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  • 1.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Berghammer, M.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Facilitators and barriers for physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, p. 1120-1121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A majority of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced exercise capacity and do not reach the recommended level of physical activity. A physically active lifestyle is essential to maintain health and counteract acquired cardiovascular disease. This study illuminates aspects that may be relevant for performing physical activity.

    Purpose: To describe facilitators and barriers for physical activity in adults with CHD.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed individually with fourteen adults (age 19–68 years, women=7) with complex CHD. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Aspects that may enable or inhibit physical activity were found in two domains; Facilitators and Barriers, which both consisted of four categories physical, psychological, psychosocial and environmental aspects (Table 1).

    This can be exemplified by the category physical aspects; where persons expressed being limited by the CHD to perform physical activity, but also that improved aerobic fitness allows for being more active, and in the category psychosocial aspects; the person's previous negative experiences and lack of support constituted barriers while encouragement from others and being active as a child facilitated an active lifestyle in adult age.

    Conclusion: The present study identifies barriers and facilitators for being physically active in adults living with CHD. It is essential to identify prerequisites for supporting and promoting physical activity and thereby hopefully prevent long-term adverse outcomes. Barriers can potentially be transformed to facilitators through increased knowledge in both the adult with CHD and the healthcare provider.

  • 2.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Berghammer, Malin
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Facilitators and barriers for physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease2018In: European Heart Journal: ESC Congress 2018 25 - 29 August Munich, Germany, Oxford University Press, 2018, Vol. 39, article id P5433Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Berghammer, Malin
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Moons, Philip
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Patient reported outcomes are associated with physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease2017In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 243, p. 174-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In general, adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have impaired exercise capacity, and approximately 50% do not reach current recommendations on physical activity. Herein we analysed factors associated with physical activity level (PAL) in adults with CHD by using patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Methods: Patients with CHD (n = 471) were randomly selected from the national register on CHD and categorized according to complexity of lesions -simple (n = 172, 39.1 +/- 14.6 years), moderate (n = 212, 39 +/- 14.1 years), and severe (n = 87, 31.7 +/- 10.7 years). Participants completed a standardized questionnaire measuring PRO-domains including PAL. Variables associated with PAL were tested in multivariate logistic regression. Results: PAL was categorized into high (>= 3 METs = 2.5 h/week, n = 192) and low (>= 3 METs <2.5 h/week, n = 279). Patients with low PAL were older (42.6 vs. 35.8 years, p = 0.001), had more prescribed medications (51% vs. 39%, p = 0.009), more symptoms (25% vs. 16%, p = 0.02) and comorbidity (45% vs. 34% p= 0.02). Patients with low PAL rated a lower quality of life (76.6 vs. 83.4, p < 0.001), satisfaction with life (25.6 vs. 27.3, p = 0.003), a lower Physical Component Summary score (PCS) (78.1 vs. 90.5, p < 0.001) andMental Component Summary score (MCS) (73.5 vs. 79.5, p < 0.001). Complexity of heart lesion was not associated with PAL. The included PROs-separately tested in the model, together with age were associated with PAL. Conclusions: PCS and MCS are stronger associated with PAL than age and medical factors. The use of these PROs could therefore provide valuable information of benefit for individualized advice regarding physical activity to patients with CHD.

  • 4.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berghammer, Malin
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Enablers and barriers for physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berghammer, Malin
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    It ́s like balancing on a slackline: A description from adults living with congenital heart disease2018In: Cardiology in the Young, ISSN 1047-9511, E-ISSN 1467-1107, Vol. 28, no Suppl. S1, p. S37-S37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Several studies have shown that adults with congenital heart disease have reduced exercise capacity and do not reach the recommended daily level of physical activity. With this in view, it is of great importance to investigate how this population experiences physical activity. The aim of the study is to illuminate how adults with congenital heart disease describes themselves in relation to physical activity.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews with fourteen adults with complex congenital heart disease were performed. Patients were recruited from the clinic waiting list, based on their scheduled follow up and diagnosis. Interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The overall theme It´s like balancing on a slackline illustrates how adults with congenital heart disease described themselves in relation to physical activity. The overall theme consists of four themes: Being an adventurer- enjoying the challenges of physical activity, Being a realist- adapting to physical ability, Beinga non-doer- lacking prerequisites for physical activity and Being an outsider- feeling excluded depending on physical ability.

    Conclusions: The descriptions on themselves as a physically active were not constant or one-dimensional and the descriptions varied during the interviews, related to different time periods in life. It meant that they could described themselves as being an adventurer liking tough challenges, but at the same time describing themselves as being a non-doer with uncertainty over their physical strength. The findings point out specific factors for adults with CHD that might constitute as obstacles, but also possibilities for being physically active.

