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  • 1.
    Schantz, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm.
    Distance, duration, and velocity in cycle commuting: analyses of relations and determinants of velocity2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban-rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used. Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1-4 or 6-9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas. Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies.

  • 2.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establishit for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration-distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20-65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24-28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes) · speed (km/min) · a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population · age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T · 20.76 km/h · 0.719 · (1.676-0.0147 · A). For females, the formula was: D = T · 16.14 km/h · 0.763 · (1.604-0.0129 · A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

  • 3. Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm SE-114 86, Sweden .
    Active commuting behaviors in a Nordic metropolitan setting in relation to modality, gender, and health recommendations2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 15626-15648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interestingsource of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviorsis meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm,Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjustedmaps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in menand women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) anddual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observedin trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met theminimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-modepedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physicalactivity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so onlyduring spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 230–390) adds tothe value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, bothwalking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.

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