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  • 1.
    Elmroth, E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gardfjall, P.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tordsson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ali-Eldin, A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    L., Larsson
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    METHOD, NODE AND COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR ENABLING AUTOMATIC ADAPTATION OF RESOURCE UNITS2015Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N).
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Design and Evaluation of a Decentralized System for Grid-wide Fairshare Scheduling2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing (e-Science’05), USA, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2005, s. 221-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents a decentralized architecture for a grid-wide fairshare scheduling system and demonstrates its potential in a simulated environment. The system, which preserves local site autonomy, enforces locally and globally scoped share policies, allowing local resource capacity as well as global grid capacity to be logically divided across different groups of users. The policy model is hierarchical and subpolicy definition can be delegated so that, e.g., a VO that has been granted a resource share can partition its share across its projects, which in turn can divide their shares between project members. There is no need for a central coordinator as policies are enforced collectively by the resource schedulers. Each local scheduler adopts a grid-wide view on utilization in order to steer local resource utilization to not only maintain local resource shares but also to contribute to maintaining global shares across the entire set of grid resources. Share enforcement is addressed by an algorithm that calculates simple priority values, thus simplifying integration with local schedulers, which can remain unaware of the hierarchical share policy structure

  • 3.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N).
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Mulmo, Olle
    Sandholm, Thomas
    An OGSA-based Bank Service for Grid Accounting Systems2006Inngår i: State-of-the-art in Scientific Computing, Springer-Verlag , 2006, s. 1051-1060Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the design and implementation of a bank service, constituting a key component in a recently developed Grid accounting system. The Grid accounting system maintains a Grid-wide view of the resources consumed by members of a virtual organization (VO). The bank is designed as an online service, managing the accounts of VO projects. Each service request is transparently intercepted by the accounting system, which acquires a reservation on a portion of the project’s bank account prior to servicing the request. Upon service completion, the account is charged for the consumed resources. We present the overall bank design and technical details of its major components, as well as some illustrative examples of relevant service interactions. The system, which has been implemented using the Globus Toolkit, is based on state-of-the-art Web and Grid services technology and complies with the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA).

  • 4.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Mulmo, Olle
    Sandholm, Thomas
    An OGSA-based bank service for grid accounting systems2006Inngår i: Applied parallel computing: state-of-the-art in scientific computing, Springer-Verlag , 2006, s. 1051-1060Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Mulmo, Olle
    Sandholm, Thomas
    Sandgren, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N).
    A coordinated accounting solution for SweGrid2003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Norberg, Arvid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tordsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Östberg, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Designing general, composable, and middleware-independent Grid infrastructure tools for multi-tiered job management2007Inngår i: Towards Next Generation Grids / [ed] T. Priol and M. Vaneschi, Springer-Verlag , 2007, s. 175-184Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a multi-tiered architecture for middleware-independent Grid job management. The architecture consists of a number of services for well-defined tasks in the job management process, offering complete user-level isolation of servicecapabilities, multiple layers of abstraction, control, and fault tolerance. The middleware abstraction layer comprises components for targeted job submission, job control and resource discovery. The brokered job submission layer offers a Grid view on resources, including functionality for resource brokering and submission of jobs to selected resources. The reliable job submission layer includes components for fault tolerant execution of individual jobs and groups of independentjobs, respectively. The architecture is proposed as a composable set of tools rather than a monolithic solution, allowing users to select the individual components of interest. The prototype presented is implemented using the Globus Toolkit 4, integrated with the Globus Toolkit 4 and NorduGrid/ARC middlewares and based on existing and emerging Grid standards. A performance evaluation reveals that the overhead for resource discovery, brokering, middleware-specific format conversions, job monitoring, fault tolerance, and management of individual and groups of jobs is sufficiently small to motivate the use of the framework.

  • 7.
    Elmroth, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tordsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    An Advanced Grid Computing Course for Application and Infrastructure Developers2005Inngår i: 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, USA: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2005, s. 43-50Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents our experiences from developing an advanced course in grid computing, aimed at application and infrastructure developers. The course was intended for computer science students with extensive programming experience and previous knowledge of distributed systems, parallel computing, computer networking, and security. The presentation includes brief presentations of all topics covered in the course, a list of the literature used, and descriptions of the mandatory computer assignments performed using Globus Toolkit 2 and 3. A summary of our experiences from the course and some suggestions for future directions concludes the presentation.