  • 6.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Thilen, U.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in adults with congential heart disease2017In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, no Suppl. 1, article id ehx501.P618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced aerobic exercise capacity and impaired muscle function. However, it is largely unknown which factors have influence on the confidence to perform exercise training, i.e. Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE).

    Aims: To identify factors related to low ESE, and thus identify potential targets for rehabilitation and thereby enhance the potential for being physically active.

    Methods: Seventy-nine adults with CHD; simple lesions n=38 (women n=16), complex lesions n=41 (women n=17) (mean age 36.7±14.6 years) and 42 age and sex matched controls were recruited. All participants completed questionnaires on ESE, quality of life (EQ-5D), and physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire, IPAQ), and performed muscle endurance tests.

    Results: ESE was categorised into low (<26 points, n=24) and high (≥26 points, n=55). Patients with low ESE were older (45.2±15.4 vs. 32.6±12.5 years, p=0.002), more often had prescribed medication (67% vs. 44%, p=0.06), higher New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) (≥ III) (25% vs. 7%, p=0.03) and performed fewer shoulder flexions (30.9±16.1 vs. 45.9±23.9, p=0.01) compared with those with high ESE. In the high ESE group, ESE did not differ from controls (33.8±3.9 vs. 33.4±6.1, p=0.74). In linear multivariate analysis age (B;-0.18, 95% CI -0.28- -0.08), smoking (B;-3.73, 95% CI -7.17- -0.28), EQ-5Dindex <1 (B;-3.33, 95% CI -6.08- -0.57) and number of shoulder flexions (B; 0.09, 95% CI 0.03–0.16) were independently associated with ESE.

    Conclusion: Many adults with CHD have low ESE. Rehabilitation targeting quality of life, smoking cessation and muscle training may improve ESE, and thus enhance the potential for being physically active in this population.

  • 7.
    Bay, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Exercise self-efficacy in adults with congenital heart disease2018In: International Journal of Cardiology: Heart and vasculature, E-ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 18, p. 7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity improves health, exercise tolerance and quality of life in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), and exercise training is in most patients a high-benefit low risk intervention. However, factors that influence the confidence to perform exercise training, i.e. exercise self-efficacy (ESE), in CHD patients are virtually unknown. We aimed to identify factors related to low ESE in adults with CHD, and potential strategies for being physically active.

    Methods: Seventy-nine adults with CHD; 38 with simple lesions (16 women) and 41 with complex lesions (17 women) with mean age 36.7 ± 14.6 years and 42 matched controls were recruited. All participants completed questionnaires on ESE and quality of life, carried an activity monitor (Actiheart) during four consecutive days and performed muscle endurance tests.

    Results: ESE in patients was categorised into low, based on the lowest quartile within controls, (≤ 29 points, n = 34) and high (> 29 points, n = 45). Patients with low ESE were older (42.9 ± 15.1 vs. 32.0 ± 12.4 years, p = 0.001), had more complex lesions (65% vs. 42%, p = 0.05) more often had New York Heart Association functional class III (24% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and performed fewer shoulder flexions (32.5 ± 15.5 vs. 47.7 ± 25.0, p = 0.001) compared with those with high ESE. In a logistic multivariate model age (OR; 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), and number of shoulder flexions (OR; 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with ESE.

    Conclusion: In this study we show that many adults with CHD have low ESE. Age is an important predictor of low ESE and should, therefore, be considered in counselling patients with CHD. In addition, muscle endurance training may improve ESE, and thus enhance the potential for being physically active in this population.

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  • 8.
    Camilla, Sandberg
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Pomeroy, Jeremy
    Thilén, Ulf
    Gradmark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Habitual Physical Activity in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Age- and Sex- Matched Controls2016In: Canadian Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0828-282X, E-ISSN 1916-7075, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 547-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced aerobic exercise capacity. Their habitual physical activity (PA) level is, however, less well studied. In this study habitual PA level in a cohort of adults with CHD compared to healthy age and gender matched controls was investigated.

    Methods: Eighty adults with CHD, classed as either “complex” (n=40) or “simple” (n=40), and 42 healthy controls were studied with a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn during 4 consecutive days. We analysed 1) the time spent during ≥ moderate/vigorous PA, 2) accelerometer counts/day and 3) to what extent the World Health Organization recommendations on PA were reached.

    Results: Patients with simple lesions had higher total accelerometer counts/day compared to both patients with complex lesions and controls (simple lesions; median (IQR) 107.7(63.4) vs. complex lesions; 72.8(53.5) and controls; 78.3(49.6), p≤0.001 and p=0.002). Furthermore, no differences in time spent during ≥ moderate-to-vigorous PA was found between patients and controls. In addition 46% of the patients with simple lesions, 55% of the patients with complex lesions and 44% of the controls did not reach the W.H.O.-recommended level of daily PA, but no significant differences between groups were found. There were no differences in achieving recommended PA level between patients in NYHA I vs. NYHA II+III.

