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  • 1. Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Krysa, Marzena
    Sidorowicz, Władysław
    Ohrvik, John
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Lags in behavioral change: A population based comparison of cardiovascular risk behavior in Poland and Sweden.2006Ingår i: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, E-ISSN 1803-1048, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One thousand and twenty Polish men and women and 1,011 Swedish men and women aged 50 and recruited through primary health care took part in a survey relating to their knowledge of health-related behaviour, attitudes to health-related behaviour and self-reported risk behaviour. The results reveal that Poles know as much about cardiovascular risk factors as Swedes, but that Swedes feel that it is more important to change their dietary habits and to influence factors in the working environment to avoid the risk of developing CVD than did Poles. Swedes also displayed less risk behaviour than Poles and more Swedes than Poles had successfully stopped smoking. These findings suggest that differences in stages of health-related behavior that have previously been observed at an individual level may sometimes also be discerned at a national level.

  • 2. Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Ohrvik, John
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors among obese individuals.2006Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 5, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important biological risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    AIMS: The main aim of this study was to answer the question whether obese individuals differ from individuals with normal weight with regard to knowledge about risk factors for CVD. A further aim was to replicate previous findings that obese individuals are at higher risk of developing other biological risk factors for CVD.

    METHOD: Normal weights, BMI<25 kg/m(2) (n=385), and obese, BMI> or =30 kg/m(2) (n=159), individuals were identified from a screening program conducted among 50-year-old inhabitants of the County of Västmanland, Sweden. Participants answered questions regarding their gender, level of education, and items relating to knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors. Total cholesterol and blood glucose levels, height, weight and blood pressure were measured.

    RESULTS: Obese individuals did not differ significantly from individuals with a normal weight regarding knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors when education was controlled for. Obesity and low level of education are associated with other risk factors for CVD such as high blood pressure and high serum cholesterol.

    CONCLUSION: Obese individuals are at an increased risk of developing other risk factors for CVD but are just as knowledgeable about risk factors for CVD as normal weighting individuals.

  • 3. Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Ohrvik, John
    Leppert, Jerzy
    The effects of family history and personal experiences of illness on the inclination to change health-related behaviour.2009Ingår i: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, E-ISSN 1803-1048, Vol. 17, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a personal experience of illness and a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), adjusted for sex, level of education and nationality, affect risk behaviour. Participants were 1,011 and 1,043, 50-year-old men and women from Sweden and Poland, respectively, who were recruited from a primary health care screening programme. Family history, personal experience of illness and risk behaviour (smoking and exercise habits, BMI level) were self-reported. The results showed that smoking behaviour was affected by a personal experience of illness but not by a family history of CVD. No effects of these variables were found on the remaining risk-related variables tested in this study. These results suggest that individuals with a personal experience of illness may be more inclined to change smoking behaviour than the average person. Smoking prevention strategies may therefore benefit from targeting this group in particular.

  • 4. Aslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Starrin, Bengt
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Shaming experiences and the association between adolescent depression and psychosocial risk factors.2007Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 16, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether psychosocial risk factors such as parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse are associated with adolescent depression, and whether shaming experiences (defined as experiences of being degraded, or ridiculed by others) may account for such an association.

    METHOD: A total of 5048 Swedish adolescents answered the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2004 (SALVe-2004) during classhours. The survey included questions about depressive symptoms, parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse.

    RESULTS: The psychosocial risk factors studied were all associated with depression, but several of these associations became non-significant when a factor for shaming experiences was entered into the models. The explained variance for depression furthermore increased from approximately 4-7% to 17-20% when shame was included.

    CONCLUSION: Shaming experiences may mediate part of the association between psychosocial risk factors and depression. These findings may have important implications for the understanding of psychotherapeutic treatment of the effects of risk factors in depressed patients.

  • 5.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Sjöberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Hansson, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of depression2011Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 4-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  To present the technique of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and to evaluate the studies conducted on DBS in the treatment of therapy-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Method:  A review of the literature on DBS in the treatment of MDD was conducted.

