pieter Glasbergen (2011), we study the AM of moose as a case of a partnership arrangement within the field of wildlife governance. We put particular attention on how adaptive moose management enables sustainable rural development, since hunting is considered to be an important source of recreation and livelihood in Swedish rural areas. We identify a number of challenges associated to the involved stakeholders’ abilities, willingness and understanding to implement the induced management system. We also emphasis the interactions between the different stakeholders on both vertical and horizontal levels, as well as the tradeoffs the new ecosystem based adaptive local management system generates for rural and urban areas.

  • 14.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindqvist, Sara
    SLU.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    Partnerships implementing ecosystem-based moose management in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 228-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is undergoing an extensive transformation from single species management towards ecosystem-based management. This study analyses the implementation of the new moose management system, focusing on the newly formed partnerships at ecosystem level (the moose management areas) and their potential to ease conflicts between participants and develop into sustainable collaborations that enable ecosystem-based management. Empirical evidence was obtained from semi-structured interviews with involved actors (hunters, landowners, wildlife managers and forest consultants) in five Swedish counties. Several challenges, based on the participants’ abilities, willingness and understanding needed to implement the new management system, were identified. Lack of funding, unclear roles and responsibilities appear to be the most serious issues. If these are not properly solved, then they have the potential to hamper and aggravate the implementation of the new management system, that is, the ecosystem-based management, as well as the partnership arrangement.

  • 15.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindqvist, Sara
    SLU.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    The agency-structure dialectic in moose management: communication as precondition for and outcome of adaptive co-management2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners2018In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

  • 17.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deltagande planering – underlättar det samråd och utställning av en ny översiktsplan?2019In: PLAN, Vol. 73, no 1-2, p. 53-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Between protocol and reality: Swedish municipal comprehensive planning2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.

  • 19.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svensson, Johan
    Implementing collaborative planning in the swedish mountains: The case of Vilhelmina2018In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment: Sustainable Development and Planning X, Southampto: WIT Press, 2018, Vol. 217, p. 781-796Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical appraisals have stressed the need for participation and social learning in spatial planning, and planning is now seen as a process of innovative collaboration by multiple actors. During such ‘collaborative planning’, various parties try to develop new inclusive strategies through dialog. Collaborative planning is a major strand of current planning theory and highlights the need for new methods that involve citizen participation. In Sweden, the realization of collaborative planning in practice remains elusive, and research on the subject is limited, so further studies are needed. Thus, in the project “Green planning: Vilhelmina as a testbed for innovative land use planning in the mountain region”, we tested and implemented methods for involving citizens and other land-use stakeholders in the process of developing Vilhelmina municipality’s comprehensive plan (MCP). This paper presents lessons learned from that process and data obtained from a set of focus groups, a workshop, surveys, and personal communication. From these activities in the Swedish mountain region, we learned that collaborative practices have both pros and cons that must be addressed for practical realization of the widely embraced ideal of collaborative planning.

  • 20.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Widman, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svenska skogsägares syn på skogens sociala värden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lokal samverkan i fjällen: strategier för att minska konflikter inom miljö- och naturresursförvaltning2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Svensson, Johan
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Grön översiktsplanering i fjäll- och fjällnära landskap: Deltagande planering för en innovativ och hållbar översiktsplan för Vilhelmina kommun2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Översiktsplaneringen i fjällkommunerna skulle kunna vara det självklara verktyget i arbetet med att uppnå miljökvalitetsmålet "Storslagen fjällmiljö". Kommunen har som lokal myndighet en central roll i hållbar utveckling och översiktsplaneringen ska, per definition, hantera markanvändningsfrågor i ett landskapsperspektiv. Detta sker dock inte i någon större utsträckning idag och därför finns ett stort behov av att utveckla bättre metoder och processer för att göra det kommunala planeringsverktyget mer nytänkande, kunskapsbaserat och förutseende.

    I Vilhelmina kommun har forskarna tillsammans med myndigheter, lokala aktörer och kommunmedborgare utvecklat metoder för att ta fram en grön översiktsplan. Översiktsplanen baseras på uthållig markanvändning och omfattar faktiska natur- och kulturvärden, såväl som nuvarande och framtida förutsättningar för strategisk planering för hur olika intressen kan samsas i fjällandskapet. I projektet analyseras möjligheter och hinder en process av detta slag möter, metoder för att uppnå ett ökat engagemang och en större lokal medverkan i planprocessen.