    Conclusions: Patients with CHD follow the same PA-level pattern as the general population. Broad strategies promoting an active lifestyle are needed across the population and especially for patients with complex CHD and impaired NYHA class.

  • 9.
    Gonzalez, Manuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Commonwealth Scientific Research and Industrial Organisation (CSIRO), Brisbane, Australia.
    Sjölin, Ingela
    Bäck, Maria
    Ögmundsdottir Michelsen, Halldora
    Tanha, Tina
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Schiopu, Alexandru
    Leosdottir, Margret
    Effect of a lifestyle-focused electronic patient support application for improving risk factor management, self-rated health, and prognosis in post-myocardial infarction patients: study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs addressing risk factor management, educational interventions, and exercise contribute to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the fulfillment of guideline-recommended CR targets is currently unsatisfactory. eHealth, i.e., the use of electronic communication for healthcare, including the use of mobile smartphone applications combined with different sensors and interactive computerized programs, offers a new array of possibilities to provide clinical care. The present study aims to assess the efficacy of a web-based application (app) designed to support persons in adhering to lifestyle advice and medication as a complement to traditional CR programs for improvement of risk factors and clinical outcomes in patients with MI compared with usual care.

    Methods/design: An open-label multi-center randomized controlled trial is being conducted at different CR centers from three Swedish University Hospitals. The aim is to include 150 patients with MI < 75 years of age who are confident smartphone and/or Internet users. In addition to participation in CR programs according to the usual routine at each center, patients randomized to the intervention arm will receive access to the web-based app. A CR nurse reviews the patients’ self-reported data twice weekly through a medical interface at the clinic. The primary outcome of the study will be change in submaximal exercise capacity (in watts) between 2 and 4 weeks after discharge and when the patient has completed his/her exercise program at the CR center, usually around 3–6 months post-discharge. Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported physical activity, objectively assessed physical activity by accelerometry, self-rated health, dietary, and smoking habits, body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose/HbA1c levels between inclusion and follow-up visits during the first year post-MI. Additionally, we will assess uptake and adherence to the application, the number of CR staff contacts, and the incidence of cardiovascular events at 1 and 3 years after the MI. Patient recruitment started in 2016, and the first study results are expected in the beginning of 2019.

    Discussion: The present study will add evidence to whether electronic communication can be used to improve traditional CR programs for patients after MI.

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  • 10.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindmark, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Health‐related quality of life in patients with heart failure eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe and compare self‐reported health‐related quality of life between younger and older patients with severe heart failure eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan and to explore the association between health‐related quality of life and age, NYHA classification, systolic blood pressure and NT‐proBNP level.

    Design: Cross‐sectional study.

    Methods: A total of 59 patients, eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan were consecutively included and divided into a younger (≤75 years) and older group (>75 years). Health‐related quality of life was assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the EuroQol 5‐dimensions. Data were collected between June 2016 and January 2018. The STROBE checklist was used.

    Results: There were no differences in overall health‐related quality of life between the age groups. The older patients reported lower scores in two domains measured with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, namely self‐efficacy (67.0 SD 22.1 vs. 78.8 SD 19.7) and physical limitation (75.6 SD 19.0 vs. 86.3 SD 14.4). Higher NYHA class was independently associated with lower Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score.

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  • 11.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Apers, Silke
    Kovacs, Adrienne H.
    Luyckx, Koen
    Thomet, Corina
    Budts, Werner
    Enomoto, Junko
    Sluman, Maayke A.
    Wang, Jou-Kou
    Jackson, Jamie L.
    Khairy, Paul
    Cook, Stephen C.
    Alday, Luis
    Eriksen, Katrine
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Berghammer, Malin
    Rempel, Gwen
    Menahem, Samuel
    Caruana, Maryanne
    Tomlin, Martha
    Soufi, Alexandra
    Fernandes, Susan M.
    White, Kamila
    Callus, Edward
    Kutty, Shelby
    Moons, Philip
    Geographical variation and predictors of physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease2019In: IJC Heart & Vasculature, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 22, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity is important to maintain and promote health. This is of particular interest in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) where acquired heart disease should be prevented. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum of 2.5 h/week of physical activity exceeding 3 metabolic equivalents(METS) to achieve positive health effects. It is unknown whether physical activity levels (PAL) in adult CHD patients differ by country of origin.

