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  • 1.
    Clark, Nathaniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC).
    Perlman, Marcus
    University of California, Merced (UCM).
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Iconic pitch expresses vertical space2013In: Language and the creative mind / [ed] Mike Borkent, Barbara Dancygier, and Jennifer Hinnell, Stanford: CSLI Publications, 2013, p. 393-410Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Are metaphorical paths and roads ever paved?: corpus analysis of real and imagined journeys2010In: Review of Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 1877-9751, E-ISSN 1877-976X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 93-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a corpus linguistic analysis of verbs included in English path-, road- and way-sentences. My claim is that many of the differences between metaphorical and non-metaphorical patterns including these terms are related to a qualitative difference between real and imagined journeys. Both non-metaphorical and metaphorical instances go back to our experiences with real-world paths, roads and ways. Path and road-sentences are connected with motion along the specific artifacts that these terms refer to. Way-sentences refer to motion through space. Differences between prototypical and un-prototypical paths, roads and ways, however, and a close connection between prototypical instances and metaphorical meaning, result in differences between non-metaphorical and metaphorical patterns. The findings explain why the source domain verbs in metaphorical path- and road-sentences are more restricted than the verbs in the non-metaphorical sentences. They show why metaphorical ways, but hardly ever metaphorical paths and roads, are paved.

  • 3.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Embodied experience and the teaching and learning of L2 prepositions: a case study of abstract in and on2018In: What is applied cognitive linguistics?: Answers from current SLA research / [ed] Andrea Tyler, Lihong Huang and Hana Jan, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2018, p. 287-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can body-world knowledge be used to facilitate the teaching and learning of abstract L2 prepositions? What role do learners' embodied understandings of the abstract relationships that are construed by means of the prepositions play? How can the teaching and learning of prepositions be made fun?

    This chapter discusses the results of two corpus linguistic analyses of abstract in and on instances (Johansson Falck 2014, in press) as well as two small-scale, qualitative studies in which Swedish L2 learners of English were asked to discuss, draw and gesture their embodied understandings of some of the categories of abstract in and on instances that fell from the corpus data.

    The corpus analyses show that abstract in and on instances fall into categories of related concepts that are systematically related to specific types of body-world knowledge. Some types of abstract concepts are consistently construed as containers (used with in), and others as supporting surfaces (used with on). The subsequent interventions with the Swedish L2 learners then showed that discussions about the embodied motivations for the categories of abstract in and on instances are useful starting points for learning the patterns of abstract in and on in a playful, creative and collaborative way. The learners' self-reports suggest that the approach has positive effects on learning.

  • 4.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Embodied motivations for abstract in and on constructions2017In: Constructing families of constructions: analytical perspectives and theoretical challenges / [ed] Francisco José Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, Alba Luzondo Oyón and Paula Pérez Sobrino, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 53-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the relationship between abstract in and on constructions (i.e. grammatical form and meaning pairings (cf. Langacker 1987: 409; Goldberg 2005: 3) and body-world knowledge. Abstract in and on instances retrieved from the British National Corpus (BNC) are analyzed to identify what types of abstract concepts are construed as containing entities (used with the English preposition/particle in) and what types of abstract concepts are construed as objects/supporting surfaces (used with the preposition/particle on). Analyses show that abstract in and on constructions fall into families of constructions that refer to related concepts, and that these, in turn, are connected with specific types of embodied experiences. Body-world knowledge thus provides a principled way of explaining the constructions.

  • 5.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    From ecological cognition to language: When and why do speakers use words metaphorically?2018In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 61-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that metaphorical meaning is guided by speakers’ experiences of the world is central to Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Yet little is known about the ways in which speakers’ understandings of objects in the world around them influence how they use words in metaphorical and nonmetaphorical ways. This article is a corpus linguistic analysis of the collocational patterns of metaphorical and non-metaphorical bridge instances from the Corpus of American English Corpus of Contemporary American English. The study shows that metaphorical and non-metaphorical uses of words are systematically linked to different types of real world experiences. It is argued that lexical metaphors are, in fact, lexico-encyclopedic conceptual metaphors (i.e., conceptual mappings that involve speakers’ understandings of specific target concepts by means of the specific source concepts that they refer to in metaphorical language), and that they are constrained by cognitive salience.

  • 6.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    From perception of spatial artefacts to metaphorical meaning2012In: Space and Time in Languages and Cultures II: Language, Culture and Cognition / [ed] Filipović Luna & Kasia M. Jaszczolt, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 329-349Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares spatial constructs in mental imagery to spatial constructs in non-metaphorical and metaphorical language. The study is based on a psycholinguistic survey of people’s mental imagery for paths and roads, and a previous corpus-linguistic investigation of path- and road-instances from the British National Corpus (the BNC) (see Johansson Falck 2010). The aim is to investigate if spatial path and road constructs in mental imagery focus on similar aspects as those in metaphorical language. The study shows that mental imagery and metaphorical language are more restricted than non-metaphorical language, and typically are related to the specific anticipations for bodily action that paths and roads afford. The focus is on function, which influences both direction and manner of motion.