    Results:  The results of DBS in MDD have been presented in 2 case reports and 3 studies of 47 patients operated upon in 5 different target areas. Positive effects have been presented in all studies and side effects have been minor. DBS in the nucleus accumbens resulted in a mean reduction of Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) of 36% after 1 year and 30% of the 10 patients achieved remission. DBS in the internal capsule/ventral striatum resulted in a reduction of 44% after 1 year, and at the last evaluation after in mean 2 years, 40% of the 15 patients were in remission. The 20 patients with subcallosal cingulated gyrus DBS had a reduction of HDRS of 52% after 1 year, and 35% were within 1 point from remission or in remission.

    Conclusion:  DBS is a promising treatment for therapy-refractory MDD. The published experience is, however, limited, and the method is at present an experimental therapy.

  • 6.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hansson, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder2013Ingår i: World Neurosurgery, ISSN 1878-8750, E-ISSN 1878-8769, Vol. 80, nr 6, s. e245-e253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a treatment for severe cases of therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and promising results have been reported. The literature might, however, be somewhat unclear, considering the different targets used, and due to repeated inclusion of individual patients in multiple publications. The aim of this report was to review the literature on DBS for OCD.

    METHODS: The modern literature concerning studies conducted on DBS in the treatment of OCD was reviewed.

    RESULTS: The results of DBS in OCD have been presented in 25 reports with 130 patients, of which, however, only 90 contained individual patients. Five of these reports included at least 5 individual patients not presented elsewhere. Sixty-eight of these patients underwent implantation in the region of the internal capsule/ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens. The target in this region has varied between groups and over time, but the latest results from bilateral procedures in this area have shown a 50% reduction of OCD scores, depression, and anxiety. The subthalamic nucleus has been suggested as an alternative target. Although beneficial effects have been demonstrated, the efficacy of this procedure cannot be decided, because only results after 3 months of active stimulation have been presented so far.

    CONCLUSIONS: DBS is a promising treatment for therapy-refractory OCD, but the published experience is limited and the method is at present an experimental therapy.

  • 7.
    Fytagoridis, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Åström, Mattias
    Fredricks, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Effects of deep brain stimulation in the caudal Zona incerta on verbal fluency2013Ingår i: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, ISSN 1011-6125, E-ISSN 1423-0372, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 24-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudal zona incerta (cZi) is a relatively unexplored and promising treatment in patients with severe essential tremor (ET). Preliminary data further indicate that the ability to produce language may be slightly affected by the treatment.

    Objective: To evaluate the effects on verbal fluency following cZi DBS in patients with ET.

    Method: Seventeen consecutive patients who had undergone DBS of the cZi for ET were tested regarding verbal fluency before surgery, 3 days after surgery and after 1 year. Ten patients were also evaluated by comparing performance on versus off stimulation after 1 year.

    Results: The total verbal fluency score decreased slightly, but significantly, from 22.7 (SD = 10.9) before surgery to 18.1 (SD = 7.5) 3 days after surgery (p = 0.036). After 1 year the score was nonsignificantly decreased to 20.1 (SD = 9.7, p = 0.2678). There was no detectable difference between stimulation on and off after 1 year.

    Conclusion: There was a tendency of an immediate and mostly transient postoperative decline in verbal fluency following cZi DBS for ET. In some of the patients this reduction was, however, more pronounced and also sustained over time.

  • 8.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Predicting improvement after surgery for palmar hyperhidrosis2012Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 126, nr 5, s. 324-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is a surgical procedure used to improve Quality of Life (QoL) in patients with treatment resistant palmar hyperhidrosis (PHH). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low preoperative scores on The Everyday Life Questionnaire (EDLQ) would predict QoL improvement after surgery. Materials and methods Pre- and post-operative QoL scores from a series of 30 consecutive patients who underwent ETS at our institution were analyzed. Results Preoperative QoL scores was a significant predictor of post-operative improvement across all dimensions covered by the questionnaire. Conclusion Preoperative low QoL can be used as a guide in selecting patients with most improved QoL after ETS.