    Methods: 3896 adults with CHD recruited from 15 countries over 5 continents completed self-reported instruments, including the Health Behaviour Scale (HBS-CHD), within the APPROACH-IS project. For each patient, we calculated whether WHO recommendations were achieved or not. Associated factors were investigated using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

    Results: On average, 31% reached the WHO recommendations but with a great variation between geographical areas (India: 10%–Norway: 53%). Predictors for physical activity level in line with the WHO recommendations, with country of residence as random effect, were male sex (OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.52–2.08), NYHA-class I (OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.71–5.62) and less complex disease (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.16–1.83). In contrast, older age (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.96–0.98), lower educational level (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.26–0.64) and being unemployed (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.42–0.77) were negatively associated with reaching WHO recommendations.

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients with CHD did not reach the WHO physical activity recommendations. There was a large variation in physical activity level by country of origin. Based on identified predictors, vulnerable patients may be identified and offered specific behavioral interventions.

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  • 12.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Moons, P.
    Geographical variation in and predictors of physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, p. 242-243Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity is important to maintain and promote health. This is of particular interest in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) where acquired heart disease should be prevented. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum of 2.5 hours/week of physical activity exceeding 3 metabolic equivalents (METS) to achieve positive health effects. It is unknown whether physical activity levels (PAL) in adult CHD patients differ by country of origin.

    Methods: 4028 adults with CHD recruited from 15 countries over 5 continents completed self-reported instruments, including the Health Behaviour Scale (HBS-CHD), within a multicenter project. For each patient, we calculated whether WHO recommendations were achieved or not. Associated factors were investigated using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

    Results: On average, 27% reached the WHO recommendations but with a great variation between geographical areas (Japan: 9% - Norway: 49%) (Figure). Predictors for PAL in line with the WHO recommendations, with country of residence as random effect, were male sex (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.43–1.97), NYHA-class I (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.54–5.06) and less complex disease (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02–1.62). In contrast, older age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.97–0.98), lower educational level (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.65) and being unemployed (OR 0.58, 95% CI 042–0.78) were negatively associated with reaching WHO recommendations.

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients with CHD did not reach the WHO physical activity recommendations. There was a large variation in PAL by country of origin. Based on identified predictors, vulnerable patients may be identified and offered specific behavioural interventions.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Thilen, Ulf
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Adults with congenital heart disease overestimate their physical activity level2019In: IJC Heart & Vasculature, ISSN 2352-9067, Vol. 22, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity reduces the risk of acquired cardiovascular disease, which is of great importance in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). There are diverging data whether physical activity level (PAL) differs between patients with CHD and controls. Furthermore, it is unknown if PAL can be reliably assessed in patients with CHD using self-reported instruments.

    Methods: Seventy-five patients with CHD (mean age 37.5 ± 15.5 years, women n = 29 [38.7%]) and 42 age and sex matched controls completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and carried the activity monitor Actiheart over 4 days. Time spent at ≥3 METS ≥21.4 min/day, i.e. reaching the WHO recommendation for PAL to promote health, was used as the outcome measure. Data on PAL obtained from IPAQ were compared with Actiheart.

    Results: The proportion of individuals reaching target PAL according to IPAQ was similar in patients with CHD and controls (70.7%vs.76.2%, p = 0.52) as well as between patients with simple and complex lesions. There was an overall difference between IPAQ and Actiheart in detecting recommended PAL (72.6%vs.51.3%, p b 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, this difference was also detected in patients but was borderline for controls. The negative predictive value for IPAQ in detecting insufficient PAL was higher in patients than in controls (73%vs.40%).

    Conclusions: The proportion of persons reaching sufficient PAL to promote health was similar in patients and controls. The self-reported instrument overestimated PAL in relation to objective measurements. However, with a high negative predictive value, IPAQ is a potentially useful tool for detecting patients with insufficient PAL.

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  • 14.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Rinnström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Högström, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Thilen, Ulf
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Aerobic capacity in adolescence is associated with time to intervention in adult men with atrial septal defects2019In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 280, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart lesion that often remains undiagnosed until adulthood. The reasons for this may be multifactorial. It is, however, known that closure of a hemodynamically significant ASD improves exercise capacity. This study aimed to explore whether the aerobic capacity in late adolescence is associated with time to diagnosis and intervention in adult men with late diagnosis of an atrial shunt.

    Methods: The Swedish Military Conscription Service Register contains data on exercise tests performed in late adolescence. By linking these data with the National Patient Register, 254 men with a later intervention for an ASD were identified.

    Results: Interventions were performed at a mean of 26.5 +/- 7.9 years after the initial exercise tests. The mean absolute workload among those with a later diagnosed ASD was similar to those without a later diagnosed ASD (274 +/- 51W vs. 276 +/- 52 W, p = 0.49). Men with a higher exercise capacity (>= 1 SD) had their intervention earlier (21.9 +/- 8.6 years vs. 27.5 +/- 7.4 years, p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: The aerobic exercise capacity was similar in adolescent men with later interventions for ASD compared to the reference population. Furthermore, those with high exercise capacity appeared to be diagnosed earlier. Thus, low exercise capacity may not be a feature of ASD during adolescence, but rather develop later in life as a natural progression of the disease.

