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  • 1.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Peer-to-Peer Supported Reflection as a Life-Long Learning Skill: an Example from the Translation Classroom2011In: Human Development and Global Advancements through Information Communication Technologies: New Initiatives / [ed] Susheel Chhabra & Hakikur Rahman, Hershey USA: IGI publishing , 2011, 1, p. 188-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-long learning skills have moved from being a side-affect of a formal education to skills that are explicitly trained during a university degree. In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations. Computer keystroke logging coupled with Peerbased intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text, develop reflection skills and learn from their peers. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with Peer-based intervention has to potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation and (3) develop peer-to-peer supported reflection as a life-long learning skill.

  • 2.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Introducing peer collaboration in a networked English writing class2014In: Cases on professional distance education degree programs and practices: successes, challenges, and issues / [ed] Kirk P H Sullivan, Peter E Czigler and Jenny M Sullivan Hellgren, Hershey PA, USA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 112-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter proposes a model of introducing networked peer assessment to an online course. In the organisation background, the benchmark model of peer assessment is introduced in terms of its theoretical and empirical bases. The discussions about Dadaelous Integrated Writing Environment (DIWE) and empirical studies on its use in language classes set the stage of the model of networked peer assessment. The model is then described in detail in terms of its structure and its use within DIWE. Challenges for using networked peer assessment are then discussed in the light of learners’ technological skills, online collaboration skills, and shifted teachers’ and students’ role in online learning. This chapter ends with solutions and recommen- dations in dealing with the three challenges mainly in terms of training students in technological use and in developing online collaboration skills and training teachers in using networked peer assessment. 

  • 3.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Investigating learners’ understanding of peer and teacher feedback on EFL writing2011In: Assessing Writing: An International Journal, ISSN 1075-2935, E-ISSN 1873-5916, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing comparative studies between peer and teacher feedback in English writing classes have predominantlyused frequency measures of peer and teacher feedback in learners’ revisions to suggest their relativevalues for developing learners’ writing proficiency. However, learners do not necessarily understand thefeedback that is used in their redrafts.This study distinguished learners’ use from their understanding of peer and teacher feedback. EighteenChinese university English learners participated in the study for sixteen weeks. Three research methodswere adopted: (a) content analyses of learners’ use of feedback, (b) stimulated recall interviews on learners’understanding of feedback, and (c) interviews on the factors that affected learners’ responses to feedback.The findings suggested that the learners used more teacher than peer feedback in their redrafts. However,interviews with these learners revealed that they used a larger percentage of teacher feedback than peerfeedback without understanding its significance or value. Student interviews uncovered learners’ passiveacceptance of teacher feedback and the facilitative role of first language use in peer interaction.This study suggests that learners’ understanding of feedback should be taken as at least an equally importantfactor as learners’ use of feedback in examining the relative value of peer and teacher feedback for developinglearners’ writing proficiency.

  • 4.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Investigating learners' use and understanding of peer and teacher feedback on writing: a comparative study in a Chinese English writing classroom2010In: Assessing Writing: An International Journal, ISSN 1075-2935, E-ISSN 1873-5916, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing comparative studies between peer and teacher feedback in English writing classes have predominantly used frequency measures of peer and teacher feedback in learners’ revisions to suggest their relative values for developing learners’ writing proficiency. However, learners do not necessarily understand the feedback that is used in their redrafts.

    This study distinguished learners’ use from their understanding of peer and teacher feedback. Eighteen Chinese university English learners participated in the study for sixteen weeks. Three research methods were adopted: (a) content analyses of learners’ use of feedback, (b) stimulated recall interviews on learners’ understanding of feedback, and (c) interviews on the factors that affected learners’ responses to feedback.

    The findings suggested that the learners used more teacher than peer feedback in their redrafts. However, interviews with these learners revealed that they used a larger percentage of teacher feedback than peer feedback without understanding its significance or value. Student interviews uncovered learners’ passive acceptance of teacher feedback and the facilitative role of first language use in peer interaction.

