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  • 1.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Carbon metabolism in clear-water and brown-water lakes2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trophic state of lakes is commonly defined by the concentration of nutrients in the water column. High nutrient concentrations generate high phytoplankton production, and lakes with low nutrient concentrations are considered low-productive. This simplified view of lake productivity ignores the fact that benthic primary producers and heterotrophic bacteria can be important basal producers in lake ecosystems.

    In this thesis I have studied clear-water and brown-water lakes with respect to primary production, respiration and bacterial production based on allochthonous organic carbon. These processes were quantified in pelagic and benthic habitats on temporal and spatial scales. I also calculated the net ecosystem production of the lakes, defined as the difference between gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R). The net ecosystem production indicates whether a lake is net heterotrophic (GPP < R), net autotrophic (GPP > R) or in metabolic balance (GPP = R). Net heterotrophic lakes are sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere since respiration in these lakes, by definition, is subsidized by an external organic carbon source. External organic carbon is transported to lakes from the terrestrial environment via inlets, and can serve as a carbon source for bacteria but it also limits light availability for primary producers by absorbing light.

    On a seasonal scale, four of the clear-water lakes studied in this thesis were dominated by primary production in the soft-bottom benthic habitat and by respiration in the pelagic habitat. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were low in the lakes, but still high enough to cause the lakes to be net heterotrophic. However, the lakes were not low-productive due to the high production in the benthic habitat. One of the clear-water lakes was studied also during the winter and much of the respiration under ice was supported by the benthic primary production from the previous summer. This is in contrast to brown-water lakes where winter respiration is suggested to be supported by allochthonous organic carbon.

    By studying lakes in a DOC gradient (i.e. from clear-water to brown-water lakes) I could draw two major conclusions. The lakes became less productive since benthic primary production decreased with increasing light extinction, and the lakes became larger sources of CO2 to the atmosphere since pelagic respiration was subsidized by allochthonous organic carbon. Thus, lake carbon metabolism can have an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their processing of terrestrial organic carbon and to their possible feedback effects on the climate system.

  • 2.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, p. GB1017-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 3.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Terrestrial organic matter and light penetration: Effects on bacterial and primary production in lakes2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 2034-2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated productivity at the basal trophic level in 15 unproductive lakes in a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water (humic) lakes in northern Sweden. Primary production and bacterial production in benthic and pelagic habitats were measured to estimate the variation in energy mobilization from external energy sources (primary production plus bacterial production on allochthonous organic carbon) along the gradient. Clear-water lakes were dominated by autotrophic energy mobilization in the benthic habitat, whereas humic lakes were dominated by heterotrophic energy mobilization in the pelagic habitat. Whole-lake (benthic + pelagic) energy mobilization was negatively correlated to the light-extinction coefficient, which was determined by colored terrestrial organic matter in the lake water. Thus, variation in the concentration of terrestrial organic matter and its light-absorbing characteristics exerts strong control on the magnitude, as well as on the processes and pathways, of energy mobilization in unproductive lakes. We suggest that unproductive lakes in general are sensitive to input of terrestrial organic matter because of its effects on basal energy mobilization in both benthic and pelagic habitats.

  • 4.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Whole-lake estimates of carbon flux through algae and bacteria in benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes2009In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1923-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified new biomass production of algae and bacteria in both benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes to contrast how carbon from the atmosphere and terrestrial sources regulates whole-lake metabolism. We studied four small unproductive lakes in subarctic northern Sweden during one summer season. The production of new biomass in both benthic and pelagic habitats was calculated as the sum of autotrophic production by algae and heterotrophic production by bacteria using allochthonous organic carbon (OC). Whole-lake production of new biomass was dominated by the benthic habitat (86% +/- 4% [mean +/- SD]) and by primary production (77% +/- 9%). Still, heterotrophic bacteria fueled by allochthonous OC constituted a significant portion of the new biomass production in both benthic (19% +/- 11%) and pelagic habitats (51% +/- 24%). In addition, overall net production (primary production minus respiration) was close to zero in the benthic habitats but highly negative (-163 +/- 81 mg C.m(-2).d(-1)) in pelagic regions of all lakes. We conclude (1) that allochthonous OC supported a significant part of total production of new biomass in both pelagic and benthic habitats, (2) that benthic habitats dominated the whole-lake production of new biomass, and (3) that respiration and net CO2 production dominated the carbon flux of the pelagic habitats and biomass production dominated the benthic carbon flux. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous investigations have greatly underestimated the productivity of clear-water lakes when benthic autotrophic production and metabolism of allochthonous OC have not been measured.

