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• 1. Berthomier, M.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Alfven: magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers2012In: Experimental astronomy (Print), ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 33, no 2-3, p. 445-489Article in journal (Refereed)

The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.

• 2.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2736-2754Article in journal (Refereed)

Plasma dynamics in Earth's magnetotail is often studied using moments of the distribution function, which results in losing information on the kinetic properties of the plasma. To better understand oscillatory flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet, we investigate two events, one in each hemisphere, in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the lobes using the 2-D ion distribution function from the Cluster 4 spacecraft. In this case study, the oscillatory flows are a manifestation of repeated ion flux enhancements with pitch angle changing from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and from 180 degrees to 0 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Similar pitch angle signatures are observed seven times in about 80 min for the Southern Hemisphere event and three times in about 80 min for the Northern Hemisphere event. The ion flux enhancements observed for both events are slightly shifted in time between different energy channels, indicating a possible time-of-flight effect from which we estimate that the source of particle is located similar to 5-25R(E) and similar to 40-107R(E) tailward of the spacecraft for the Southern and Northern Hemisphere event, respectively. Using a test particle simulation, we obtain similar to 21-46 R-E for the Southern Hemisphere event and tailward of X similar to - 65R(E) (outside the validity region of the model) for the Northern Hemisphere event. We discuss possible sources that could cause the enhancements of ion flux.

• 3.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Department of Physics and Technology, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Low-frequency oscillatory flow signatures and high-speed flows in the Earth's magnetotail2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 7, p. 7042-7056Article in journal (Refereed)

Using plasma sheet data from Cluster 1 spacecraft from 2001 till 2011, we statistically investigate oscillatory signatures in the plasma bulk flow. These periodic oscillations are compared to high-speed and quiet flows. Periodic oscillations are observed approximately 8% of the time, while high-speed flows and quiet flows are observed around 0.5% and 12% of the time, respectively. We remark that periodic oscillations can roughly occur everywhere for x(gsm) < -10 R-E and |y(gsm)| < 10 RE, while quiet flows mainly occur toward the flanks of this region and toward x = -10 R-E. The relation between the geomagnetic and solar activity and the occurrence of periodic oscillations is investigated and reveal that periodic oscillations occur for most Kp values and solar activity, while quiet flows are more common during low magnetospheric and solar activity. We find that the median oscillation frequency of periodic oscillations is 1.7 mHz and the median duration of the oscillation events is 41 min. We also observe that their associated Poynting vectors show a tendency to be earthward (S-x >= 0). Finally, the distribution of high-speed flows and periodic oscillations as a function of the velocity is investigated and reveals that thresholds lower than 200 km/s should not be used to identify high-speed flows as it could result in misinterpreting a periodic oscillations for a high-speed flow.

• 4. Fu, HS
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Dipolarization fronts as a consequence of transient reconnection: in situ evidence2013In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 40, no 23, p. 6023-6027Article in journal (Refereed)

Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are frequently detected in the Earth's magnetotail from X-GSM=-30 R-E to X-GSM=-7 R-E. How these DFs are formed is still poorly understood. Three possible mechanisms have been suggested in previous simulations: (1) jet braking, (2) transient reconnection, and (3) spontaneous formation. Among these three mechanisms, the first has been verified by using spacecraft observation, while the second and third have not. In this study, we show Cluster observation of DFs inside reconnection diffusion region. This observation provides in situ evidence of the second mechanism: Transient reconnection can produce DFs. We suggest that the DFs detected in the near-Earth region (X-GSM>-10 R-E) are primarily attributed to jet braking, while the DFs detected in the mid- or far-tail region (X-GSM<-15 R-E) are primarily attributed to transient reconnection or spontaneous formation. In the jet-braking mechanism, the high-speed flow pushes the preexisting plasmas to produce the DF so that there is causality between high-speed flow and DF. In the transient-reconnection mechanism, there is no causality between high-speed flow and DF, because the frozen-in condition is violated.

• 5.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Japan. Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France. Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France. VEGA contracted to Solar System Science Operations Division, ESA/ESAC, Madrid, Spain. L'Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma, Italy. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany. Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA. University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
Outflowing protons and heavy ions as a source for the sub-keV ringcurrent2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 839-849Article in journal (Refereed)

Data from the Cluster CIS instrument have been used for studying proton and heavy ion (O+ and He+ ) char- acteristics of the sub-keV ring current. Thirteen events with dispersed heavy ions (O+ and He+ ) were identified out of two years (2001 and 2002) of Cluster data. Allevents took place during rather geomagnetically quiet periods. Three of those events have been investigated in detail: 21 August 2001, 26 November 2001 and 20 February 2002. These events were chosen from varying magnetic local times (MLT), and they showed different characteristics. In this article, we discuss the potential source for sub-keV ring current ions. We show that: (1) outflows of terrestrialsub-keV ions are supplied to the ring current also during quiet geomagnetic conditions; (2) the composition of the out-flow implies an origin that covers an altitude interval from the low-altitude ionosphere to the plasmasphere, and (3) terrestrial ions are moving upward along magnetic field lines, at times forming narrow collimated beams, but  frequently also as broad beams. Over time, the ion beams are expected to gradually become isotropised as a result of wave-particleinteraction, eventually taking the form of isotropic drifting sub-keV ion signatures. We argue that the sub-keV energy-time dispersed signatures originate from field-aligned terrestrial ion energising and outflow, which may occur at all local times and persist also during quiet times.

