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  • 1.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 2.
    Hrehová, Kristína
    et al.
    Charles University in Prague - CERGE-EI (Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute).
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Firm Relocations, Commuting and Relationship Stability2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the impact of firm relocations on commuting distance and the probability of married couples and cohabiting couples with children separating. We use Swedish register data for 2010-2016 and select employees of relocating firms with one workplace and more than 10 employees. Focusing on this sample allows us to use plausibly exogenous variation in the commuting distance arising from the relocation. We extend the literature on the effect of commuting on relationship stability by reducing the possibility for unobserved time-variant factors to bias our estimates. While previous literature has focused on the difference between short- and long-distance commuting, we focus on changes in the commuting distance that are externally induced by firm management. We find a small but statistically significant negative effect of increased firm relocation distance on family stability. A 10 km change in commuting distance leads to a 0.09 percentage point higher probability of separation if the commuter remains with the firm for the next 5 years.

  • 3.
    Hrehová, Kristína
    et al.
    CERGE-EI, joint workplace of Charles University and the Economics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Firm relocations, commuting and relationship stability2023In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 194-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the impact of firm relocations on commuting distance and the probability of married couples and cohabiting couples with children separating. We use Swedish register data for the period 2010–16 and select employees of relocating firms with one workplace and more than 10 employees. Focusing on this sample allows us to use plausibly exogenous variation in the commuting distance arising from the relocation. We extend the literature on the effect of commuting on relationship stability by reducing the possibility for unobserved time-variant factors to bias our estimates. While previous literature has focused on the difference between short- and long-distance commuting, we focus on changes in the commuting distance that are externally induced by firm management. We find a small but statistically significant negative effect of increased firm relocation distance on family stability. A 10 km change in commuting distance leads to a 0.09 percentage point higher probability of separation if the commuter remains with the firm for the next five years.

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  • 4.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Income distribution in family networks by gender and proximity2020In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, no 7, article id e2373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the significance of family networks for support and well‐being has been shown in previous research, few studies have analysed the income distribution within family networks. The aim of this study is to examine income distribution within family networks and how they have changed over time for women and men in different parts of the income distribution and if the incomes are more similar in the geographically proximate family network. The analysis is based on register data and by use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions. The results indicate that men in the lowest income group tend to have become more similar to their family network over time. Gender differences have decreased, possibly as an effect of women's higher labour market participation rate leading to decreased income disparity. This paper contributes by highlighting how the uneven distribution of economic resources in family networks adds to individual's own resources.

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  • 5.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Findlay, Allan
    University of St Andrews.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Boomerang Behaviour and Emerging Adulthood: Moving Back to the Parental Home and the Parental Neighbourhood in Sweden2020In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 919-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes two original contributions to research on young adults’ boomerang mobility. First, it reveals the magnitude and complexity of return moves by young people to their parental home and neighbourhood. Secondly, it shows that the determinants and associates of return migration vary significantly when analysed at two different geographical scales—the parental home and the parental neighbourhood area. Using longitudinal data (1986–2009) on four cohorts of young adults, we find that boomeranging to the parental home in Sweden has increased in times of economic recession and is associated with economic vulnerability, such as leaving higher education or entering unemployment, and partnership dissolution. While returning to the parental home can offer financial support in times of life course reversal, we found gender differences indicating a greater independence among young women than men. Returning to the parental neighbourhood is found to be a very different kind of mobility than returning to co-reside with one’s parents, involving the migration decisions of more economically independent young adults. Results also indicate that returns to the parental neighbourhood, as well as returns to the parental home, can be part of young people’s life course changes.

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  • 6.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Findlay, Allan
    Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews, UK.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of geographical scale in explaining the return migration of young adults to the parental home and to the parental neighbourhood2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes two original contributions to research on the return migration of young adults to the parental home. First it argues that the numerical significance and complexity of return moves by young people to their parental home (boomeranging) is greater than has previously been recognised. Secondly we show that the determinants and associates of return migration vary significantly when analysed at two different geographical scales – the parental home and the parental neighbourhood area. We compare boomerang mobility behaviour in Sweden to work undertaken previously in the United Kingdom. By using longitudinal data (1986 to 2009) on four cohorts of young adults we find that boomeranging to parents’ home is an increasing mobility behaviour in Sweden associated with economic vulnerability, such as leaving higher education or entering unemployment, and partnership dissolution. While returning to parents’ home can offer financial support in times of life course reversal, we found gender differences indicating a larger independence among young women than men. Returning to the parental neighbourhood is found to be a much wider phenomenon than return to co-residence with parents, involving migration decisions of more economically independent young adults. 