  • 9. Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Pedroletti, Christophe
    Boman, Anders
    Olsson, Gunnar L
    Sund, Anna
    Lindblad, Frank
    Infants' and toddlers' remembering and forgetting of a stressful medical procedure.2009Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, ISSN 0146-8693, E-ISSN 1465-735X, Vol. 34, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a distressing medical procedure leaves lasting impressions in young children's memories.

    METHODS: Children 12- to 78-weeks old (N = 172) received inhalation treatment through a face mask or underwent other interventions at a pediatric emergency department. They were randomized to be presented with neutral cues and cues from the inhalation 1 week or 6 months after the target event. Children's reactions at cue presentation were scored from videotapes.

    RESULTS: Across the age span tested, children treated with inhalation showed higher distress than controls when presented with cues from inhalation 1 week, but not 6 months after target treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Stress during medical procedures in preverbal children may develop as a result of prior experience of such procedures. These memories typically seem to fade within 6 months.

  • 10. Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Memon, Amina
    Misreporting signs of child abuse: The role of decision-making and outcome information2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies provided evidence that a decision to report an ambiguous case of child abuse affected subsequent memory of the case information, such that participants falsely recognized details that were not presented in the original information, but that are schematically associated with child abuse. Moreover, post-decision information that the child had later died from abuse influenced the memory reports of participants who had chosen not to report the case, increasing their reports of false schema-consistent details. This suggests that false decision-consistent memories are primarily due to sense-making, schematic processing rather than the motivation to justify the decision. The present findings points to an important mechanism by which decision information can become distorted in retrospect, and emphasize the difficulties of improving future decision-making by contemplating past decisions. The results also indicate that decisions may generate false memories in the apparent absence of external suggestion or misleading information. Implications for decision-making theory, and applied practices are discussed.

  • 11. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Alm, Per Olov
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Oreland, Lars
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Ohrvik, John
    [Interactions between genes and environment predict criminality, depression and alcohol dependence].2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, nr 39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Damberg, Mattias
    Alm, Per Olof
    Ohrvik, John
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Lindström, Leif
    Oreland, Lars
    Role of the serotonin transporter gene and family function in adolescent alcohol consumption.2005Ingår i: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 29, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: That the extent to which a particular individual will engage in problematic behaviors such as delinquency, violence, or drug abuse is determined by the way psychosocial, situational, and hereditary factors interact is widely accepted. However, only recently have researchers begun to investigate the interactions between specific genotypes and psychosocial factors in relation to behavior. The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and family relations on adolescent alcohol consumption.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a randomized sample from a total population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents from a Swedish county was conducted. Eighty-one male and 119 female adolescents, who volunteered to participate after having answered a questionnaire, were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behavior.

    RESULTS: 5-HTT genotype (p=0.029) and family relations (p=0.022) predicted alcohol consumption independently as well as through an interaction with one another (p=0.05). The model explained 11% of the variance in alcohol consumption. In a binary logistic model, we found that adolescents with the LS variant of the 5-HTT gene and with family relations being "neutral" or "bad" had a 12- to 14-fold increased risk for high intoxication frequency.

    CONCLUSIONS: In sum, our results show that a functional polymorphism of the 5-HTT genotype, family relations, and interactions between these variables predict adolescent alcohol consumption in a randomized sample of adolescents.

  • 13. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Damberg, Mattias
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Ohrvik, John
    Alm, Per Olof
    Lindström, Leif
    Oreland, Lars
    Role of monoamine oxidase A genotype and psychosocial factors in male adolescent criminal activity.2006Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 59, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A number of important sociological, psychological, and biological predictors of adolescent criminal behavior have been identified during the most recent decades. The aim of this study was to replicate recent findings that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter region and psychosocial factors might predict male adolescent criminal activity.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a randomized sample from the total population of 16- and 19-year-olds from the county of Västmanland, Sweden. Eighty-one male adolescents, who volunteered to participate, were randomly selected from groups representing different degrees of deviant risk behavior.