    Arbetet med den gröna översiktsplanen har resulterat i ett samrådsdokument som antagits av politikerna i Vilhelmina kommun. Rapporten redovisar en stegvis modell av planeringsprocessen som ska kunna ligga till grund för liknande processer även i andra fjällkommuner och/eller landsbygdskommuner med stora landskaps- och naturtillgångar. Exempel på lärdomar är att tidigt och kontinuerligt förankra det deltagande planeringsarbetet gentemot den lokala politiken och att deltagandeprocesser måste få ta tid.

  • 23. Carlsson, Julia
    et al.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svensson, Johan
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Att planera för hela skogslandskapet: utmaningar och möjligheter2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Skogens många värden behöver samplaneras och sättas i sitt sammanhang utifrån ett landskapsperspektiv. Vi intervjuade skogsägare och skogliga intressenter om hur de ser på skogens värden, äganderätten och skogspolitiska förutsättningar, samt synen på att samarbeta och ta hänsyn till varandras intressen. Vi utgår från behov identifierade i planeringsprocesser som inkluderar många deltagare och intressen, när det gäller att förbättrakommunikation, information och mötesplatser. Vi ser tre möjliga verktyg för att skapa förutsättningar för ett landskapsperspektiv i planeringen av skogens värden: en landskapslots, en samverkansarena, samt utformningen och användandet av skogsbruksplanen.

  • 24. Carlsson, Julia
    et al.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svensson, Johan
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Opportunites for Integrated Landscape Planning: the Broker, the Arena, the Tool2017In: Landscape Online, ISSN 1865-1542, E-ISSN 1865-1542, Vol. 55, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an integrated social and ecological system, the forest landscape includes multiple values. The need for a landscape approach in land use planning is being increasingly advocated in research, policy and practice. This paper explores how institutional conditions in the forest policy and management sector can be developed to meet demands for a multifunctional landscape perspective. Departing from obstacles recognised in collaborative planning literature, we build an analytical framework which is operationalised in a Swedish context at municipal level. Our case illustrating this is Vilhelmina Model Forest, where actual barriers and opportunities for a multiple-value landscape approach are identified through 32 semi-structured interviews displaying stakeholders’ views on forest values, ownership rights and willingness to consider multiple values, forest policy and management premises, and collaboration. As an opportunity to overcome the barriers, we suggest and discuss three key components by which an integrated landscape planning approach could be realized in forest management planning: the need for a landscape coordinator (broker), the need for a collaborative forum (arena), and the development of the existing forest management plan into an advanced multifunctional landscape plan (tool).

  • 25.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Learning through on-going evaluation of EIP-Agri in Sweden2017In: Proceedings of the XXVII Congress. Uneven processes of Rural Change: On Diversity, Knowledge and Justice / [ed] Kristina Svels, Krakow, 2017, p. 186-188Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Miljand, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mancheva, Irina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tio års erfarenheter med LONA – lokala naturvårdssatsningen: Intresse, deltagande och lärande inom naturvård och friluftsliv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Local Nature Conservation Programme (LONA) was initiated by the Swedish government in 2004 and has now been ongoing more than ten years. The great majority of Swedish municipalities have applied for and received funding for LONA projects. A total of 300 MSEK was allocated to 1 530 projects in 260 municipalities plus at least as much in local funding. After a short break, LONA was taken up again in 2010-2016 with 237 MSEK national funding to 1 524 projects (4 505 measures) in 260 municipalities.

    LONA is the largest national investment to achieve greater participation and increased local engagement with nature conservation and recreation, and fulfils the intention of international agreements such as the Convention of Biological Diversity and ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability 2010. LONA’s main objective, to involve a greater range of local actors in conservation efforts, is fulfilled since more than half of the municipalities have done so in their LONA projects. The overall aim with this study is to evaluate more specifically in what ways and how LONA has contributed to local responsibility for nature conservation and recreation measures. The study takes departure in previous commissioned studies by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (reports 5923, 6392, 5605, 6397 and 5811, see references). The results below build on a survey sent out in autumn 2016 to all 290 municipalities (191 responded) and 21 county administrations (20 responded), plus in-depth interviews with key informants from three county administrations, six municipalities and two nongovernmental organisations engaged in LONA. Some interviews were also made in mountain municipalities.

    The specific measures carried in the LONA projects connect to most of the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives, dominated by ‘A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life’ and ‘A Good Built Environment’. Most measures are relatively minor, with a typical median budget of about 56.000 SEK including the 50% own contribution. About one third of the projects involve non-governmental organisations, which has been made possible since voluntary work is accounted for in the budget as own contribution. The size of the LONA projects as well as the share of voluntary organizations involved has been rather stable over the years.