    This study suggests that learners’ understanding of feedback should be taken as at least an equally important factor as learners’ use of feedback in examining the relative value of peer and teacher feedback for developing learners’ writing proficiency.

  • 5.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Investigating teacher-supported peer assessment for EFL writing2014In: ELT Journal, ISSN 0951-0893, E-ISSN 1477-4526, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns over the quality of peer feedback and entrenched teacher-driven learning have resulted in the limited use of peer assessment in Chinese EFL writing instruction. This study sought to effectively implement peer assessment for EFL writing in China, by addressing learners' concerns through tailor-made teacher intervention strategies. Eighteen English majors participated in peer assessment for nine writing tasks. Pre-intervention surveys elicited learners' concerns over peer assessment, leading to the design of teacher-led support strategies. Post-task surveys examined learners' satisfaction with teacher-supported peer assessment, and were supplemented by the assignment feedback data. The results show that a dynamic and continuous teacher support approach to peer assessment was reported which proved to substantially affect learners' perceptions, and the nature and the perceived value of peer assessment respectively. This paper provides implications for EFL writing teachers regarding pedagogic motivation and strategies for the effective use of peer assessment.

  • 6.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Using learners' diaries to investigate the influence of students’ English language proficiency on peer assessment2011In: Journal of Academic Writing, ISSN 2225-8973, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer assessment has been used increasingly in English writing instruction in the past two decades. This has given rise to research on peer assessment in developing English learners' writing proficiency. However, few studies have exclusively examined student variables in relation to peer assessment and, in particular, how students' English language proficiency affects the use of peer assessment in English-medium writing classrooms. The case study research described in this article examined, through the employment of students' learning diaries, how Chinese university English- learners‟ language proficiency affected the use of peer assessment. Ten second-year English majors at a university in Southern China were asked to keep diaries of their experiences of being involved in peer assessment over sixteen weeks. The diary data showed that the students viewed their English language proficiency as a salient variable influencing the focus, the type, the appropriateness, and the impact of peer feedback on learners' redrafts.

  • 7.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Who takes the floor: peer assessment or teacher assessment?: an investigation of Chinese university EFL learners’ use and understanding of peer and teacher feedback on writing2011In: Innovating EFL Teaching in Asia / [ed] Theron Muller, Steven Herder, John Adamson and Philip Shigeo Brown, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p. 245-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Zhao, Huahui
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Teaching presence in computer conferencing learning environments: effects on interaction, cognition and learning uptake2017In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 538-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study examined how the level and nature of teaching presence impacted two online forum discussions from three dimensions: participation and interaction, cognitive presence, and knowledge development via assimilating peer messages. Effects on participation and interaction were graphically depicted. Effects on cognitive presence and knowledge construction via assimilating messages were suggested via statistical analysis, followed by qualitative interpretations. Twenty-six tertiary online learners with varied demographic backgrounds participated in the study for 6 weeks. The results showed that the nature of teaching presence in the study, specified to teacher initiation, roles of teaching presence and means of making teaching presence, largely shaped the impact of teaching presence on learning. A higher level of teaching presence was observed to be associated with a lower level of student participation, peer interaction, cognitive presence and learning uptake. Based on the results, implications for integrating and researching teaching presence in computer conferences were provided.

  • 9.
    Zhao, Huahui
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Participation, interaction and social presence: an exploratory study of collaboration in online peer review groups2014In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 807-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated in the study. Content analyses of discussion protocols were performed in terms of participation, interaction, and social presence.

    The results indicate that collaboration does not occur automatically in asynchronous computer conference. Collaboration requires participation because no collaboration occurred in the two groups with low student participation; however, participation does not lead to collaboration, evidenced by student postings receiving no peer responses. Collaboration requires interaction but does not end with interaction, substantiated by different levels of collaboration across different interactional patterns. Social presence helps to realise collaboration through establishing a warm and collegial learning community to encourage participate and interaction, exemplified by the contrast of the group with the highest level of social presence and the group with the lowest level of social presence. A model of understanding and assessing collaboration in online learning is recommended, consisting of participation, interaction and social presence.

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