    RESULTS: The present study strongly supports the notion that carrying the 3-repeat allele of the MAO-A-gene promoter increases the risk of male adolescent criminal behavior, when interacting with psychosocial factors. No effects at all of the MAO-A genotype on adolescent criminal activity were found when MAO-A genotype was considered alone (i.e., without its psychosocial context). The explained variance of the bio-psychosocial model (controlling for MAO-A) in this study exceeded the psychosocial model by 12%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the notion that genotype and psychosocial factors interact to precipitate male adolescent criminal behavior.

  • 14. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Oreland, Lars
    Damberg, Mattias
    Transcription factor AP-2 beta genotype and psychosocial adversity in relation to adolescent depressive symptomatology.2009Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 116, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between the gene coding for activating protein-2 beta (AP-2 beta) and psychosocial factors to predict depressive symptoms in adolescents. Two-hundred 16- and 19-year-old adolescents from the county of Västmanland, Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire, interviewed about psychosocial risk factors, and genotyped with regard to the transcription factor AP-2 beta intron 2 polymorphism. AP-2 beta genotype interacted significantly both with type of housing and parental separation to predict depressive symptoms. Individuals who were homozygous for the short AP-2 beta allele displayed higher depression scores when psychosocial adversity was taken into account. Amongst carriers of one or two copies of the long allele, there was no difference in depressive symptoms despite differences in psychosocial environments.

  • 15. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Lindström, Leif
    Oreland, Lars
    The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption.2007Ingår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 102, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter, family relations and maltreatment/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among male adolescents.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of a randomized sample of 66 male individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county. Boys, who volunteered to participate answering an alcohol-related problem/behaviour questionnaire, were investigated with regard to interactions between such problems, family function, maltreatment and MAO-A genotype.

    MEASUREMENTS: MAO-A genotype, family relations history, history of being maltreated or abused and alcohol-related problem behaviour.

    FINDINGS: Boys with the short (three-repeat) variant of the MAO-A gene, who had been maltreated/abused or came from families with poor relations, showed significantly higher scores of alcohol-related problems. We also found that maltreatment/abuse independently showed the strongest relation to alcohol-related problems among boys in our model.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that both maltreatment and MAO-A genotype may be useful for the understanding of male adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2 beta (TFAP-2 beta) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples2014Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 207-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2 beta (TFAP-2 beta) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2 beta. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2 beta gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8 % of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2 beta intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2 beta intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  • 17. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Oreland, Lars
    The MAO-A gene, platelet MAO-B activity and psychosocial environment in adolescent female alcohol-related problem behaviour.2008Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 93, nr 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antisocial behaviour has been associated with polymorphic variants in candidate genes and recently also gene-environmental interaction models have been presented. It has been suggested that antisocial behaviour, associated with alcohol consumption in males, is related to a variation in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAO-A) promoter. Furthermore, platelet MAO-B activity has in several studies been reported to be low in male alcoholics, while this has not been the case with regard to female alcoholics. Aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate possible interactions between the MAO-A polymorphism, family relations and maltreatment/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among female adolescents; (2) to investigate if platelet MAO-B enzyme activity interacted with environment to predict female alcohol-related problems.

    METHODS: A random sample of 114 female individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county, who volunteered to participate in the study, were interviewed, filled in a questionnaire and a blood sample was drawn.

    RESULTS: In contrast to what has been reported in males, presence of the long (4-repeat) variant of the MAO-A gene in females interacted significantly with an unfavourable environment (poor family relations or maltreatment/abuse/sexual abuse) to increase the risk for high scores of alcohol-related problems. Furthermore, females with low platelet MAO-B activity showed an increased risk of alcohol-related problem behaviour in an unfavourable environment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor psychosocial environment interacts with the high activity MAO-A genotype and low platelet MAO-B enzyme activity to increase vulnerability for female adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour.