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  • 7.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Commuting behaviour in sparsely populated areas: evidence from northern Sweden2008In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 14-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a Swedish regional development policy perspective, increased long-distance commuting is viewed as a means for creating larger local labour markets and thus stimulating regional economic growth. One of the prerequisites for such a development is that individuals are willing to commute longer distances. In the context of a relatively peripheral and sparsely populated area in northern Sweden, this paper aims to study commuting behaviour and factors influencing individuals’ propensities to commute longer distances. Using a longitudinal set of geo-referenced data, individuals’ commuting propensities were estimated in a binary logistic regression, and significant effects were found for a range of socio-economic and demographic factors. The results also show that the local labour market’s geographical structure is important. Overall, most individuals commute within their locality of residence and women commute shorter distances than men do – a pattern that has been relatively stable since the beginning of the 1990s. This article attempts to outline causes and effects of this commuting behaviour, which are important to understand in the development of regional development policies aimed at increasing geographical labour mobility.

  • 8.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    On the road: Social aspects of commuting long distances to work2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With its point of departure of increasing numbers of people being engaged in commuting, the aim of this thesis is to reveal prerequisites for and consequences of long-distance commuting in Sweden for the individual and his or her partner. Special attention has been given to prerequisites for long-distance commuting in sparsely populated areas, and to social consequences related to long-distance commuting in terms of gender differences in commuting patterns, earnings and separation. The thesis is based on four empirical studies, presented in different papers. Two studies draw on individual longitudinal register data on all Swedish long-distance commuters living with a partner. The other two focus on commuting behaviour in sparsely populated areas, one based on individual register data and the other on a survey.

    Long-distance commuting (>30 kilometres) has become an increasingly common mobility strategy among Swedish workers and their households. Results from the thesis show that 11 percent of Swedish workers are long-distance commuters and about half of them live in a relationship. Among these couples many are families with children, indicating the importance of social ties in households’ decisions on where to work and live. Most long-distance commuters are men, and it is also likely that long-distance commuters have a high education level and are employed in the private sector. For the majority, long-distance commuting gives higher earnings; however, men benefit economically more than women do. As long-distance commuting reduces available family time, the non-commuting spouse often takes on a larger share of household commitments. The thesis shows that men’s long-distance commuting may therefore serve to reproduce and reinforce traditional gender roles on the labour market and within households. On the other hand, women’s long-distance commuting can lead to more equalitarian relationships on the labour market and within households. For the majority of couples it seems as if long-distance commuting becomes more than a temporary mobility strategy, while for some couples it does not work out very well. Separation rates are found to be higher among long-distance commuters compared to other couples; especially the first years of commuting seem to be the most challenging. It is suggested that coping strategies are important to make the consequences of long-distance commuting easier to handle and adjust to in the daily life puzzle. For those unable to handle these consequences, long-distance commuting is not a sustainable mobility strategy and can even end a relationship.

    The extent of long-distance commuting is low in sparsely populated areas, and those who do long-distance commute are mainly men. Most people work and live within the same locality and do not accept longer commuting times than do those in densely populated areas. In this thesis it is argued that facilitating car commuting in the more sparsely populated areas of Sweden can be more economically and socially sustainable, for the individual commuters as well as for society, than encouraging commuting by public transportation.

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  • 9.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Til work do us part: the social fallacy of long-distance commuting2014In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 55p. 526-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the social implications of long-distance commuting on commuters and their spouses in Sweden. In a nation-wide study, the extent to which long-distance commuting increases the odds that couples will separate is investigated through event history analysis. Discrete-time logistic regression models were employed with longitudinal data on Swedish couples in 2000 to explore the odds of separation following long-distance commuting during 1995 to 2005. As expected, the results show that separation rates are higher among long-distance commuting couples compared with non-commuting couples. More complex results show that for men the odds of separating are highest if the commuting is on a temporary basis, and that women’s odds decrease when they continue commuting for a longer time-period. The long-distance commuting effect on relationships also varies depending on residential context.

  • 10.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Til work do us part: the social fallacy of long-distance commuting2019In: Integrating gender into transport planning: from one to many tracks / [ed] Christina Lindkvist Scholten and Tanja Joelsson, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 121-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Leaving the city: counterurbanisation and internal return migration in Sweden2023In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 39, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines counterurban migration among young families with children in Sweden and the extent to which these moves reflect return migration, recognising the role of family members and family roots at the destination from a life course perspective. Drawing on register data for all young families with children leaving the Swedish metropolitan areas during the years 2003–2013, we analyse the pattern of counterurban moves and explore how the families’ socioeconomic characteristics, childhood origins, and links to family networks are associated with becoming a counterurban mover and choice of destination. The results show that four out of ten counterurban movers are former urban movers who choose to return to their home region. Among them, almost all have family at the destination, indicating that family ties are important for counterurban migration. In general, urban residents with a background outside metropolitan areas are much more likely to become counterurban movers. Families’ previous residential experiences during childhood, particularly in rural areas, are found to be associated with the residential environment they choose to resettle in when leaving the big city. Counterurban movers making a return move are similar to other counterurban movers in relation to employment status, but tend to be better off economically and move longer distances than other counterurban movers.