  • 5.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Variation in hatching success and egg production of Eurytemora affinis (Calanoida, Copepoda). from the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, in relation to abundance and clonal differences of diatoms2006In: Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 683-694Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 635-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.

  • 7.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Competition mediated coexistence of invading intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback, and a resident omnivorous top predator, Arctic charManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change results in changes in the geographical distribution of species. Species invasion success into a new area is dependent both on the dispersal ability of species as well as the strength and identity of biotic interactions between resident and invading species. Coexistence in intraguild predation (IGP) systems depends on the relative strength of predation and competition interactions which in turn are temperature dependent. We investigated the effects of introducing an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), into allopatric populations of the omnivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Introductions were performed in lakes with different climate regimes, two tundra lakes and two forest lakes that differed in average summer temperatures with 1.4 ± 0.5 ºC (average ± 1SD). We found that sticklebacks were able to invade and increase in density in both tundra and forest lakes. Sticklebacks had strong negative effects on resource densities which also was reflected in a decreased growth of small char. Increasing stickleback density had a positive effect on growth of large adults and on the maximum size of char. We conclude that stickleback presence is not limited by biological interactions in these systems but rather by dispersion ability. We suggest that the size dependency in the response of char to the invasion of sticklebacks is fundamental for the successful invasion of sticklebacks, and that size dependent interactions including cannibalism play important roles for coexistence in natural IGP-systems.

  • 8.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature mediated effects on top consumer populations in subarctic lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature on top consumer populations in subarctic lake communities were studied by contrasting two lake pairs in different climate regimes: one pair on the low alpine tundra and one pair in the subalpine birch forest. We measured zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses over the season and estimated population density and size structure of the top consumer Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Furthermore, we modelled char growth using literature data on temperature dependent search rate, handling time and metabolic demands. The forest lakes were warmer than the tundra lakes. Char in the forest lakes were larger and had a higher individual growth compared to char in the tundra lakes, while population density and biomasses of char were not different between the forest and the tundra lakes. There were no differences in macroinvertebrate and zooplankton resource levels available for char between lake pairs. Our modeling of char growth revealed that higher temperature increased growth of char at the observed resource densities, suggesting that the higher temperature in the forest lakes was primarily the cause of the higher growth of char in these lakes. We suggest that cannibalism in char may regulate char recruitment and thereby population density and biomass of char leading to effects of increasing temperature on consumer biomass and consumer individual growth different from what is expected in pure consumer-resource systems. Our results emphasize the importance of feedbacks within ecosystems when addressing effects of climate change and increasing temperature on lake communities.

  • 9.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • 10.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Van Kooten, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olofsson, Frans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substitution of top predators: effects of pike invasion in a subarctic lake2007In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1271–1280-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Invasions of top predators may have strong cascading effects in ecosystems affecting both prey species abundance and lower trophic levels. A recently discussed factor that may enhance species invasion is climate change and in this context, we studied the effects of an invasion of northern pike into a subarctic lake ecosystem formerly inhabited by the native top predator Arctic char and its prey fish, ninespined stickleback.

    2. Our study demonstrated a strong change in fish community composition from a system with Arctic char as top predator and high densities of sticklebacks to a system with northern pike as top predator and very low densities of sticklebacks. A combination of both predation and competition from pike is the likely cause of the extinction of char.

    3. The change in top predator species also cascaded down to primary consumers as both zooplankton and predator-sensitive macroinvertebrates increased in abundance.

    4. Although the pike invasion coincided with increasing summer temperatures in the study area we have no conclusive evidence that the temperature increase is the causal mechanism behind the pike invasion. But still, our study provides possible effects of future pike invasions in mountain lakes related to climate change. We suggest that future pike invasions will have strong effects in lake ecosystems, both by replacing native top consumers and through cascading effects on lower trophic levels.