    The majority of LONA projects concern various types of inventories, information dissemination and knowledge production, while about one third are about ecological restoration, conservation and management. During the 2010-2016 period, which this study focuses on – and despite the growing policy attention to social, cultural and recreational values – the share of measures geared towards nature conservation values has increased. Measures to protect cultural values and set aside nature areas are only a small share. More than half of the LONA projects are located in the urban fringe, which is in line with the government’s ambitions, but even smaller municipalities in rural areas have acquired substantial LONA funding. The majority of LONA projects are led by a municipality, while the remainder are led in cooperation between a municipality and a local organisation and fewer by such an organisation alone. There is very little variation in the nature of LONA projects depending on leadership. Even if all counties have municipalities with LONA projects, three of them are the most active: Skåne in the south, Västra Götaland in the south-west, and Stockholm County.

    The funding LONA provides is very much appreciated among the municipalities. Eight out of ten municipalities say that the LONA aims are fully in line with the local needs for nature conservation, and seven out of ten claim that this is the case for recreation needs. Many of the large municipalities think that while LONA is a welcome contribution, it is still not a requirement for the municipality’s work for nature conservation and recreation. However, in many small-size municipalities the LONA funding is essential. The allocation of funding from LONA is also larger per inhabitant in small-size municipalities compared to large-size, which reflects such needs.

    In the majority of municipalities, LONA funding makes up an important share of the local budget for nature protection, while it is somewhat lower for recreational purposes. Interestingly, LONA has particularly supported measures for nature protection and recreation in those municipalities with an assigned municipal ecologist, suggesting that when they exist, they have a facilitating role. The LONA funding allows for the same project to benefit from other funding as well, such as EU Life and the Rural Development Programme, as long as specific measures are funded separately. This possibility creates an added value of the LONA programme. The simplicity of the application procedure in LONA compared to EU funding is stressed as an advantage by the majority of municipalities.

    The results show that LONA has led to increased and widened participation by local actors in nature protection and recreation. At the same time, the nature of such participation differs depending on the municipality size. Small-size municipalities with less resources tend to more often include external actors in the LONA projects, while large-size municipalities can mobilise the necessary resources themselves. Some of the latter municipalities therefore choose not to involve external actors. Our results further suggest that the involvement of non-governmental organisations seems to depend rather on different modes of working than on the requirements of the LONA regulation. Still, the regulation has restricted the involvement of private companies due to remaining question marks over how profit-making companies may lead and implement LONA projects.

    Municipally employed ecologists, particularly in large-size municipalities, provide the most leadership in the LONA work, followed by other municipal officers and environment- and recreation-oriented non-governmental organisations. Nongovernmental organisations tend to initiate and engage in the work to a greater extent in small-size municipalities. There are already established networks within the field of nature conservancy, while, according to the respondents, new networks for the initiation and implementation of LONA projects are created in the field of recreation. The importance of coordination between municipalities through the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions is emphasised by several municipalities in this respect. A general trend is that such coordination and exchange of experiences has increased over time. The municipalities’ contacts with various local networks have also amplified.

    The perceived need for protecting more areas in urban environments continues to be high, and LONA is seen as an important tool for long-term investment in the protection of nature and recreation values. LONA is regarded as especially important for recreation since there are alternative forms of support in nature conservation at the national level. The small-size municipalities are particularly dependent on LONA in their attempts to safeguard nature protection and recreation values. Many new areas have become accessible for local citizens thanks to LONA, some of which have become popular sites for nature studies, recreation and leisure. Media attention has helped increase their popularity, and assisted in giving high priority to these issues on the municipal political agenda.

    LONA has led to learning among local actors, particularly with regard to nature conservation issues. Information gathered through LONA has spurred the development of plans for nature conservation and recreation in many municipalities, which on its part supports long-term thinking. Further, LONA has contributed to the initiation of Nature Schools and pedagogic tools for learning about nature in many pre-schools, which helps children in their understanding of and respect for nature. The effects of LONA in a long-term perspective is still, however, somewhat complex. For example, it appears that the local interest in establishing new protected areas has not generally increased, and only one-third of the municipalities claim that accessibility in existing protected areas has increased as a result of LONA. Likewise, in particularly small-size municipalities with limited resources, there is a risk that continued long-term management of nature protection and recreation does not materialize. One should keep in mind that most LONA projects are rather modest in size and that support from the LONA programme cannot solve all issues of municipal priority-setting.

    At the same time, the results both from the survey and interviews suggest that LONA has generally had a positive effect on the interest for nature protection and recreation among local politicians and, even more so, among local citizens. This has in turn led to increased local resources for nature protection, albeit somewhat less so for recreation values. The growing attention given to these values has also led to better integration of nature protection and recreation in the municipalities’ spatial planning. In addition, the use of nature areas in the urban vicinity has increased due to more local investments in projects connected to learning. Finally, LONA has stimulated projects and measures targeting ‘new Swedes’ – and even if still only a minority of municipalities have used LONA for this purpose, there is great likelihood that more municipalities will do so in the near future.