  • 7.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Linguistic theory and good practice: how cognitive linguistics could influence the teaching and learning of English prepositions2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Lindgren, Eva, & Janet Enever, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2015, p. 61-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we make the teaching and learning of grammar more interesting? How do we get away from rote learning to more efficient learning situations? How can we provide learners with a more holistic view of language, its speakers, and their contexts? These are questions that language teachers regularly seek to answer, but typically struggle with. In this chapter, I focus on the teaching and learning of the English prepositions in and on from a Swedish L2 perspective. It is argued that the theoretical framework of cognitive linguistics provides useful didactic information for practice in second language teaching and learning.

  • 8.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Metaphor variation across L1 and L2 speakers of English: Do differences at the level of linguistic metaphor matter?2012In: Metaphor in Use: Context, culture, and communication / [ed] Fiona MacArthur, José Luis Oncins Martínez, Manuel Sánchez García & Ana María Piquer Piriz, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 38, p. 109-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English and Swedish, which are both Germanic languages spoken in similar cultures in the Western World, display many similarities with regard to the conceptual metaphors reflected in them. However, the way that the same conceptual metaphor is linguistically instantiated in both languages may be somewhat different. This chapter is a corpus-based analysis of metaphorical ‘path’, ‘road’, and ‘way’ sentences in English produced by speakers with British English as their first language (L1) and Swedish university students with Englishas their second language (L2). The aim is to see how these L2 speakers of English deal with differences at the level of linguistic metaphor in the two languages, and find out how important this level of organization really is.

  • 9.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Narrow paths, difficult roads, and long ways: Travel through space and metaphorical meaning2013In: The Construal of Spatial Meaning: Windows into Conceptual Space / [ed] Carita Paradis, Jean Hudson & Ulf Magnusson, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 214-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a corpus linguistic analysis of 1000 random path-, road-, and way-instances from the British National Corpus. The aim is to show that both non-metaphorical and metaphorical instances of these terms (e.g. the bushes had grown across the path and the path of green consumerism) are intimately connected with people’s embodied experiences of travel through space along paths, roads, or ways. This is evident from a) the coherent way in which sentences including these terms are generally structured, b) the differences between path- road-, and way-sentences at a more specific level of abstraction, and c) the similarities between non-metaphorical and metaphorical sentences including the same term (e.g. non-metaphorical path and metaphorical path). The image-schematic structures of these experiences create coherence in word use. Differences between paths, roads, and ways, and hence between journeys along these, lead to variation in spatial metaphorical meaning.

  • 10.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    [rec. av] 'Metaphors Dead and Alive, Sleeping and Waking: a Dynamic View' by Cornelia Müller2010In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 114-121Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Temporal prepositions explained: Cross-linguistic analysis of English and Swedish unit of time landmarks2014In: Cognitive Linguistic Studies, ISSN 2213-8722, E-ISSN 2213-8730, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent can factors such as the size of a unit of time landmark and zoomed in effects explain the patterns of temporal prepositions in English (Lindstromberg, 1998/2010)? How important are these factors cross-linguistically? This paper is a corpus linguistic analysis of unit of time landmarks in English, in and on instances, and in their Swedish equivalents, i and instances.My aims are to investigate how temporal in and on relationships are construed in terms of spatial ones and to identify shared and differing patterns between these two closely related languages. Shared patterns may provide clues in regard to which factors are salient when time is construed in terms of space. Differing patterns highlight the fact that a given way of construing time in terms of space is not the only alternative. Systematicity at this level of abstraction is potentially useful for the second language (L2) learner.

  • 12.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    What trajectors reveal about TIME metaphors: analysis of English and Swedish2016In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 28-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an analysis of trajectors (i.e. located entities) in language about fixed durations of TIME. More specifically, trajectors in instances including the English prepositions in or on, or their Swedish equivalents i or , are analyzed. On the structure of the inverse Moving Observer/Moving Time metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson 1999) instances such as these should be construed relative to a Moving Observer, and trajectors people that move relative to fixed durations of TIME (as reflected in e.g. when we come to launching the 4th edition in early 1990). My analysis, however, suggests that our understanding of TIME through SPACE is more nuanced than suggested by these metaphors. In this specific context, trajectors are not typically people in motion, but rather events or processes located in, or on, unit of time landmarks. My study emphasizes the need to test the systematicity of the mappings proposed by Conceptual Metaphor Theory.

  • 13.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gibbs Jr, Raymond W
    University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), Psychology Department.
    Embodied motivations for metaphorical meanings2013In: Cognitive linguistics: the quantitative turn : the essential reader / [ed] Laura Janda, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 81-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between people's mental imagery for their experiences of paths and roads and the metaphorical use of path and road in discourse. We report the results of two studies, one a survey examining people's mental imagery about their embodied experiences with paths and roads, with the second providing a corpus analysis of the ways path and road are metaphorically used in discourse. Our hypothesis is that both people's mental imagery for path and road, and speakers' use of these words in metaphorical contexts are strongly guided by their embodied understandings of real-world events related to travel on paths and roads. The results of these studies demonstrate how bodily experiences with artifacts partly constrains not only how specific conceptual metaphors emerge, but how different metaphorical understandings are applied in talk about abstract entities and events.