  • 18.
    Philipsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Yelnik, Jerome
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Acute severe depression induced by stimulation of the right globus pallidus internus2017Ingår i: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 84-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood.

  • 19. Schwandt, Melanie L
    et al.
    Lindell, Stephen G
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Chisholm, Kelli L
    Higley, J Dee
    Suomi, Stephen J
    Heilig, Markus
    Barr, Christina S
    Gene-environment interactions and response to social intrusion in male and female rhesus macaques.2010Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 67, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Genetic factors interact with environmental stressors to moderate risk for human psychopathology, but sex may also be an important mediating factor. Different strategies for coping with environmental stressors have evolved in males and females, and these differences may underlie the differential prevalence of certain types of psychopathology in the two sexes. In this study, we investigated the possibility of sex-specific gene-environment interactions in a nonhuman primate model of response to social threat.

    METHODS: Rhesus macaques (77 males and 106 females) were exposed to an unfamiliar conspecific. Using factor analysis, we identified three behavioral factors characterizing the response to social threat. Monkeys were genotyped for the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), and the effects of genotype, early life stress, and sex on behavioral responses were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Factor analysis produced five factors: High-Risk Aggression, Impulsivity/Novelty-Seeking, Gregariousness/Boldness, Harm Avoidance, and Redirected Aggression. Overall, males displayed higher levels of High-Risk Aggression and Gregariousness/Boldness than females. Levels of High-Risk Aggression in males carrying the s allele were significantly higher if they were also exposed to early adversity in the form of peer rearing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support those from studies in humans suggesting that males are more vulnerable to externalizing or aggression-related disorders. The results highlight the importance of interactions that exist among behavior, genes, and the environment and suggest that sex differences in vulnerability to psychopathology may be grounded in our evolutionary history.

  • 20. Sjöberg, R L
    Child testimonies during an outbreak of witch hysteria: Sweden 1670-1671.1995Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 36, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight hundred and nine testimonies given by children between the ages of 1 and 16 to the priests of the parish of Rättvik, and to the Royal commission of inquiry, during an outbreak of witch hysteria in 1670-71 are examined. The result implies that the capacity to separate reality from fantasy as well as the tendency to give stereotyped testimonies are related to age, social influence from other children and sex. The results also suggest that the testimonies were influenced by the person investigating the child.

  • 21. Sjöberg, R L
    Childhood abuse and later revictimisation of women.2001Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 358, nr 9297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22. Sjöberg, R L
    [Childhood amnesia and emotional trauma. Easiest to prompt the smallest children to provide erroneous details concerning abuse].2001Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, nr 26-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    A basic understanding of children's memories for emotional trauma is of importance for physicians and other health care professionals. The aim of this paper is to describe recent research and discuss important dilemmas within this field. The ability of infants and toddlers to verbally describe autobiographical memories is for several reasons limited. Very early experiences of e.g. intense pain can leave traces in the nervous system but of a kind which is not specific enough to allow retrospective conclusions about the nature of these experiences. Research during the past decades has relatively consistently demonstrated that pre-school children are more vulnerable to suggestion including abuse-related suggestions than are older children and adults. However, many children who have been subject to sexual abuse seem to maintain a lifelong silence about their experiences. The use of autobiographical testimony from young children is more complex and risky than many professionals believed about a decade ago. Establishing the knowledge derived from recent years' research in this area as a basis for clinical practice is one of the most important tasks for the future.

  • 23. Sjöberg, R L
    False allegations of satanic abuse: case studies from the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71.1997Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 6, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of false memories, psychiatric symptoms and false allegations of satanic child abuse during an outbreak of witch hysteria in Sweden in the seventeenth century are described and related to contemporary issues in child testimonies. Case studies of 28 children and 14 adults are presented. The mechanisms underlying the spread of these allegations, as well as the reactions and influence of the adult world on the children's testimonies, are discussed.