  • 15. Leosdottir, M.
    et al.
    Sjolin, I.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Olsson, A.
    Back, M.
    Schiopu, A.
    Gonzalez, M.
    Michelsen, H. Ogmundsdottir
    Blood pressure lowering by using a self-care focused smartphone application for patients after myocardial infarction2019In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 40, p. 1636-1636Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Concurrent validity of a fixated hand-held dynamometer for measuring isometric knee extension strength in adults with congenital heart disease2019In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of a fixated hand-held dynamometer (HHD) in comparison to a load cell in measurement of maximal isometric knee extension force in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and healthy adults.

    Methods: Fourteen adults with CHD and fourteen healthy adults were included. Each participant was tested three times with each method and the mean of the top two results for each participant and method was used in analysis.

    Results: The agreement between the two methods was excellent in both groups (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 95% confidence interval [CI]) 0.98 (0.92–1.00) in the CHD group and ICC 0.99 (0.96–1.00) in the healthy group). There was a small difference of 19.5 Newton or 4.8% (p<.05) between the two methods in the CHD group. No significant difference was seen between the two methods in the healthy group (p>.05).

    Conclusions: The fixated HHD demonstrated excellent concurrent validity when compared to a load cell among adults with CHD as well as in healthy adults. Thus, in a healthy population the methods can be used interchangeably, however, a small difference between the methods is seen in the CHD group.

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  • 17.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Physical performance, physical activity, body composition and exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing population and related to advances in surgical and medical treatment, they now outnumber the children with corresponding lesions. Since a congenital heart lesion often results in reduced exercise capacity, this population is a potential target for physiotherapy. To what extent this reduction in exercise capacity is caused by abnormal cardiovascular anatomy and physiology or to what degree insufficient physical activity contributes is not known. To support the advancements in paediatric cardiac care, increased knowledge regarding physical performance, physical activity level, body composition and the effects of exercise training among adults with CHD is required.

    Methods In a cross-sectional study skeletal- and respiratory muscle function, physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy was investigated among 85 adults with various forms of CHD and 42 control subjects. A second study was conducted to analyse height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in 538 adults with complex CHD and 1886 adults with simple CHD. Data were extracted from the Swedish registry on congenital heart disease (SWEDCON) and compared to data from a national population survey. In a third study, factors associated with self-reported quality of life (QoL) were analysed using SWEDCON data on 315 adults with congenital aortic valve disease. Finally, a randomised controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of interval exercise training among adults with complex CHD.

    Results Adults with complex CHD showed impaired muscle function compared to both patients with simple CHD and controls. In addition, patients with complex CHD had a lower exercise self-efficacy compared to controls. Patients with CHD were equally active at moderate-to-vigorous level as the controls. However, approximately 50% of both patients and controls failed to reach the recommended physical activity level. In general patients with CHD had the same height, weight and BMI, as the general population. However, compared to the general population, men with CHD were more commonly underweight and less commonly overweight/obese. Additionally, especially male patients with complex CHD were shorter compared to the general population. Among adults with congenital aortic valve disease, a higher physical activity level was associated with better QoL. Furthermore, interval training increased exercise capacity and endurance among adults with complex CHD.

    Conclusion A higher physical activity level was associated with better self-reported QoL in patients with congenital aortic valve disease which implies that QoL might be possible to improve, by adopting a physically active life-style. Adults with CHD were equally active as controls at a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level. However, approximately half of both groups were insufficiently physically active based on current recommendations. This indicates that low physical activity, on group level, does not explain the lower exercise capacity commonly found among patients with CHD. In addition, this is consistent the finding that the majority of patients followed the same pattern regarding BMI as seen in the general population. However, impaired muscle function in combination with the shorter stature and higher prevalence of underweight found in men, especially with complex CHD, implies an altered body composition in this group. The findings of the present thesis suggests an indication for physiotherapy targeting increased physical activity level and individualized exercise training in this patient population. Moreover, regular evaluation of muscle function, exercise self-efficacy and QoL, in addition to exercise capacity, might be useful for monitoring disease development over time.

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  • 18.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Crenshaw, A. G.
    Elcadi, G. H.
    Christersson, C.
    Hlebowicz, J.
    Thilen, U.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Adults with congenital heart disease have impaired calf muscle oxygenation compared to control subjects2019In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 40, p. 1091-1091Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Christersson, Christina
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Thilen, Ulf
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Slower Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics in Adults With Complex Congenital Heart Disease2019In: Canadian Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0828-282X, E-ISSN 1916-7075, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1815-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) show reduced aerobic exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function compared with healthy peers. Peripheral muscle factors are presumed to be important contributors to the aerobic capacity, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences between adults with CHD and controls in muscle oxygenation kinetics at rest, and during and after exercise.