• 6. Gunell, H.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Ion acoustic waves at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Observations and computations2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 600, article id A3Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. On 20 January 2015 the Rosetta spacecraft was at a heliocentric distance of 2.5 AU, accompanying comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on its journey toward the Sun. The Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA), other instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium, and the ROSINA instrument made observations relevant to the generation of plasma waves in the cometary environment. Aims. Observations of plasma waves by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Langmuir probe (RPC-LAP) can be explained by dispersion relations calculated based on measurements of ions by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA), and this gives insight into the relationship between plasma phenomena and the neutral coma, which is observed by the Comet Pressure Sensor of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis instrument (ROSINA-COPS). Methods. We use the simple pole expansion technique to compute dispersion relations for waves on ion timescales based on the observed ion distribution functions. These dispersion relations are then compared to the waves that are observed. Data from the instruments RPC-LAP, RPC-ICA and the mutual impedance probe (RPC-MIP) are compared to find the best estimate of the plasma density. Results. We find that ion acoustic waves are present in the plasma at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, where the major ion species is H2O+. The bulk of the ion distribution is cold, k(B)T(i) = 0.01 eV when the ion acoustic waves are observed. At times when the neutral density is high, ions are heated through acceleration by the solar wind electric field and scattered in collisions with the neutrals. This process heats the ions to about 1 eV, which leads to significant damping of the ion acoustic waves. Conclusions. In conclusion, we show that ion acoustic waves appear in the H2O+ plasmas at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and how the interaction between the neutral and ion populations affects the wave properties.

• 7. Gunell, H.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Plasma penetration of the dayside magnetopause2012In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 072906-Article in journal (Refereed)

Data from the Cluster spacecraft during their magnetopause crossing on 25 January 2002 are presented. The magnetopause was in a state of slow non-oscillatory motion during the observational period. Coherent structures of magnetosheath plasma, here typified as plasmoids, were seen on closed magnetic field lines on the inside of the magnetopause. Using simultaneous measurements on two spacecraft, the inward motion of the plasmoids is followed from one spacecraft to the next, and it is found to be in agreement with the measured ion velocity. The plasma characteristics and the direction of motion of the plasmoids show that they have penetrated the magnetopause, and the observations are consistent with the concept of impulsive penetration, as it is known from theory, simulations, and laboratory experiments. The mean flux across the magnetopause observed was 0.2%-0.5% of the solar wind flux at the time, and the peak values of the flux inside the plasmoids reached approximately 20% of the solar wind flux. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4739446]

• 8. Gunell, H.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Waves in high-speed plasmoids in the magnetosheath and at the magnetopause2014In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 991-1009Article in journal (Refereed)

Plasmoids, defined here as plasma entities with a higher anti-sunward velocity component than the surrounding plasma, have been observed in the magnetosheath in recent years. During the month of March 2007 the Cluster spacecraft crossed the magnetopause near the subsolar point 13 times. Plasmoids with larger velocities than the surrounding magnetosheath were found on seven of these 13 occasions. The plasmoids approach the magnetopause and interact with it. Both whistler mode waves and waves in the lower hybrid frequency range appear in these plasmoids, and the energy density of the waves inside the plasmoids is higher than the average wave energy density in the magnetosheath. When the spacecraft are in the magnetosphere, Alfvenic waves are observed. Cold ions of ionospheric origin are seen in connection with these waves, when the wave electric and magnetic fields combine with the Earth's dc magnetic field to yield an E x B/B-2 drift speed that is large enough to give the ions energies above the detection threshold.

• 9.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Plasma waves confined to the diamagnetic cavity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S84-S92Article in journal (Refereed)

Ion acoustic waves were observed in the diamagnetic cavity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta spacecraft on 2015 August 3, when the comet was 1.25 au from the Sun. Wave spectra recorded by the Langmuir probe (RPC-LAP), peak near 200 Hz, decrease for higher frequencies and reach the noise floor at approximately 1.5 kHz. These waves were observed only when the spacecraft was in the diamagnetic cavity or at its boundary, which is identified as a sharp drop in magnetic field magnitude, measured by RPC-MAG. The plasma, on both sides of the boundary, is dominated by a cold (a few hundred K) water group ion population, one cold (k(B)T(e) similar to 0.1 eV) and one warm (k(B)T(e) similar to 10 eV) electron population. The observations are interpreted in terms of current-driven ion acoustic waves, generated by currents that flow through bulges on the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity.

• 10.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Belgium.
Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Belgium. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Belgium.
Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 614, article id L3Article in journal (Refereed)

The presence or absence of a magnetic field determines the nature of how a planet interacts with the solar wind and what paths are available for atmospheric escape. Magnetospheres form both around magnetised planets, such as Earth, and unmagnetised planets, like Mars and Venus, but it has been suggested that magnetised planets are better protected against atmospheric loss. However, the observed mass escape rates from these three planets are similar (in the approximate (0.5–2) kg s−1 range), putting this latter hypothesis into question. Modelling the effects of a planetary magnetic field on the major atmospheric escape processes, we show that the escape rate can be higher for magnetised planets over a wide range of magnetisations due to escape of ions through the polar caps and cusps. Therefore, contrary to what has previously been believed, magnetisation is not a sufficient condition for protecting a planet from atmospheric loss. Estimates of the atmospheric escape rates from exoplanets must therefore address all escape processes and their dependence on the planet’s magnetisation.