  • 24. Sjöberg, R L
    The catechism effect: child testimonies during a 17th-century witch panic as related to educational achievement.2000Ingår i: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 8, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Testimonies from 488 children given to the priests of the parish of Rättvik during a preliminary investigation of a Swedish witch panic in 1670-71 are examined in relation to records from parish catechetical meetings held in 1671. The result implies that children who knew and understood at least parts of Luther's catechism were less liable to have falsely alleged that they had been kidnapped by female satanists during the witch panic of the previous year. It is suggested that these effects were caused by differences in cognitive, social, and emotional resources among these children as compared to those who were unable to learn and understand any parts of Luther's catechism.

  • 25. Sjöberg, R L
    et al.
    Lindblad, F
    Delayed disclosure and disrupted communication during forensic investigation of child sexual abuse: a study of 47 corroborated cases.2002Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 91, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study factors of relevance for the understanding of disclosure of child sexual abuse.

    METHODS: Cases from a Swedish district court involving 47 children in which allegations of child sexual abuse had been corroborated by a confession from the defendant were studied.

    RESULTS: Delayed disclosure was related to a close relationship with the perpetrator and young age at the first experience of abuse. Disrupted communication during the police interview was related to less violent abuse.

    CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the importance of social factors in children's disclosure of sexual abuse.

  • 26. Sjöberg, R L
    et al.
    Lindholm, T
    Decision-making and euthanasia.2003Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Sjöberg, Richard L
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    The psychological neuroscience of depression: implications for understanding effects of deep brain stimulation2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 411-419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article it is suggested that current psychological theories of depression presuppose that this condition will develop as a result of a vicious circle involving negatively biased communication between systems of emotional stress-/alarm-signaling, executive functions and mood regulation. These systems may from a neuroanatomical point of view be located in the limbic system, the orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of this model for the understanding of pharmacological treatments of depression are briefly discussed and this theory is related to the catecholamine hypothesis of depression. The model is furthermore discussed in relation to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of treatment resistant major depression. Similarities and differences between this perspective and the one advocated by the "homeostatic theory" of depression are discussed. It is concluded that a topographical psychological theory may offer a useful heuristic in thinking about depression and that it offers several testable predictions about treatments of the disorder.

  • 28.
    Sjöberg, Richard L
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lidman, Elin
    Häggström, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Fredricks, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Verbal fluency in patients receiving bilateral versus left-sided deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson's disease2012Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 606-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effects of unilateral (left-sided) versus bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on verbal fluency. To do this, 10 Parkinson's disease patients with predominantly bilateral motor symptoms who received bilateral STN DBS were compared with 6 patients suffering from predominantly unilateral symptoms who received STN DBS on the left side only. The results suggest that unilateral STN DBS of the speech dominant hemisphere is associated with significantly less declines in measures of verbal fluency as compared to bilateral stimulation. (JINS, 2012, 18, 606-611)

  • 29. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [A critical question: Therapeutic effect or regression towards the mean?].2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, nr 26-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [A forgotten theory about the cause of hydrocephalus].2009Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Norrlands universitetssjukhus.
    Charcots fotnot: svår för vetenskapen att förtränga2015Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, nr 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    False claims of victimization: a historical illustration of a contemporary problem.2002Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 56, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a false claim of victimization made by a man in his late 20s during a 17th-century outbreak of mass allegations of Satanic abuse is described and discussed in relation to contemporary issues with relevance to psychiatry and applied mental health.

  • 33. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [Genes and individual behavioral variations. The genome as a memory for experiences of the individual and the family].2008Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, nr 23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [It is easy to defend conversation as therapeutic method if the method is scientifically evaluated].2003Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, nr 41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [Satanic ritualistic murders and child abuse--evidence-basing versus ideology].2005Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, nr 40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [Sexual experiences in connection with sexual abuse can delay the disclosure].2003Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, nr 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    [The Cleveland case as a lesson. Single cases and case series can be simple to take in but they are not suitable to secure the cause-effect relationship].2004Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 101, nr 41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    The outbreak of mass allegations of Satanist child abuse in the parish of Rättvik, Sweden, 1670-71: two texts by Gustav J. Elvius.2004Ingår i: History of Psychiatry, ISSN 0957-154X, E-ISSN 1740-2360, Vol. 15, nr 60 Pt 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades, interpretation of mass allegations fo Satanist child abductions have challenged psychiatrists and mental health professionals in the Western world. It has been argued that a useful perspective on this phenomenon ay be gained from a study of historical parallels from countries such as Spain, Germany and Sweden. The texts translated below are an eyewitness account of the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71 and a letter of 1671, both written by the Reverend Gustav Elvius.