    Methods: Seventy-four patients with complex CHD (mean age 35.6 +/- 14.3 years, female n = 22) were recruited. Seventy-four age- and sex-matched subjects were recruited as controls. Muscle oxygenation was successfully determined on the anterior portion of the deltoid muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy in 65 patients and 71 controls. Measurements were made at rest, during isotonic shoulder flexions (0-90 degrees) to exhaustion, and during recovery.

  • 20.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Thilén, Ulf
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Heart Centre, Umeå.
    The level of physical exercise is associated with self-reported health status (EQ-5D) in adults with congenital heart disease2015In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The prognosis in adults with congenital aortic valve disease is usually favourable; nevertheless, a number of medical and social factors might hamper long-term prognosis and quality of life. With a focus on physical exercise level, data from the Swedish National Registry on Congenital Heart Disease (SWEDCON) were analysed and variables associated with health-related quality of life in adults with congenital aortic valve disease were identified.

    METHODS: In this registry study, SWEDCON was searched for adult patients with isolated congenital aortic valve disease and valid EuroQol-5Dimensions health questionnaire (EQ-5D) data.

    RESULTS: This study identified 315 patients. The majority (n = 202, 64%) reported best possible health status (EQ-5Dindex = 1) whereas 113 (35%) reported some impairment (EQ-5Dindex < 1) with mean EQ-5Dindex 0.73 ± 0.17. In a multivariate logistic regression model, self-reported physical exercise > 3 h/week was independently associated with best possible health status (EQ-5Dindex = 1; p = 0.013). Moreover presence of cardiovascular symptoms (p < 0.001), active smoking (p = 0.002), history of valve surgery (p = 0.017), low educational level (p = 0.022), and higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.029) were independently associated with impaired health status (EQ-5Dindex < 1).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physical exercise >3 h/week was, as a single variable, associated with best possible health status in adults with congenital aortic valve disease. In contrast, a number of medical and social factors are associated with worse self-reported health status. Among these, symptoms, smoking, and educational level are potential targets for modification and intervention. There is a need for studies investigating the effect of increased level of physical exercise in patients with congenital aortic valve disease.

  • 21.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hedström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Dellborg, M.
    Magnusson, A.
    Zetterstöm, A. -K
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Increased endurance capacity in adults with complex congenital heart disease after home-based interval exercise training on ergometer cycle2015In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 36, p. 458-458Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hedström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Ahnfelt, Anders
    Zetterström, Anna-Klara
    Öhrn, Amanda
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Home‐based interval training increases endurance capacity in adults with complex congenital heart disease2018In: Congenital Heart Disease, ISSN 1747-079X, E-ISSN 1747-0803, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The beneficial effects of exercise training in acquired heart failure and coronary artery disease are well known and have been implemented in current treatment guidelines. Knowledge on appropriate exercise training regimes for adults with congenital heart disease is limited, thus further studies are needed. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of home‐based interval exercise training on maximal endurance capacity and peak exercise capacity.

    Design: Randomized controlled trial.

    Methods: Twenty‐six adults with complex congenital heart disease were recruited from specialized units for adult congenital heart disease. Patients were randomized to either an intervention group—12 weeks of home‐based interval exercise training on a cycle ergometer (n = 16), or a control group (n = 10). The latter was instructed to maintain their habitual physical activities. An incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test and a constant work rate cardiopulmonary exercise test at 75% of peak workload were performed preintervention and postintervention.

    Results: Twenty‐three patients completed the protocol and were followed (intervention n = 13, control n = 10). Postintervention exercise time at constant work rate cardiopulmonary exercise test increased in the intervention group compared to controls (median[range] 12[–4 to 52]min vs 0[–4 to 5]min, P = .001). At incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, peak VO2 increased 15% within the intervention group (P = .019) compared to 2% within the control group (P = .8). However, in comparison between the groups no difference was found (285[–200 to 535] ml/min vs 17[–380 to 306] ml/min, P = .10). In addition, peak workload at incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test increased in the intervention group compared to controls (20[–10 to 70]W vs 0[–20 to 15]W, P = .003).

    Conclusion: Home‐based interval exercise training increased endurance capacity and peak exercise capacity in adults with complex congenital heart disease. Aerobic endurance might be more relevant than peak oxygen uptake with regard to daily activities, and therefore a more clinically relevant measure to evaluate.