• 11.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The use of the power density for identifying reconnection regions2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 10, p. 8644-8662Article in journal (Refereed)

In the vicinity of magnetic reconnection, magnetic energy is transferred into kinetic energy. A reconnection region hence corresponds to a load, and it should manifest itself as large and positive values of the power density, E·J ≫ 0, where E is the electric field and J the current density. In this article we analyze Cluster plasma sheet data from 2001–2004 to investigate the use of the power density for identifying possible magnetic reconnection events from large sets of observed data. From theoretical arguments we show that an event with   pW/m3 in the Earth's magnetotail observed by the Cluster instruments (X <− 10RE and  ) is likely to be associated with reconnection. The power density can be used as a primary indicator of potential reconnection regions, but selected events must be reviewed separately to confirm any possible reconnection signatures by looking for other signatures such as Hall electric and magnetic fields and reconnection jets. The power density can be computed from multispacecraft data, and we argue that the power density can be used as a tool for identifying possible reconnection events from large sets of data, e.g., from the Cluster and the Magnetospheric Multiscale missions.

• 12.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Inhomogeneous transverse electric fields and wave generation in the auroral region: a statistical study2001In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 106, no A6, p. 10803-10816Article in journal (Refereed)

We use data from the Freja satellite to investigate the importance of localized transverse DC electric fields for the generation of broadband waves responsible for ion heating in the auroral region. Theoretical models indicate that shear in the plasma Row perpendicular to the geomagnetic field can generate waves in a broad range around the ion gyrofrequency for parallel currents significantly below the threshold of the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability. We compare in situ data with laboratory measurements and theoretical predictions, and we find that inhomogeneous electric fields might well be important for the generation of waves in the auroral region.

• 13.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The importance of a dark ionosphere for ion heating and auroral arc formation2000In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1635-1638Article in journal (Refereed)

We present observations from the Freja Satellite to show that density reductions and ion heating at Freja heights are anticorrelated with solar illumination of the ionosphere. When the ionospheric foot-point of a flux-tube is in shadow, the ambient density is lower, transverse ion energization is more common and more intense, and the associated density cavities are deeper. In combination with the suggestion that the electrons must be accelerated to keV energies to carry an imposed current in a low density auroral cavity, these observations may explain the recent observation that auroras are more common when the ionosphere below is in darkness.

• 14.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, CO, USA. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
Bow shock generator current systems: MMS observations of possible current closure2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, p. 242-258Article in journal (Refereed)

We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi‐perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y> 0 (<0), and oppositely directed for northward IMF. This indicates current closure across the equatorial magnetosheath, and it is observed for IMF clock angles near 0∘ and 180∘. To our knowledge, these are the first observational evidence for bow shock current closure across the magnetosheath. Since we observe no clear signatures of |J⊥| decreasing toward large |Y| we suggest that the main region of current closure is further tailward, outside MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north‐south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

• 15.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The role of the inner tail to midtail plasma sheet in channeling solar wind power to the ionosphere2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, no A6, p. A06310-Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we use Cluster power density (E . J) data from 2001, 2002, and 2004 to investigate energy conversion and transfer in the plasma sheet. We show that a southward IMF B-z is favorable for plasma sheet energy conversion, and that there is an increased particle and Poynting flux toward the Earth at times when Cluster observes an enhanced energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Conversion from electromagnetic to kinetic energy is increasingly dominant farther down-tail, while the generation of electromagnetic power from kinetic energy becomes important toward the Earth with a maximum at roughly 10 R-E. By linking observations of the key quantity E . J to observations of the solar wind input and earthward energy flux, our results demonstrate the role of the inner tail to midtail plasma sheet as a mediator between the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere and the auroral dissipation in the ionosphere.

• 16.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Energy conversion regions as observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2011In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, no A1Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we present a review of recent studies of observations of localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet at altitudes of 15–20RE. By examining variations in the power density, E · J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density, we show that the plasma sheet exhibits a high level of fine structure. Approximately three times as many concentrated load regions (CLRs) (E · J > 0) as concentrated generator regions (CGRs) (E · J < 0) are identified, confirming the average load character of the plasma sheet. Some ECRs are found to relate to auroral activity. While ECRs are relevant for the energy conversion between the electromagnetic field and the particles, bursty bulk flows (BBFs) play a central role for the energy transfer in the plasma sheet. We show that ECRs and BBFs are likely to be related, although details of this relationship are yet to be explored. The plasma sheet energy conversion increases rather simultaneously with increasing geomagnetic activity in both CLRs and CGRs. Consistent with large-scale magnetotail simulations, most of the observed ECRs appear to be rather stationary in space but varying in time. We estimate that the ECR lifetime and scale size are a few minutes and a few RE, respectively. It is conceivable that ECRs rise and vanish locally in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character, while some energy is transmitted as Poynting flux to the ionosphere.

• 17.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Observations of concentrated generator regions in the nightside magnetosphere by Cluster/FAST conjunctions2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, p. 637-49Article in journal (Refereed)
• 18.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
Fysik i vardagen: 256 vardagsmysterier avslöjade över en kopp kaffe2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 19.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
A statistical study of wave properties and electron density at 1700 km in the auroral region2002In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 107, no A8, p. SIA 21-1-SIA 21-13Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a comprehensive overview of the electron density and six different wave types in the range similar to1 Hz to similar to1 MHz, and we investigate their occurrence, average wave frequency and amplitude as a function of location, Kp index, and solar illumination. Twenty-one months of Freja observations from the Northern Hemisphere obtained at similar to1700 km altitude and invariant latitudes 40degrees-75degrees are used. We find that waves around the lower hybrid frequency occur in one low-latitude dayside band and one high-latitude nightside band. The latter band correlates with precipitating auroral electrons and coexists with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. This indicates the importance of energetic electrons for the wave generation. Both broadband ELF waves and broadband high-frequency whistler mode waves are found at high latitudes, but whistler mode emissions are most common in regions of high electron densities on the dayside, while broadband ELF waves are found where the density is reduced on the nightside. Moreover, the average density in the presence of broadband ELF waves is more reduced when the ionosphere is dark than when it is sunlit. However, broadband whistler mode waves, Langmuir waves, and waves with an upper cutoff just below the proton gyrofrequency coincide with density enhancements when the ionosphere is dark. Ion heating correlated with auroral electrons coexists with EMIC waves and the high-latitude band of waves around the lower hybrid frequency. Furthermore, ion heating not correlated with downgoing electrons coexists with broadband ELF waves.