  • 39. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    ["The tilting plane" and the consequences of introducing euthanasia].2010Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, nr 13-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Understanding mass allegations of satanist child abuse in early modern Sweden: demographic data relevant to the Rättvik outbreak of 1670-1671.2003Ingår i: History of Psychology, ISSN 1093-4510, E-ISSN 1939-0610, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic characteristics of 79 women who were accused of satanist child abductions in the parish of Rättvik, Sweden, in 1670-1671; 53 adults who promoted such accusations by bringing children to interrogations; and samples from the general population of Rättvik were compared. Results indicate that men were more likely to promote allegations of satanism than women and that these men were more likely to be married than the average Rättvik male. Promoters of allegations were older than average parishioners, and land-owning people who were involved in the panic owned more land than landowners who were not involved. People who were involved in the panic knew less about Luther's catechism than members of the general population. It is suggested that most of these findings may reflect a tendency of people who lived in the proximity of children to become involved in the panic.

  • 41. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Wild child.2004Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 43, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Witch persecutions and torture: Comment on Alison and Alison (2017)2017Ingår i: American Psychologist, ISSN 0003-066X, E-ISSN 1935-990X, Vol. 72, nr 7, s. 703-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In their article Alison and Alison (2017) argue that historical experiences speak against the efficacy of torture. In this comment experiences from the witch persecutions in Europe during the 15th to 17th centuries that support this notion are discussed. Converging data suggests that torture was often instrumental in making large numbers of suspects confess to flying children through the air to nocturnal satanic meetings, during this period. A comparison of the number of false self incriminating confessions given during the Swedish witch trial in the parish of Rättvik 1671 (before royal sanction of torture was given) and the parish of Ockelbo 1675 (after royal sanction of torture was given) is used to illustrate this point.

  • 43.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Mörén, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Naredi, Silvana
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Blood Metabolomic Predictors of 1-Year Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage2015Ingår i: Neurocritical Care, ISSN 1541-6933, E-ISSN 1556-0961, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 225-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed neurological deficit (DND) is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) whose aneurysms have been secured. However, the methods currently used to predict the development of DND, such as trans-cranial Doppler or levels biochemical markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid are not very accurate. Venous blood was drawn from 50 patients with SAH, admitted to the neurosurgical department UmeAyen University Hospital, at day 1-3 and day 7 after the bleed. The clinical status of the patients was followed up approximately 1 year after this episode and classified according to the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Results showed considerable differences in blood metabolomic patterns between day 1-3 and 7 after the hemorrhage. Fifty-six out of 98 metabolites could be identified from our in-house library and 17 of these metabolites changed significantly from day 1-3 to 7 after the bleed. One of these, myo-inositol, was predictive of clinical outcome even after correction for multiple testing. An estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of high levels of this substance in predicting good outcome (GOS 4-5) yielded a sensitivity of .763 and a specificity of .5 at the optimal cut off point. SAH is an event with a profound effect on blood metabolomics profiles. Myo-inositol might be an interesting compound for future study to focus on in the search for metabolic markers in venous blood of delayed neurological deterioration in SAH patients.