  • 23.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Karna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Christersson, Christina
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Thilen, Ulf
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sarcopenia is common in adults with complex congenital heart disease2019In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 296, p. 57-62Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced aerobic capacity and impaired muscle function. We therefore hypothesized that patients have a lower skeletal muscle mass and higher fat mass than controls.

    Methods: Body composition was examined with full body Dual-Energy x-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 patients with complex CHD (mean age 35.8 ± 14.3, women n = 22) and 73 age and sex matched controls. Patients fulfilling criteria for low skeletal muscle mass in relation to their height and fat mass were defined as sarcopenic.

    Results: Male patients (n = 51) were shorter (177.4 ± 6.6 cm vs. 180.9 ± 6.7 cm, p = 0.009) and weighed less (76.0 ± 10.8 kg vs. 82.0 ± 12.4 kg, p = 0.01) than controls. Also, patients had a lower appendicular lean mass-index (ALM-index) (7.57 ± 0.97 kg/m2 vs. 8.46 ± 0.90 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Patients’ relative tissue fat mass (27.9 ± 7.0% vs. 25.4 ± 8.6%, p = 0.1) did not differ. Forty-seven percent of the men (n = 24) were classified as sarcopenic.

    Female patients (n = 22) were also shorter (163.5 ± 8.7 cm vs. 166.7 ± 5.9 cm, p = 0.05) but had a higher BMI (25.7 ± 4.2 vs. 23.0 ± 2.5, p=0.02) than controls. Patients also had a lower ALM-index (6.30 ± 0.75 vs. 6.67 ± 0.55, p = 0.05), but their relative body fat mass (40.8 ± 7.6% vs. 32.0 ± 7.0%, p < 0.001) were higher. Fifty-nine percent of the women (n = 13) were classified as sarcopenic.

    Conclusions: The body composition was altered toward lower skeletal muscle mass in patients with complex CHD. Approximately half of the patients were classified as sarcopenic. Contrary to men, the women had increased body fat and a higher BMI. Further research is required to assess the cause, possible adverse long-term effects and whether sarcopenia is preventable or treatable.

  • 24.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Rinnström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Thilén, Ulf
    Sörensson, Peder
    Nielsen, Niels-Erik
    Christersson, Christina
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease2015In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 187, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Methods and results: Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n = 4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI >= 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p = 0.048 and p < 0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p < 0.001). Overt obesity (BMI >= 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p = 0.005). Underweight (BMI < 18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p < 0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of over-weight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown.

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Thilen, U.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Engström, Karl-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Complex adult congenital heart disease is associated with impaired skeletal muscle function2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no Supplement: 1, p. 383-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Complex congenital heart disease is often associatedwith impaired physical functioning, usually measured as peak oxygen uptake in an exercise test. Skeletal muscle function is, however, less studied in these patients.

    Methods: Unilateral isotonic shoulder flexion was tested in 79 adultpatients (mean age 36.6±14.8 years, 31 females) with congenital heartdisease, classed as either "complex" (n=41, 51.9%) or "simple" (n=38, 48.1%). The patients were sitting comfortably in a chair with their back touching the wall and holding a weight (2 kg for women and 3 kg for men) in the hand of the tested side. The patients were asked to elevate the arm, from 0 to 90 degrees flexion, as many times as possible. The pace of 20 contractions per minute was held using a metronome.

    Results: Patients with complex lesions performed less shoulder flexions compared with patients with simple lesions (29.2±10.0 vs. 54.6±25.8, p<0.001). In univariate analysis including a number of demographic and clinical variables, only complexity of cardiac lesion (p<0.001) and on-going cardiac medications (p=0.012) were associated with shouldermuscle function, of which complexity (p<0.001) remained significant in multivariate analysis.

    Conclusion: There is a marked difference in shoulder muscle functionbetween patients with complex and simple congenital heart disease. Such differences might affect ability to perform daily activities and contribute to impaired overall physical functioning. Rehabilitation targeting muscle function may be indicated in patients with complexcongenital heart disease.