    The policy statements in LONA highly emphasize learning, knowledge development and knowledge exchange. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the county administrations have contributed to those goals by various information gathering and communication efforts, including mentoring and networking. Our evaluation of how those methods have worked in practice shows that the respondents greatly appreciate the support given, and that the municipalities have been able to access a wealth of information about previous LONA projects, best cases, relevant expertise and arenas for knowledge exchange. The different methods for mentoring are complementary, with different target groups. On the whole, both the county administration officers responsible for LONA and the municipal LONA officers are satisfied with the ways in which the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has implemented these different methods. They also believe that the methods have been supportive in creating increased participation, local understanding and knowledge for what LONA can and should achieve, and hence that LONA should be considered a success.

  • 27.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Incentives for collaborative governance: top-down and bottom-up initiatives in the Swedish mountain region2015In: Mountain Research and Development Journal, ISSN 0276-4741, E-ISSN 1994-7151, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance collaborations between public and private partners are increasingly used to promote sustainable mountain development, yet information is limited on their nature and precise extent. This article analyzes collaboration on environment and natural resource management in Swedish mountain communities to critically assess the kinds of issues these efforts address, how they evolve, who leads them, and what functional patterns they exhibit based on Margerum's (2008) typology of action, organizational, and policy collaboration. Based on official documents, interviews, and the records of 245 collaborative projects, we explore the role of the state, how perceptions of policy failure may inspire collaboration, and the opportunities that European Union funds have created. Bottom-up collaborations, most of which are relatively recent, usually have an action and sometimes an organizational function. Top-down collaborations, however, are usually organizational or policy oriented. Our findings suggest that top-down and bottom-up collaborations are complementary in situations with considerable conflict over time and where public policies have partly failed, such as for nature protection and reindeer grazing. In less contested areas, such as rural development, improving tracks and access, recreation, and fishing, there is more bottom-up, action-oriented collaboration. State support, especially in the form of funding, is central to explaining the emergence of bottom-up action collaboration. Our findings show that the state both initiates and coordinates policy networks and retains a great deal of power over the nature and functioning of collaborative governance. A practical consequence is that there is great overlap—aggravated by sectorized approaches—that creates a heavy workload for some regional partners.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Sara
    et al.
    SLU.
    Camilla, Sandström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    The changing role of hunting in Sweden: From subsistence to ecosystem stewardship?2014In: Alces, ISSN 0835-5851, Vol. 50, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hunting served traditionally to supply game meat, and that is still important in Sweden, recreation is the most common reason for hunting moose (Alces alces) today. Hunting also serves an important management purpose in regulating moose populations to control crop and forest damage. This study used semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and officials involved in the recently implemented ecosystem-based, adaptive local moose management system where hunters and landowners become environmental stewards responsible for managing moose in context with forest damage, vehicular collisions, large carnivores, and biodiversity. Our study found that participation and collaboration in reaching management objectives was perceived as positive by stakeholders, although their stewardship is jeopardized if specific management responsibilities are not clarified regarding monitoring. Further, it is important to find long-term funding solutions for monitoring activities that are critical for adequate data collection and to support the stakeholder role as steward. The importance of monitoring must be communicated to individual hunters and landowners to achieve an ecosystem-based moose management system that effectively incorporates both social and ecological values.

  • 29.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 30.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Drivers for public-private partnerships in sustainable natural resource management – lessons from the Swedish mountain region2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 3914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s mountain areas are sensitive ecosystems that are used by a wide range of stakeholders, and this raises multiple sustainability concerns. Collaborative governance solutions are becoming increasingly common in such situations to promote more sustainable practices. While the Swedish mountain area is indeed a hot spot for different forms of public–private partnerships (PPPs) related to natural resources management, as yet, little is known about the shaping of participation, leadership, and implementation of these processes. What are the drivers for implementing collaborative environmental partnerships, do the drivers differ, and if so, how? What role does the specific context play in the design of these PPPs? Are the PPPs useful, and if so, for what? To analyse those issues, we conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with project leaders from a sample randomly selected from a database of 245 public–private collaborative projects in the Swedish mountains. Our results indicate that consequential incentives in the form of funding and previous successful collaborations seem to be the major drivers for such partnerships. A critical discussion of the possibilities and limitations of public–private forms of governance in rural mountain areas adds to the ongoing debate on the performance of environmental PPPs in a regional context.