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  • 12.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Which families move out from metropolitan areas?: Counterurban migration and professions in Sweden2020In: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 276-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing revitalisation of the counterurbanisation research within population geography by nuancing counterurban migration beyond the rural–urban dichotomy, including all moves downwards in the urban hierarchy. The focus is to explore counterurban migration patterns among families with children leaving Swedish metropolitan areas, and whether some groups of skilled professions are more likely to make a counterurban move than others. Using register data on all families moving out from metropolitan areas in Sweden during the period 2003–2013, we found a small but steady outflow of families, mainly to medium-sized or small towns. The highly educated are overrepresented among these families, thus providing potential for an inflow of competence to the receiving areas. Contrary to expected, the assumed flexibility in time and space among knowledge sector professionals does not seem to enable them more than others to pursue counterurban moves. Instead, public sector professionals characterise families making a counterurban move to all destination regions, while men with a profession within arts and crafts to a higher extent move with their family to more rural areas.

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  • 13.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Is your commute killing you?: On the mortality risks of long-distance commuting2014In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1496-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general belief that expanding labour-market regions, triggered by increased commuting, have positive economic effects on individuals, firms, and society. Recently, however, scholars have reported possible negative outcomes related to health and well-being. Based on these findings, this study addresses the association between long-distance commuting, and mortality. Using longitudinal individual data from between 1985 and 2008, focusing on 55-year-olds in 1994, we model mortality through propensity score matching and Kaplan–Meyer estimates of survival among long-distance commuters and matched controls from the population travelling short distances to work. The results indicate that women who have experienced long-distance commuting face a significantly higher mortality risk compared with women with short commutes to work. This seems to be driven by variations in income and education: for example, for women with long-distance commuting experience, substantially lower survival rates are found among those with low education and low income. A very different picture emerges for men, for whom mortality risks do not seem to be associated with long-distance commuting. Our findings suggest that men and women are subject to different mechanisms regarding the nexus between commuting and mortality.

  • 14.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Att resa till arbetet i befolkningsmässigt glesa miljöer2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Peoples preferences for commuting in sparsely populated areas: 9th NECTAR conference in Porto, Portugal, May 9-12 20072007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Preferences for commuting in sparsely populated areas: the case of Sweden2010In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, E-ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 2, no 3/4, p. 87-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time of decreased inclination to migrate and an increased place attachment, increasingcommuting can improve the functionality of local labor markets. In regional development policy in Sweden,facilitating increased commuting over larger geographical areas is therefore viewed as essential forenhancing the supply of competent labor in all parts of the country and decreasing spatial segmentation.Building on an analysis of data from a survey of Swedish residents’ commuting options and preferences,this paper focuses on commuting in a relatively sparsely populated and peripheral area in northern Sweden.Further, the question of whether increased commuting is socially sustainable from a commuter’sperspective is discussed. 􀄃e point of departure is that the individual and the individual’s context affectcommuting behavior through social norms, geographical structure and available infrastructure. Withrespect to travel patterns and mode choice, a gender perspective is included in the analyses. 􀄃e resultsshow that the geographic and socio-economic structure of the labor market place time restrictions onpeople’s commuting behavior and as a consequence people’s daily reach in sparsely populated areas isrestricted. Geographical structure, available infrastructure, and socio-economic factors (such as education,employment, and family situation) are also found to restrict women’s access to the local labormarket to a greater extent than men’s. Furthermore, the study shows that the inclination to commutedeclines rapidly when commuting times exceed 45 minutes, regardless of gender, transport mode, andsocio-economic factors. Considering distances and the provision of public transport in sparsely populatedareas, the car is valued as the most optimal mode of transport when commuting. If regional growthis to be promoted by facilitating commuting over longer distances, a higher level of car dependency mustbe accepted in sparsely populated areas.

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  • 17.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Regionförstoring i glesa områden – Kollektivtrafikens möjligheter och betydelse2007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    The persevering commuter: Duration of long-distance commuting2010In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 433-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of people are long-distance commuters. For some long-distance commuting is a temporary solution, while as for others it can be a more long-term strategy to promote career and income. This study addresses duration of long-distance commuting – 30 km or more between home and work – in Sweden, and what characterizes individuals who commute for shorter or longer periods. The effects of long-distance commuting in terms of economic outcome for both partners in a commuter household are analysed. The study is based on register data for the years 1995–2005 covering all long-distance commuters in Sweden. One finding is that previous experience of long-distance commuting makes it more likely to have a long duration of long-distance commuting. In addition economic incentives, such as a higher income, are positively correlated for continuing to long-distance commuting more than a few years. Furthermore, the analysis shows that male commuters benefit more in terms of economic outcome of long-distance commuting. It is concluded that the trend with increasing long-distance commuting can sustain not only gender differences on the labour market but also within households. Finally, the paper indicates that long-distance commuting is a strategic mobility choice for households, rather than a short-term solution for a few years.

  • 19.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Vill människor pendla längre?2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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