  • 8.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johnsson, Lennart
    Mulmo, Olle
    Sandholm, Thomas
    Scalable grid-wide capacity allocation with the SweGrid accounting system (SGAS)2008Inngår i: Concurrency and Computation, ISSN 1532-0626, E-ISSN 1532-0634, Vol. 20, nr 18, s. 2089-2122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) allocates capacity in collaborative Grid environments by coordinating enforcement of Grid-wide usage limits as a means to offer usage guarantees and prevent overuse. SGAS employs a credit-based allocation model where Grid capacity is granted to projects via Grid-wide quota allowances that can be spent across the Grid resources. The resources collectively enforce these allowances in a soft, real-time manner. SGAS is built on service-oriented principles with a strong focus on interoperability and Web services standards. This article covers the SGAS design and implementation, which, besides addressing inherent Grid challenges (scale, security, heterogeneity, decentralization), emphasizes generality and flexibility to produce a customizable system with lightweight integration into different middleware and scheduling system combinations. We focus the discussion around the system design, a flexible allocation model, middleware integration experiences and scalability improvements via a distributed virtual banking system, and finally, an extensive set of testbed experiments. The experiments evaluate the performance of SGAS in terms of response times, request throughput, overall system scalability, and its performance impact on the Globus Toolkit 4 job submission software. We conclude that, for all practical purposes, the quota enforcement overhead incurred by SGAS on job submissions is not a limiting factor for the job-handling capacity of the job submission software.

  • 9.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Sandholm, Thomas
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johnsson, Lennart
    Mulmo, Olle
    Scalable grid-wide capacity allocation with the SweGrid accounting system (SGAS)Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10. Sandholm, Thomas
    et al.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johnsson, Lennart
    Mulmo, Olle
    A Service-oriented approach to enforce grid resource allocations2006Inngår i: International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, ISSN 0218-8430, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 439-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) — a decentralized and standards-based system for Grid resource allocation enforcement that has been developed with an emphasis on a uniform data model and easy integration into existing scheduling and workload management software.

    The system has been tested at the six high-performance computing centers comprising the SweGrid computational resource, and addresses the need for soft, real-time quota enforcement across the SweGrid clusters.

    The SGAS framework is based on state-of-the-art Web and Grid services technologies. The openness and ubiquity of Web services combined with the fine-grained resource control and cross-organizational security models of Grid services proved to be a perfect match for the SweGrid needs. Extensibility and customizability of policy implementations for the three different parties that the system serves (the user, the resource manager, and the allocation authority) are key design goals. Another goal is end-to-end security and single sign-on, to allow resources to reserve allocations and charge for resource usage on behalf of the user.

    We conclude this paper by illustrating the policy customization capabilities of SGAS in a simulated setting, where job streams are shaped using different modes of allocation policy enforcement. Finally, we discuss some of the early experiences from the production system.

  • 11. Sandholm, Thomas
    et al.
    Gardfjäll, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elmroth, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Högpresterande beräkningscentrum norr (HPC2N). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Johnsson, Lennart
    Mulmo, Olle
    An OGSA-Based Accounting System for Allocation Enforcement across HPC Centers2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Service oriented computing (ICSOC'04), 2004, s. 279-288Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)-based decentralized allocation enforcement system, developed with an emphasis on a consistent data model and easy integration into existing scheduling, and workload management software at six independent high-performance computing centers forming a Grid known as SweGrid. The Swedish National Allocations Committee (SNAC) allocates resource quotas at these centers to research projects requiring substantial computer time. Our system, the SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS), addresses the need for soft real-time allocation enforcement on SweGrid for cross-domain job submission. The SGAS framework is based on state-of-the-art Web and Grid services technologies. The openness and ubiquity of Web services combined with the fine-grained resource control and cross-organizational security models of Grid services proved to be a perfect match for the SweGrid needs. Extensibility and customizability of policy implementations for the three different parties the system serves (the user, the resource manager, and the allocation authority) are key design goals. Another goal is end-to-end security and single sign-on, to allow resources-selected based on client policies-to act on behalf of the user when negotiating contracts with the bank in an environment where the six centers would continue to use their existing accounting policies and tools. We conclude this paper by showing the feasibility of SGAS, which is currently being deployed at the production sites, using simulations of reservation streams. The reservation streams are shaped using soft computing and policy-based algorithms.

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