• 20.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
A statistical study of ion energization at 1700 km in the auroral region2002In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1943-1958Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a comprehensive overview of several potentially relevant causes for the oxygen energization in the auroral region. Data from the Freja satellite near 1700 km altitude are used for an unconditional statistical investigation. The data are obtained in the Northern Hemisphere during 21 months in the declining phase of the solar cycle. The importance of various wave types for the ion energization is statistically studied. We also investigate the correlation of ion heating with precipitating protons, accelerated auroral electrons, suprathermal electron bursts, the electron density variations, K-P index and solar illumination of the nearest conjugate ionosphere. We find that sufficiently strong broadband ELF waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and waves around the lower hybrid frequency are foremost associated with the ion heating. However, magnetosonic waves, with a sharp, lower frequency cutoff just below the proton gyrofrequency, are not found to contribute to the ion heating. In the absence of the first three wave emissions, transversely energized ions are rare. These wave types are approximately equally efficient in heating the ions, but we find that the main source for the heating is broadband ELF waves, since they are most common in the auroral region. We have also observed that the conditions for ion heating are more favourable for smaller ratios of the spectral densities S-E/S-B of the broadband ELF waves at the oxygen gyrofrequency.

• 21.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The evolution of flux pileup regions in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations2013In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 118, no 10, p. 6279-6290Article in journal (Refereed)

Bursty bulk flows (BBFs) play an important role for the mass, energy, and magnetic flux transport in the plasma sheet, and the flow pattern in and around a BBF has important consequences for the localized energy conversion between the electromagnetic and plasma mechanical energy forms. The plasma flow signature in and around BBFs is often rather complicated. Return flows and plasma vortices are expected to exist at the flanks of the main flow channel, especially near the inner plasma sheet boundary, but also farther down-tail. A dipolarization front (DF) is often observed at the leading edge of a BBF, and a flux pileup region (FPR) behind the DF. Here we present Cluster data of three FPRs associated with vortex flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet on 15 August 2001. According to the principles of Fu et al. (2011, 2012c), two of the FPRs are considered to be in an early stage of evolution (growing FPRs). The third FPR is in a later stage of evolution (decaying FPR). For the first time, the detailed energy conversion properties during various stages of the FPR evolution have been measured. We show that the later stage FPR has a more complex vortex pattern than the two earlier stage FPRs. The two early stage FPR correspond to generators, E<bold></bold>J<0, while the later stage FPR only shows weak generator characteristics and is instead dominated by load signatures at the DF, E<bold></bold>J>0. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is one of the first times BBF-related plasma vortices have been observed to propagate over the spacecraft in the midtail plasma sheet at geocentric distances of about 18R(E). Our observations are compared to recent simulation results and previous observations.

• 22.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany. Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA. CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4131-4146Article in journal (Refereed)

Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail) direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

• 23.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 1813-1825Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004) of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs) from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

• 24.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany. Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA. CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4147-4155Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data) at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005). The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

• 25.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The importance of solar illumination for discrete and diffuse aurora2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, p. 3481-3486Article in journal (Refereed)
• 26.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Evidence for the braking of flow bursts as they propagate toward the Earth2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 119, no 11, p. 9004-9018Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we use energy conversion arguments to investigate the possible braking of flow bursts as they propagate toward the Earth. By using EJ data (E and J are the electric field and the current density) observed by Cluster in the magnetotail plasma sheet, we find indications of a plasma deceleration in the region -20 R-E < X < - 15 R-E. Our results suggest a braking mechanism where compressed magnetic flux tubes in so-called dipolarization fronts (DFs) can decelerate incoming flow bursts. Our results also show that energy conversion arguments can be used for studying flow braking and that the position of the flow velocity peak with respect to the DF can be used as a single-spacecraft proxy when determining energy conversion properties. Such a single-spacecraft proxy is invaluable whenever multispacecraft data are not available. In a superposed epoch study, we find that a flow burst with the velocity peak behind the DF is likely to decelerate and transfer energy from the particles to the fields. For flow bursts with the peak flow at or ahead of the DF we see no indications of braking, but instead we find an energy transfer from the fields to the particles. From our results we obtain an estimate of the magnitude of the deceleration of the flow bursts, and we find that it is consistent with previous investigations.