  • 26.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Thilen, U.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gradmark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Adults with congenital heart disease have lower habitual physical activity level compared to healthy age and gender matched controls2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P1352, p. 237-237Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Thilen, U.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Adults with complex congenital heart disease have impaired skeletal muscle function and lower confidence in performing exercise training compared to healthy age and gender matched controls2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P3279, p. 579-579Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Adults with complex congenital heart disease have impaired skeletal muscle function and reduced confidence in performing exercise training2015In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1523-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) usually have reduced aerobic exercise capacity compared with controls. However, their skeletal muscle function is less studied. Material and methods In this cross-sectional study, unilateral isotonic shoulder flexion, unilateral isotonic heel-lift, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) were tested in 85 patients with ACHD (35 women, mean age 36.814.8 years), classed as either complex' (n=43) or simple' (n=42), and 42 age and gender matched controls (16 women, mean age 36.914.9). Maximum number of shoulder flexions and heel-lifts were measured. MIP/MEP was tested using a handheld respiratory pressure meter. Exercise self-efficacy, measuring confidence in performing exercise training, was evaluated. Results Adults with complex lesions performed fewer shoulder flexions compared with controls and patients with simple lesions (28.2 +/- 11.1 vs. 63.6 +/- 40.4, p<0.001 and 28.2 +/- 11.1 vs. 54.9 +/- 24.9, p<0.001), as well as fewer heel-lifts compared with controls and patients with simple lesions (17.6 +/- 7.7 vs. 26.3 +/- 12.8, p<0.001 and 17.6 +/- 7.7 vs. 23.2 +/- 7.0, p=0.024), lower MIP than controls (80.7 +/- 26.7 vs. 111.1 +/- 29.9cm H2O, p<0.001) and lower MEP compared with controls (110.8 +/- 39.9 vs. 141.8 +/- 39.5, p<0.001). Their exercise self-efficacy was lower than controls (28.0 +/- 8.3 vs. 33.4 +/- 6.1, p=0.002). In a linear regression model complex heart lesions were independently associated with impaired limb muscle function. Conclusion Adults with complex congenital heart disease have impaired skeletal muscle function compared with patients with simple lesions and healthy controls. They also had lower confidence in performing exercise training. Thus, this population might have a potential for rehabilitation focusing on improving muscle function and confidence in performing exercise training.

  • 29.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gradmark, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Thilen, U.
    Engström, Karl-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Centre.
    Physical activity level in adults with congenital heart disease: effects of gender and complexity of heart lesion2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no Supplement: 1, p. 382-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many adults with congenital heart disease have reduced exercise capacity but only little is known about habitual physical activityin this group. The aim of this study was to investigate habitual physicalactivity level in a cohort of adults with congenital heart disease.

    Methods: Seventy-five adult patients (29 females) aged 37.2±15.1 yearswith congenital heart disease classed as either simple or complex were studied with a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart). The patients carried the Actiheart during 5 consecutive days, and where encouraged to proceed with their usual daily activities. Data was analysed with the Actiheart Software version 2.2. A mean ofPhysical Activity Level (PAL) (PAL=Total Energy Expenditure/Resting Energy Expenditure) over 4 days was calculated. PAL < 1.45 was categorised as low, 1.45-1.6 as moderate and >1.6 as high.

    Results: Forty-three patients (57,3%) had low PAL, 18 (24%) moderate PAL and 14 (16,7%) high PAL. PAL was lower in women compared to men (1.32±0.10 vs. 1.52±0.18, p < 0.001). PAL was higher in patients withsimple compared with complex congenital heart disease (1.50±0.21 vs. 1.39±0.14, p = 0.019). Among men, active smoking (p=0.015) and lower age (p=0.04) were independently associated with higher PAL, whereas no such associations were observed among women.

    Conclusion: The majority of the observed patients had low PAL and women had lower PAL compared to men. PAL was related to complexity ofheart lesion. Efforts to increase habitual physical activity may beindicated in this population, especially in women and patients withcomplex congenital heart disease.

  • 30.
    Sandström, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Rinnström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Thilen, Ulf
    Sörensson, Peder
    Nielsen, Niels-Erik
    Christersson, Christina
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Factors associated with health-related quality of life among adults with tetralogy of Fallot2019In: Open heart, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e000932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to improved care, the numbers of patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) are increasing. However, long-term morbidity and need for reinterventions are concerns and also address issues of quality of life (QoL).

    Methods: Patients with ToF and valid EuroQol-5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) were identified in the national Swedish register on congenital heart disease. EQ-5Dindex was calculated and dichotomised into best possible health-related QoL (EQ-5Dindex=1) or differed from 1.

    Results: 288 patients met the criteria and were analysed. Univariate logistic regression showed a positive association between New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I (OR 8.32, 95% CI 3.80 to 18.21), physical activity >3 h/week (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.67 to 6.66) and a better right ventricular function (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.09 to 6.02). A negative association between symptoms (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.42), cardiovascular medication (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.53), age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) and EQ-5Dindex was observed. In multivariate logistic regression, NYHA I (OR 7.28, 95% CI 3.29 to 16.12) and physical activity >3 h/week (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.84) remained associated with best possible health-related QoL. Replacing NYHA with symptoms in the model yielded similar results.

    Conclusion: In this registry study, self-reported physical activity, staff-reported NYHA class and absence of symptoms were strongly associated with best possible health-related QoL measured by EQ-5D. Physical activity level is a potential target for intervention to improve QoL in this population but randomised trials are needed to test such a hypothesis.

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