  • 44. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Ducci, Francesca
    Barr, Christina S
    Newman, Timothy K
    Dell'osso, Liliana
    Virkkunen, Matti
    Goldman, David
    A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior.2008Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 33, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-LPR) has previously been shown to be an important predictor of antisocial behavior in men. Testosterone analogues are known to interact with the MAOA promoter in vitro to influence gene transcription as well as in vivo to influence CSF levels of the MAO metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human males. We examined the possible joint effects of testosterone (measured in CSF) and MAOA-LPR genotype on antisocial personality disorder and scores on the Brown-Goodwin Aggression scale in 95 unrelated male criminal alcoholics and 45 controls. The results confirm that MAOA genotype and CSF testosterone interact to predict antisocial behaviors. The MAOA/testosterone interaction also predicted low levels of CSF MHPG, which tentatively suggests the possibility that the interaction may be mediated by a direct effect on gene transcription. If replicated these findings offer plausible explanations for previous inconsistencies in studies of the relationship between testosterone and male human aggression, as well as for how MAOA genotype may influence aggressive behavior in human males.

  • 45.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Häggström, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Philipsson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. UCL, Inst Neurol, London, England.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Laterality and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus: applying a dichotic listening task to patients treated for Parkinson's disease2015Ingår i: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 601-606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ear advantage during a dichotic listening task tends to mirror speech lateralization. Previous studies in stroke patients have shown that lesions in the dominant hemisphere often seem to produce changes in ear advantage. In this study six Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated for motor symptoms with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the left subthalamic nucleus (STN) were tested preoperatively and at approximately 6 and 18months postoperatively with a dichotic listening task. Results show a significant decline of the right ear advantage over time. In three of the patients a right ear advantage preoperativley changed to a left ear advantage 18months postoperatively. This suggests the possibility that additional longitudinal studies of this phenomenon could serve as a model for understanding changes in indirect measures of speech lateralization in stroke patients.

  • 46. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Limited disclosure of sexual abuse in children whose experiences were documented by videotape.2002Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 159, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The authors describe obstacles to children's disclosure of their sexual abuse experiences.

    METHOD: Ten children's descriptions of 102 incidents of sexual abuse and the process of disclosing these incidents during police interviews were studied. Children's self-reports of the abuse were compared to videotapes of the incidents made by the lone perpetrator.

    RESULTS: There was a significant tendency among the children to deny or belittle their experiences. Some children simply did not want to disclose their experiences, some had difficulties remembering them, and one child lacked adequate concepts to understand and describe them.

    CONCLUSIONS: Failure by children to disclose their experiences of sexual abuse might have diverse explanations. Professionals will most likely never be able to identify all cases of sexual abuse on the basis of children's narratives.

  • 47. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    A systematic review of age-related errors in children's memories for voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG).2005Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Children's autobiographical reports about sexual abuse: A narrative review of the research literature.2009Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 63, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The empirical and theoretical literature on children's autobiographical statements about child sexual abuse and other forms of maltreatment should be of potential importance to all professionals who regularly interview children as part of their professional duties.

    AIMS: To present an introduction to this field.

    METHODS: Narrative review.

    RESULTS: Preschool children appear to be capable of providing reliable testimony on highly salient personal experiences such as sexual abuse, though a substantial proportion of children may choose not to. However, suggestive interviewing practises, particularly when used with younger children, may elicit false allegations. There is little evidence to suggest that experiences from the preverbal period of life can later be meaningfully reconstructed by means of statements or clinical signs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Use of children as witnesses and informants requires special considerations, knowledge and skills.

  • 49. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Gender biases in decisions on euthanasia among Swedish jurors.2003Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study set out to investigate whether group-based biases may influence decisions regarding euthanasia in Swedish jurors (nämndemän). Thirty-eight Swedish jurors were presented with a case description of euthanasia in a severely brain-damaged patient. Age and gender of the patient were systematically varied. The jurors were asked to what extent they believed that euthanasia was ethical in the case presented to them and whether they thought that it should be legal. Jurors tended to be supportive of euthanasia and were more so when it was used on patients who belonged to the opposite gender. These results suggest that group-based biases may influence decisions regarding euthanasia in Swedish jurors. The finding has implication for the Swedish debate regarding a possible legalization of such procedures.

  • 50. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    [Memory recall as treatment lacks scientific support].2009Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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