• 27.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
GALS: gradient analysis by least squares2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 3491-3499Article in journal (Refereed)
• 28.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. IRF, Kiruna.
GALS: gradient analysis by least squares2006In: Proceedings of the 2006 AGU Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union , 2006, p. SM53A-1442-SM53A-1442Conference paper (Other academic)
• 29. Karlsson, T.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
On the origin of magnetosheath plasmoids and their relation to magnetosheath jets2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 7390-7403Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate localized magnetosheath and solar wind density enhancements, associated with clear magnetic field changes, and therefore referred to as magnetosheath/solar wind plasmoids, respectively. Using Cluster data, we show that there are two distinct populations of magnetosheath plasmoids, one associated with a decrease of magnetic field strength (diamagnetic plasmoids), and one with an increased magnetic field strength (paramagnetic plasmoids). The diamagnetic magnetosheath plasmoids have scale sizes of the order of 1-10 RE, while the paramagnetic ones are an order of magnitude smaller. The diamagnetic plasmoids are not associated with any change in the magnetosheath plasma flow velocity, and they are classified as embedded plasmoids in the terminology of Karlsson et al. (2012). The paramagnetic plasmoids may either be embedded or associated with increases in flow velocity (fast plasmoids). A search for plasmoids in the pristine solar wind resulted in identification of 62 diamagnetic plasmoids with very similar properties to the magnetosheath diamagnetic plasmoids, making it probable that the solar wind is the source of these structures. No paramagnetic plasmoids are found in the pristine solar wind, indicating that these are instead created at the bow shock or in the magnetosheath. We discuss the relation of the plasmoids to the phenomenon of magnetosheath jets, with which they have many properties in common, and suggest that the paramagnetic plasmoids can be regarded as a subset of these or a closely related phenomenon. We also discuss how the results from this study relate to theories addressing the formation of magnetosheath jets.

• 30. Karlsson, Tomas
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Magnetic forces associated with bursty bulk flows in Earth's magnetotail2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 3122-3128Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the first direct measurements of magnetic forces acting on bursty bulk flow plasma in the magnetotail. The magnetic forces are determined using Cluster multispacecraft measurements. We analyze 67 bursty bulk flow (BBF) events and show that the curvature part of the magnetic force is consistently positive, acting to accelerate the plasma toward Earth between approximately 10 and 20 R-E geocentrical distances, while the magnetic field pressure gradient increasingly brakes the plasma as it moves toward Earth. The net result is that the magnetic force accelerates the plasma at distances greater than approximately 14 R-E, while it acts to decelerate it within that distance. The magnetic force, together with the thermal pressure gradient force, will determine the dynamics of the BBFs as they propagate toward the near-Earth tail region. The determination of the former provides an important clue to the ultimate fate of BBFs in the inner magnetosphere.

• 31. Keiling, A.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling of global Pi2 pulsations2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 2717-2739Article in journal (Refereed)

Global Pi2 pulsations have mainly been associated with either low/middle latitudes or middle/high latitudes and, as a result, have been treated as two different types of Pi2 pulsations, either the plasmaspheric cavity resonance or the transient response of the substorm current wedge, respectively. However, in some reports, global Pi2 pulsations have a single period spanning low/middle/high latitudes. This super global type has not yet been satisfactorily explained. In particular, it has been a major challenge to identify the coupling between the source region and the ground. Here we report two consecutive super global Pi2 events which were observed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range. Using four spacecraft that were azimuthally spread out in the nightside and one spacecraft in the tail lobe, it was possible to follow the Pi2 signal along various paths with time delays from the magnetotail to the ground. Furthermore, it was found that the global pulsations were a combination of various modes including the transient Alfven and fast modes, field line resonance, and possibly a forced cavity-type resonance. As for the source of the Pi2 periodicity, oscillatory plasma flow inside the plasma sheet during flow braking (e.g., interchange oscillations) is a likely candidate. Such flow modulations, resembling the ground Pi2 pulsations, were recorded for both events.

• 32.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium. Swedish Institute of Space Physics. University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo, Norway. Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Espoo, Finland. University of Tromsø, Department of Physics and Technology, Tromsø, Norway. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden.
Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres: Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A81Article in journal (Refereed)

Aims. We wish to investigate the energy conversion between particles and electromagnetic fields and determine the location where it occurs in the plasma environment of comets.

Methods. We used a hybrid plasma model that included photoionization, and we considered two cases of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux. Other parameters corresponded to the conditions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a heliocentric distance of 1.5 AU.

Results. We find that a shock-like structure is formed upstream of the comet and acts as an electromagnetic generator, similar to the bow shock at Earth that slows down the solar wind. The Poynting flux transports electromagnetic energy toward the inner coma, where newly born cometary ions are accelerated. Upstream of the shock-like structure, we find local energy transfer from solar wind ions to cometary ions. We show that mass loading can be a local process with a direct transfer of energy, but also part of a dynamo system with electromagnetic generators and loads.

Conclusions. The energization of cometary ions is governed by a dynamo system for weak ionization, but changes into a large conversion region with local transfer of energy directly from solar wind protons for high ionization.

• 33. Maggiolo, R.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The Delayed Time Response of Geomagnetic Activity to the Solar Wind2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 11, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate the lagged correlation between a selection of geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters for a complete solar cycle, from 2000 to 2011. We first discuss the mathematical assumptions required for such a correlation analysis. The solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices have inherent timescales that smooth the variations of the correlation coefficients with time lag. Furthermore, the solar wind structure associated with corotating interaction regions and coronal mass ejections, and the compression regions ahead of them, strongly impacts the lagged correlation analysis results. This work shows that such bias must be taken into account in a correct interpretation of correlations. We then evidence that the magnetospheric response time to solar wind parameters involves multiple timescales. The simultaneous and quick response of the PC and AE indices to solar wind dynamic pressure with a delay of similar to 5 min suggests that magnetospheric compression by solar wind can trigger substorm activity. We find that the PC and AE indices respond to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B-Z with a response time of respectively similar to 20 and similar to 35 min. The response of the SYM-H index takes longer (similar to 80 min) and is less sharp, SYM-H being statistically significantly correlated to the IMF B-Z observed up to more than similar to 10 h before. Our results suggest that the solar wind velocity's dominant impact on geomagnetic activity is caused by the compression regions at the interface of fast/slow solar wind regimes, which are very geo-effective as they are associated with high solar wind pressure and strong interplanetary magnetic field.