  • 31.
    Widman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Partnerships potential for protecting forests social valuesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Widman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Protecting forests’ social values through partnerships2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of public–private partnerships to contribute to the resolution of decision-making dilemmas concerning private goods that also provide public services. We focus on forests that deliver many ecosystem services and are important for biodiversity, which pose problems regarding the values that should be considered in their protection and exploitation. Conflicts between the interests and values concerned (or at least prioritization difficulties) will arise and their satisfactory resolution will require some kind of collaboration between governmental authorities and private forest owners. Thus, the Swedish Forest Agency has initiated a pilot project on a new form of such partnerships, Nature Conservation Agreements for social values, which are considered as a case study here. We use an adapted version of the Ladder of Partnership Activity, which includes theoretical constructs such as context, perceptions and motives, creation of collaborative advantages and the constitution of rules, to see if and how these partnerships can enhance an embedded governance system, by enabling the actors to address collective problems in a mutually satisfactory manner. Our results contribute knowledge on how the governance of forests can be designed, and the kinds of values that could be included to spur the implementation of partnerships.

  • 33.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EIP-Agri – lärdomar från första åren: Halvtidsrapport från den löpande lärande utvärderingen av EIP-Agri med fokus på dess införande och uppstart2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EIP-Agri is an innovation support mechanism within the EU Rural Development Programme targeting agriculture, horticulture and reindeer husbandry. This on-going evaluation examines routines, rules and roles at the Swedish Board of Agriculture in connection with introducing EIP-Agri in Sweden. Two types of support can be granted: for forming an innovation group and for an innovation project (with full funding). Implementation problems and potential solutions are analysed and discussed.

    Group formation and innovation projects

    The possibility of applying for group formation support is a great strength. This possibility could well be strengthened in the next programme period. Some of the requirements could be more flexible. Clarified decision criteria should be made publicly available. Resource-weak actors should be specifically targeted in order to increase the share going further from group to implementation project. Social and organizational innovations are few and should be encouraged. The connection to research can be further strengthened.

    Processing of applications

    The e-application process for innovation project support is perceived as demanding, requiring considerable additional documentation. Late payments is also viewed as an obstacle for many. Further efforts are needed to make the internal processing at the Board of Agriculture and the innovation support advice more effective.

    Roles and coordination

    The role division between the administration at the Board of Agriculture, the Advisory Selection Committee and the innovation support has been internally discussed and clarified over time. In particular, coordination and exchange of experiences has improved. The interpretation of the innovation concept and decision criteria is still somewhat varying, but the coherence of what is communicated to applicants has gradually improved. Still, however, continued calibration and interaction is necessary.

    Link to other innovation initiatives

    Limited information about EIP-Agri has reached the Swedish university-based innovation offices. EIP-Agri should be better communicated via complementary channels than those of the Board of Agriculture. Experiences from other similar innovation programs should be incorporated into EIP-Agri to develop synergies and ensure that innovations reach the market. The potentials of EIP-Agri support should be communicated more strategically.

    Planned evaluation of effects

    During 2019–2021, the on-ongoing evaluation is expected to examine whether the program has contributed to relevant innovations in relation to its goals. However, current data reporting routines limit the opportunities to evaluate such effects, including its currently broad and vague goals and criteria. Development of evaluation criteria and data reporting from the Board of Agriculture is required.

  • 34.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EIP-Agri – lärdomar från första åren: Halvtidsrapport från den löpande lärande utvärderingen av EIP-Agri med fokus på dess införande och uppstart. Bilagor2019Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    When Public Officers Take the Lead in Collaborative Governance: To Confirm, Consult, Facilitate or Negotiate?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are investing considerable time and resources in the field of collaborative governance as it proliferates throughout many sectors, and how public officers choose to respond to these developments therefore becomes an important question. The increased public involvement that collaborative governance brings is often more costly than traditional forms of governance, while the outcomes are highly uncertain. For these reasons, it is important that collaborative governance is only used when really warranted, and the various forms that it can take should be carefully designed. In this study, we apply a typology of collaboration strategies to examine firstly, the circumstances under which leading officers at four county administrative boards in the Swedish mountain region decide to lead collaboration, and secondly what collaboration strategies they then apply. This study is based on 20 interviews with key officers, and 39 interviews with project leaders of public-private collaborations in the area of natural resource management in the region. We find that officers should take trust levels into account when designing collaboration strategies, not least the lack of official trust. Strategies are found to be not mutually exclusive but complementary, and officers employ several at the same time. Interestingly, the results of this study show that – somewhat counter-intuitively – distrust is a driver for officers to initiate collaboration, a conclusion which questions the common view that more trust unequivocally translates into more participation.

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