  • 14.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gibbs W Jr, Raymond
    University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), Psychology Department.
    Embodied motivations for metaphorical meanings2012In: Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 0936-5907, E-ISSN 1613-3641, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 251-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between people’s mental imagery for their experiences of paths and roads and the metaphorical use of path and road in discourse. We report the results of two studies, one a survey examining people’s mental imagery about their embodied experiences with paths and roads, with the second providing a corpus analysis of the ways path and road are metaphorically used in discourse. Our hypothesis is that both people’s mental imagery for path and road, and speakers’ use of these words in metaphorical contexts are strongly guided by their embodied understandings of real-world events related to travel on paths and roads. The results of these studies demonstrate how bodily experiences with artifacts partly constrains not only how specific conceptual metaphors emerge, but how different metaphorical understandings are applied in talk about abstract entities and events.

  • 15.
    Nacey, Susan Lee
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Greve, Linda
    The Science Museums, Aarhus University.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Linguistic metaphor identification in Scandinavian2019In: Metaphor identification in multiple languages: MIPVU around the world / [ed] Susan Nacey, Tina Krennmayr, Aletta Dorst, W. Gudrun Reijnierse, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Perlman, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Clark, Nathaniel
    Psychology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Iconic prosody in story reading2015In: Cognitive science, ISSN 0364-0213, E-ISSN 1551-6709, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1348-1368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experiments have shown that people iconically modulate their prosody corresponding with the meaning of their utterance (e.g., Shintel et al., 2006). This article reports findings from a story reading task that expands the investigation of iconic prosody to abstract meanings in addition to concrete ones. Participants read stories that contrasted along concrete and abstract semantic dimensions of speed (e.g., a fast drive, slow career progress) and size (e.g., a small grasshopper,an important contract). Participants read fast stories at a faster rate than slow stories, and big stories with a lower pitch than small stories. The effect of speed was distributed across the stories,including portions that were identical across stories, whereas the size effect was localized to size related words. Overall, these findings enrich the documentation of iconicity in spoken language and bear on our understanding of the relationship between gesture and speech.

  • 17.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Institutionen för svenska språket, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Johansson Falck, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tankar kring kring: En diakron studie av prepositionsbruket vid kognitionsverb2017In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. NF 27, p. 96-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the usage of Swedish prepositions with cognition verbs. Our main focus is on the usage of the preposition kring ‘around’. The study is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics, and the notions of trajectory (TR) and landmark (LM) are used to describe the relationships involved. Questions asked are 1. Has the usage of kring with cognition verbs changed over time? If so, how? and 2. Has the preposition usage with the cognition verbs filosofera ‘philosophize’, fokusera ‘focus’, forska ‘research’, fundera ‘contemplate’, reflektera ‘reflect’, resonera ‘reason’, spekulera ‘speculate’, and tänka ‘think’ changed over time? If so, how?

    The study is based on news texts from the period of 1923–2012 from the Korp Corpus. Taken together, the investigated data contains 3.7 million sentences and 56 million tokens of news texts.

    Our results show that changes in the usages of the prepositions are specific to each verb rather than following an overall trend. Throughout the period, the verbs fokusera, fundera, reflektera, spekulera and tänka are used with prepositions that suggest that people’s thoughts (TR) are directed down towards, or into, abstract topics (LM). The verbs filosofera, forska, and resonera, on the other hand, are used with prepositions that suggest thinking (TR) around abstract topics (LM). There is an increase in the usage of kring with resonera, and a decrease in the usage of kring with fokusera.

  • 18.
    Zlatev, Jordan
    et al.
    Språk - och litteraturcentrum, Lunds universitet.
    Andrén, MatsSpråk - och litteraturcentrum, Lunds universitet.Johansson Falck, MarlenePsychology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz.Lundmark, CaritaSpråk, medier, litteratur och lärande, Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Studies in language and cognition2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a plethora of concepts, theories and methods, the theoretical and empirical studies described in this volume are united in their approach of treating language not in isolation (e.g. as a “module”), but as both based on structures and processes of cognition, and at the same time as affecting the human mind. The book is organized in 7 parts, corresponding to some of the major fields in language research today: (a) linguistic meta-theory and general issues, (b) lexical meaning, (c) metaphor, (d) grammar, (e) pragmatics, (f) gesture and bodily communication, and (g) historical linguistics. At the same time, the non-modular approach to language adopted by the authors is reflected by the fact that there are no strict boundaries between the parts. Thus, the book is a valuable contribution to the growing interdisciplinary field of Language and Cognition.

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