• 34.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rymdfysik.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Dust dynamic pressure and magnetopause displacement: reasons for non-detection2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)

In a recent paper, Treumann and Baumjohann (2011) propose that the contribution of dust particles to the solar wind dynamic pressure can cause large compressions of the Earth's magnetopause and suggest that this occurs when Earth encounters meteoroid streams. In this paper we estimate the contribution from charged dust particles to the solar wind dynamical pressure, and we exclude that the dust associated to meteoroid streams can influence the extension of the magnetopause according to the proposed model. A sufficient coupling to the solar wind is only expected for so-called nanodust. However, the dynamic pressure of the nanodust is orders of magnitudes below that of the solar wind, making it unlikely that its variation can be observed in displacements of the magnetopause. We also discuss the equation that the authors use for estimating the extension of the Earth's magnetopause, and conclude that this is not applicable due to the large gyroradius of the nanodust. We finally note that an influence of dust on the extension of a magnetosphere might be quite possible in other astrophysical systems and based on other processes.

• 35.
Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
Cluster observations of energy conversion regions in the plasma sheet2010In: The Cluster Active Archive: Studying the Earth's Space Plasma Environment / [ed] Harri Laakso, Matthew Taylor, C. Philippe Escoubet, Springer Netherlands , 2010, p. 453-459Conference paper (Refereed)

Cluster allows for the first time a systematic examination of energy conversion, by the evaluation of the power density, E · J, with E the electric field and J the current density. Following a careful inspection of the Cluster plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001, we selected 43 energy conversion regions (ECRs), out of which 26 concentrated load regions (CLRs, E · J > 0) and 17 concentrated generator regions (CGRs, E · J < 0). As expected in the tail, at about 19 RE geocentric distance, the energy conversion is more intense for CLRs, on average some 25 pW∕m3, compared to some 5 pW∕m3 for CGRs. The CLRs are located closer to the neutral sheet and dominated by E and J in the GSE y direction, unlike the CGRs, that prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer, where the deviations of E and J from the GSE y direction can be significant. The ECRs are often associated with high speed bulk flows, on average faster and hotter for CLRs. The CLRs appear to be associated also with density drop and sometimes with temperature anisotropy, T > T, features which are observed less frequently for CGRs.

• 36. Marghitu, Octav
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Experimental investigation of auroral generator regions with conjugate Cluster and FAST data2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, p. 619-635Article in journal (Refereed)
• 37. Markidis, Stefano
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
The fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell method for plasma simulations2014In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 271, p. 415-429Article in journal (Refereed)

A method that solves concurrently the multi-fluid and Maxwell's equations has been developed for plasma simulations. By calculating the stress tensor in the multi-fluid momentum equation by means of computational particles moving in a self-consistent electromagnetic field, the kinetic effects are retained while solving the multi-fluid equations. The Maxwell's and multi-fluid equations are discretized implicitly in time enabling kinetic simulations over time scales typical of the fluid simulations. The Fluid-Kinetic Particle-in-Cell method has been implemented in a three-dimensional electromagnetic code, and tested against the two-stream instability, the Weibel instability, the ion cyclotron resonance and magnetic reconnection problems. The method is a promising approach for coupling fluid and kinetic methods in a unified framework.

• 38. Nakamura, R.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Inst Space Phys, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
Low- altitude electron acceleration due to multiple flow bursts in the magnetotail2014In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 777-784Article in journal (Refereed)

At 10:00 UT on 25 February 2008, Cluster 1 spacecraft crossed the near-midnight auroral zone, at about 2R(E) altitude, while two of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft, THD and THE, observed multiple flow bursts on the near-conjugate plasma sheet field lines. The flow shear pattern at THEMIS was consistent with the vortical motion at duskside of a localized flow channel. Coinciding in time with the flow bursts, Cluster 1 observed bursts of counterstreaming electrons with mostly low energies (441eV), accompanied by short time scale (<5s) magnetic field disturbances embedded in flow-associated field-aligned current systems. This conjugate event not only confirms the idea that the plasma sheet flows are the driver of the kinetic Alfven waves accelerating the low-energy electrons but is a unique observation of disturbances in the high-altitude auroral region relevant to the multiple plasma sheet flows. Key Points <list list-type="bulleted"> <list-item id="grl51326-li-0001">First observation of multiple flow signatures on near-conjugate flux tubes <list-item id="grl51326-li-0002">Low-energy electron profile suggests Alfvenic acceleration due to fast flow <list-item id="grl51326-li-0003">Multiple flow bursts are obtained to extend over large radial distance in tail

• 39. Nilsson, Hans
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Oxygen ion response to proton bursty bulk flows2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 7535-7546Article in journal (Refereed)

We have used Cluster spacecraft data from the years 2001 to 2005 to study how oxygen ions respond to bursty bulk flows (BBFs) as identified from proton data. We here define bursty bulk flows as periods of proton perpendicular velocities more than 100 km/s and a peak perpendicular velocity in the structure of more than 200 km/s, observed in a region with plasma beta above 1 in the near-Earth central tail region. We find that during proton BBFs only a minor increase in the O+ velocity is seen. The different behavior of the two ion species is further shown by statistics of H+ and O+ flow also outside BBFs: For perpendicular earthward velocities of H+ above about 100 km/s, the O+ perpendicular velocity is consistently lower, most commonly being a few tens of kilometers per second earthward. In summary, O+ ions in the plasma sheet experience less acceleration than H+ ions and are not fully frozen in to the magnetic field. Therefore, H+ and O+ motion is decoupled, and O+ ions have a slower earthward motion. This is particularly clear during BBFs. This may add further to the increased relative abundance of O+ ions in the plasma sheet during magnetic storms. The data indicate that O+ is typically less accelerated in association with plasma sheet X lines as compared to H+.