  • 11. Creed, Irena F.
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Grimm, Nancy B.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    McKnight, Diane M.
    Freeman, Erika C.
    Senar, Oscar E.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    Cherif, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Palta, Monica M.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 3692-3714Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans.

  • 12.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wickman, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Vasconcelos, Francisco R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Uszko, Wojciech
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Resource and consumer control of cross-habitat trophic interactions in shallow lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Carbon dioxide stimulates lake primary production2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 10878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross primary production (GPP) is a fundamental ecosystem process that sequesters carbon dioxide (CO2) and forms the resource base for higher trophic levels. Still, the relative contribution of different controls on GPP at the whole-ecosystem scale is far from resolved. Here we show, by manipulating CO2 concentrations in large-scale experimental pond ecosystems, that CO2 availability is a key driver of whole-ecosystem GPP. This result suggests we need to reformulate past conceptual models describing controls of lake ecosystem productivity and include our findings when developing models used to predict future lake ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Winter respiration of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in a subarctic clear-water lake2008In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 948-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied a small subarctic lake to assess the magnitude of winter respiration and the organic carbon (OC) source for this respiration. The concentration and stable isotopic composition (d13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulating in the lake water under ice was analyzed over one winter (7 months). The DIC concentration increased and the d13C of DIC decreased over time, with the greatest changes at the lake bottom. Winter respiration was 26% of annual respiration in the lake. Keeling plot analysis demonstrated that the d13C of respired DIC varied spatially, high d13C values occurring at shallow (2.5 m, 21.7‰) compared with intermediate (4 m, 25.1‰) and deep (6 m, 27.8‰) locations in the lake. The variation in the d13C of respired DIC was related to the variation in the d13C of the sediments between locations, suggesting that sediment OC supported much of the winter respiration and that the dominant OC source for respiration was OC from benthic algae at shallow locations and settled OC, of predominately terrestrial origin, at deep locations. The respiration of OC from benthic algae constituted 55% of the winter respiration, equaling 54% of the primary production by benthic algae the previous summer. The study indicates the importance of temporal and spatial variation in respiration for the metabolism and net DIC production in unproductive high-latitude lakes; both allochthonous and autochthonous carbon can contribute to winter DIC accumulation and, consequently, to spring CO2 emissions from lakes.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, M.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, H.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Response to Comment: Terrestrial support of pelagic consumers in unproductive lakes- Uncertainty and potential in assessments using stable isotopes2014In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 1800-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Terrestrial organic matter support of lake food webs: Evidence from lake metabolism and stable hydrogen isotopes of consumers2012In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 1042-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantified the utilization of terrestrial organic matter (OM) in the food web of a humic lake by analyzing the metabolism and the consumers' stable isotopic (C, H, N) composition in benthic and pelagic habitats. Terrestrial OM inputs (3 g C m(-2) d(-1)) to the lake greatly exceeded autochthonous OM production (3 mg C m(-2) d(-1)) in the lake. Heterotrophic bacterial growth (19 mg C m(-2) d(-1)) and community respiration (115 mg C m(-2) d(-1)) were high relative to algal photosynthesis and were predominantly (> 85%) supported by terrestrial OM in both habitats. Consequently, terrestrial OM fueled most (85%) of the total production at the base of the lake's food web (i.e., the sum of primary and bacterial production). Despite the uncertainties of quantitatively estimating resource use based on stable isotopes, terrestrial OM clearly also supported around half the zooplankton (47%), macrozoobenthos (63%), and fish (57%) biomass. These results indicate that, although rates of terrestrial OM inputs were around three orders of magnitude greater than that of autochthonous OM production, the use of the two resources by higher trophic levels was roughly equal. The disproportionally low reliance on terrestrial OM at higher trophic levels, compared with its high rates of input and high support of basic biomass production in the lake, suggests that autochthonous resources could not be completely replaced by terrestrial resources and indicates an upper limit to terrestrial support of lake food webs.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Light limitation of nutrient-poor lake ecosystems2009In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 460, p. 506-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity denotes the rate of biomass synthesis in ecosystems and is a fundamental characteristic that frames ecosystem function and management. Limitation of productivity by nutrient availability is an established paradigm for lake ecosystems1, 2, 3. Here, we assess the relevance of this paradigm for a majority of the world's small, nutrient-poor lakes, with different concentrations of coloured organic matter4, 5. By comparing small unproductive lakes along a water colour gradient, we show that coloured terrestrial organic matter controls the key process for new biomass synthesis (the benthic primary production) through its effects on light attenuation. We also show that this translates into effects on production and biomass of higher trophic levels (benthic invertebrates and fish). These results are inconsistent with the idea that nutrient supply primarily controls lake productivity, and we propose that a large share of the world's unproductive lakes, within natural variations of organic carbon and nutrient input, are limited by light and not by nutrients. We anticipate that our result will have implications for understanding lake ecosystem function and responses to environmental change. Catchment export of coloured organic matter is sensitive to short-term natural variability and long-term, large-scale changes, driven by climate and different anthropogenic influences6, 7. Consequently, changes in terrestrial carbon cycling will have pronounced effects on most lake ecosystems by mediating changes in light climate and productivity of lakes.