• 40.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
Nobelfysik i vardagen: 100 Nobelpris förklarade i en mordgåta2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Heavy Ion Flows in the Upper Ionosphere of the Venusian North Pole2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 6, p. 4597-4607Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate the heavy ion density and velocity in the Venusian upper ionosphere near the North Pole, using the Ion Mass Analyzer, a part of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms 4, together with the magnetic field instruments on Venus Express. The measurements were made during June-July 2014, covering the aerobraking campaign with lowered altitude measurements (similar to 130 km). The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400-km altitude. A clear trend of dusk-to-dawn heavy ion flow across the polar ionosphere was found, with speeds of similar to 2-10 km/s. In addition, the flow has a significant downward radial velocity component. The flow pattern does not depend on the interplanetary magnetic field directions nor the ionospheric magnetization states. Instead, we suggest a thermal pressure gradient between the equatorial and polar terminator regions, induced by the decrease in density between the regions, as the dominant mechanism driving the ion flow. Plain Language Summary We have calculated the ion density and velocities in the Venusian polar ionosphere using measurements from the Ion Mass Analyzer on board the Venus Express spacecraft. During June-July 2014 the periapsis was lowered to similar to 130 km, which allowed for measurements down to low altitudes of the ionosphere near the North Pole. The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400 km, which is similar to what was found near the equatorial region by the Pioneer Venus mission. In addition, there is a clear trend of dusk-to-dawn flow, along the terminator, for the heavy ions. This is surprising, as a general flow from day-to-night is expected for the Venusian ionosphere due to the long nights and significant heating of the dayside upper atmosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field direction does not appear to affect the ion flow pattern. Instead, we propose a thermal pressure gradient as the dominant accelerating mechanism, induced by the decrease in density from the equator toward the pole.

• 42.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
H+/O+ Escape Rate Ratio in the Venus Magnetotail and its Dependence on the Solar Cycle2018In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 20, p. 10805-10811Article in journal (Refereed)

A fundamental question for the atmospheric evolution of Venus is how much water-related material escapes from Venus to space. In this study, we calculate the nonthermal escape of H+ and O+ ions through the Venusian magnetotail and its dependence on the solar cycle. We separate 8 years of data obtained from the ion mass analyzer on Venus Express into solar minimum and maximum. The average escape of H+ decreased from 7.6.10(24) (solar minimum) to 2.1.10(24) s(-1) (solar maximum), while a smaller decrease was found for O+: 2.9.10(24) to 2.0.10(24) s(-1). As a result, the H+/O+ flux ratio decreases from 2.6 to 1.1. This implies that the escape of hydrogen and oxygen could have been below the stoichiometric ratio of water for Venus in its early history under the more active Sun.

• 43.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Space and Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. Space and Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
On IMF By-induced dawn-dusk asymmetries in earthward convective fast flows2017In: Dawn-dusk asymmetries in planetary plasma environments / [ed] Stein Haaland, Andrei Runov, Colin Forsyth, American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2017, 1st, p. 95-106Chapter in book (Refereed)

Studies of earthward plasma and magnetic field transport in the Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet have shown that, on the average, Earthward ion flows in the premidnight and midnight sectors exhibit a duskward component while flows in the postmidnight sector are dawnward. The flow pattern is more pronounced for slower flows (<100 km/s) and alters gradually to a more symmetric one with respect to midnight for increasing flow speeds. However, recent ionospheric and magnetospheric studies have suggested that a nonzero By component in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) may significantly influence the earthward transport, creating previously unnoticed dawn‐dusk asymmetries between the hemispheres. In this article, we give a short overview of the present understanding of the topic, present new results, and briefly discuss the importance of the IMF By component for the Earthward transport processes in the magnetotail plasma sheet.

• 44.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Response of magnetotail twisting to variations in IMF B-y: a THEMIS case study 1-2 January 20092016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 7822-7830Article in journal (Refereed)

Theoretical considerations, observations, and simulations have shown that the B-y component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) may cause twisting of the magnetotail. However, the fundamental issues, the temporal and spatial responses of the magnetotail in the twisting process, are still unresolved. We report unique multipoint observations of the response of the magnetotail to the variations in IMF B-y on 1-2 January 2009. For the first time, estimates of the tail twisting response time at different (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, THEMIS) distances in the same event are inferred. Using cross-correlation and timing analyses, we find that the tail twisting propagates from farther out toward the Earth and the response time increases significantly to the inner magnetosphere.

• 45.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
IMF dependence of the azimuthal direction of earthward magnetotail fast flows2013In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 40, no 21, p. 5598-5604Article in journal (Refereed)

Cluster magnetotail data together with ACE solar wind data from 2001 to 2009 are used to investigate the dependence of the azimuthal flow direction of earthward magnetotail fast flows on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We find an indication that fast flows have favored azimuthal directions that have dependence on the IMF. Our results suggest that for positive IMF By, the favored azimuthal direction of the fast flows is dawnward in the northern plasma sheet and duskward in the southern plasma sheet. For negative IMF By, an opposite situation takes place, the favored azimuthal flow directions are then duskward and dawnward in the northern and southern plasma sheet, respectively. As a possible explanation for the results, it is suggested that the untwisting reconnected magnetic field lines may direct the fast flows in the magnetotail, the field line twist itself being dependent on the IMF.

• 46.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. KTH, Stockholm. IRF-K, Kiruna. KTH, Stockholm. University of Leicester, UK. University of Leicester, UK.
Azimuthal velocity shear within an Earthward fast flow: further evidence for magnetotail untwisting?2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)

It is well known that nonzero interplanetary magnetic field By conditions lead to a twisted magnetotail configuration. The plasma sheet is rotated around its axis and tail magnetic field lines are twisted, which causes an azimuthal displacementof their ionospheric footprints. According to the untwisting hypothesis, the untwisting of twisted field lines is suggested to influence the azimuthal direction of convective fast flows in the nightside geospace. However, there is a lack of in situ magnetospheric observations, which show actual signatures of the possible untwisting process. In this paper, we report detailed Cluster observations of an azimuthal flow shear across the neutral sheet associated with an Earthward fast flow on 5 September 2001. The observations show a flow shear velocity pattern with a Vperpy sign change, near the neutral sheet (Bx $\sim$ 0) within a fast flow during the neutral sheet flapping motion over the spacecraft. Firstly, this implies that convective fast flows may not generally be unidirectional across the neutral sheet, but may have a more complex structure. Secondly, in this event tail By and the flow shear are as expected by the untwisting hypothesis. The analysis of the flow shear reveals a linear dependence between Bx and Vperpy close to the neutral sheet and suggests that Cluster crossed the neutral sheet in the dawnward part of the fast flow channel. The magnetospheric observations are supported by the semi-empirical T96 and TF04 models. Furthermore, the ionospheric SuperDARN convection maps support the satellite observations proposing that the azimuthal component of the magnetospheric flows is enforced by a magnetic field untwisting. In summary,the observations give strong supportive evidence to the tail untwisting hypothesis. However, the T96 ionospheric mapping demonstrates the limitations of the model in mapping from a twisted tail.

• 47.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, China.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
IMF B-y Influence on Magnetospheric Convection in Earth's Magnetotail Plasma SheetIn: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007Article in journal (Refereed)

We use Geotail, Cluster, and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms data over 15 years (1995-2009) to statistically investigate convective ion flows (V-perpendicular to xy<200 km/s) in the magnetotail plasma sheet under the influence of a clearly nonzero dawn-dusk interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B-y). We find that IMF B-y causes an interhemispheric asymmetry in the flows, which depends on the direction of IMF B-y. On the average, one magnetic hemisphere is dominated by a dawn-dusk flow component, which is oppositely directed compared to that in the other hemisphere. This asymmetry is observed for both earthward and tailward flows. A comparison to tail B-y reveals that the region where the asymmetry in the average flows appears agrees with the appearance of the tail B-y direction collinear to IMF B-y. The results imply that IMF B-y has a major influence on the direction of the magnetic flux transport in the magnetotail.

• 48.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, China.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Convection electric field and plasma convection in a twisted magnetotail: t THEMIS case study 1-2 January 20092018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 9, p. 7486-7497Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate THEMIS satellite measurements made in a tail-aligned constellation during a time interval on 1-2 January 2009, which has previously been attributed to an interval of an interplanetary magnetic fieldB(y)-driven magnetotail twisting. We find evidence for that the orientation of the convection electric field in the tail is twist-mode dependent. For earthward flow and a negative twist (induced tail B-y < 0), the electric field is found to have northward E-z and tailward E-x components. During a positive twist (induced tail B-y > 0), the directions of E-z and E-x are reversed. The E-y component shows the expected dawn-to-dusk direction for earthward flow. The electric field components preserve their orientation across the neutral sheet, and a quasi-collinear field is observed irrespective to the tail distance. The electric field associated with the tailward flow has an opposite direction compared to the earthward flow for the negative twist. For the positive twist, the results are less clear. The corresponding plasma convection and thus the magnetic flux transport have an opposite dawn-dusk direction above and below the neutral sheet. The directions depend on the tail twist mode. The hemispherically asymmetric earthward plasma flows are suggested to be a manifestation of an asymmetric Dungey cycle in a twisted magnetotail. The role of tailward flows deserve further investigation.

• 49.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Auroral Electron acceleration by Alfven waves and electrostatic fields2000In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 105, no A11, p. 25333-25344Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a two-dimensional numerical model for the formation of discrete auroral arcs. This model describes the evolution of shear Alfven waves generated by a growing force near the equatorial plane, and the transition to electrostatic fields when the force becomes stationary. The parallel electric fields on auroral field lines may be regarded as shear Alfven waves driven by a magnetospheric generator at zero frequency. In our collisionless model, precipitating auroral electrons are accelerated to an energy of 350 eV when the upward current is 3.1 mu Am-2. We also find that the electrostatic potential drop is proportional to the square of the current density.

• 50. Slapak, R.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Observations of multiharmonic ion cyclotron waves due to inverse ion cyclotron damping in the northern magnetospheric cusp2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a case study of inverse ion cyclotron damping taking place in the northern terrestrial magnetospheric cusp, exciting waves at the ion cyclotron frequency and its harmonics. The ion cyclotron waves are primarily seen as peaks in the magnetic-field spectral densities. The corresponding peaks in the electric-field spectral densities are not as profound, suggesting a background electric field noise or other processes of wave generation causing the electric spectral densities to smoothen out more compared to the magnetic counterpart. The required condition for inverse ion cyclotron damping is a velocity shear in the magnetic field-aligned ion bulk flow, and this condition is often naturally met for magnetosheath influx in the northern magnetospheric cusp, just as in the presented case. We note that some ion cyclotron wave activity is present in a few similar shear events in the southern cusp, which indicates that other mechanisms generating ion cyclotron waves may also be present during such conditions.

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