  • 18. Rodriguez, Patricia
    et al.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Benthic organic carbon release stimulates bacterioplankton production in a clear-water subarctic lake2013In: Freshwater Science, ISSN 2161-9565, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 176-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We carried out a set of experiments in a small clear-water lake in northern Sweden during summer 2010 to assess the effect of organic C (OC) released from epipelic algae on pelagic bacterial production (BP). The release rate of OC (dissolved and particulate) from epipelic algae was similar to 45.4 ng C m(-2) h(-1) Bacterioplankton uptake of dissolved OC was P-limited, and pelagic primary production (PP) was colimited by N and P. Pelagic BP (3.2 +/- 6 mu g C L-1 h(-1)) exceeded pelagic PP (0.012 +/- 0.008 mu g C L-1 h(-1)). Pelagic BP was higher in lake water in contact with sediments and the epipelic algae growing on their surface than in water separated from the sediments. Epipelic algae release OC to lake water and potentially stimulate pelagic BP. However, exploitation of benthic OC probably is suboptimal because of nutrient limitation (primarily by inorganic P) of BP.

  • 19.
    Seekell, David A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lapierre, Jean-Francois
    East Lansing, Michigan.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodriguez, Patricia
    Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The influence of dissolved organic carbon on primary production in northern lakes2015In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 1276-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in lakes are changing globally, but little is known about potential ecosystem impacts.We evaluated the relationship between DOC and whole-lake primary production in arctic and boreal lakes. Both light extinction (inhibits primary production) and nutrient availability (stimulates primary production) are positively and nonlinearly related to DOC concentration. These nonlinearities create a threshold DOC concentration (4.8mg L-1), below which the DOC-primary production relationship is positive, and above which the relationship is negative. DOC concentration varies maximally between regions, creating a unimodal relationship between primary production and DOC that emerges at broader scales because arctic lakes largely fall below the threshold DOC concentration, but boreal lakes fall above it. Our analysis suggests that the impact of DOC trends on lake primary production will vary across lakes and regions as a result of contrasting baseline conditions relative to the DOC threshold.

  • 20.
    Säwström, Christin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Viruses in subarctic lakes and their impact on benthic and pelagic bacteria2009In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 139-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virus–bacterium interactions were investigated in the pelagic and benthic habitats in a set of lakes along an altitudinal gradient in the subarctic northern Sweden. Viral and bacterial abundances showed a significant variation between the lakes, with the highest benthic microbial abundances recorded in a high-altitude lake [993 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], whereas the highest pelagic microbial abundances were found in a low-altitude lake (270 m a.s.l.). In the pelagic habitat, there was also a distinct difference in microbial abundances between the summer–autumn and the winter sampling occasion. A positive relationship was noted between viruses and bacteria in both the pelagic and the benthic habitats. Visibly virus-infected bacterial cells were uncommon in the pelagic habitat and undetectable in the benthos. Both lytic and lysogenic pelagic viral production rates were undetectable or low; thus, a possible explanation for the relative high viral abundances found in the water column could be an allochthonous input of viruses or release of sediment-derived viruses. Overall, our results provide novel information about the relevance of viruses in the subarctic region and indicate that viruses play only a minor role in the nutrient and carbon cycling in the microbial communities of subarctic lakes.

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