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  • 1.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Testing for vertical fiscal externalities2004In: International Tax and Public Finance, Vol. 11, p. 243-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public goods, optimal distortionary taxation and union wage setting2006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honor of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 102-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Social identity, education and tax policy2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the implications of social identity and self-categorization in the context of optimal redistributive income taxation. A two-type model is supplemented by an assumption that individuals select themselves into social categories, in which norms are formed and education effort choices partly depend on these norms. Optimal tax policy is analyzed under two different assumptions about the social objective function: a welfarist objective based on consumer preferences and a paternalist objective that does not reflect the consumer preference for social identity. We show how the welfarist government implements a tax policy to internalize the externalities arising from social norms, while the paternalist government uses tax policy to make individuals behave as if their preferences for social identity were absent.

  • 4.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Regional income growth and net migration in Sweden, 1970-19952001In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 823-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the regional growth pattern in Sweden, and the purpose is to analyse what factors determine the growth rate of average income and the net migration at the regional level. We find a negative relationship between the initial level of regional average income and subsequent income growth. The results also imply that the initial endowment of human capital (measured as the percentage of the population with higher education) has a positive effect on the subsequent net migration. Other determinants of regional income growth and population movements are 'fixed endowments' (related to geography and climate) and regional labour market characteristics.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Impact of regional public expenditures on the local decision to spend2000In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 185-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the hypothesis that local (municipal) expenditures in part can be explained by the expenditures of the regional (county) government. To accomplish this task, we derive and estimate a model of local public (municipal) spending that is defined conditional on the level of regional public expenditures. The empirical analysis is based on panel data from the Swedish local public sector for the time period 1981–1986. Among the results, we find that the hypothesis that regional expenditures are weakly separable from local expenditures can be rejected. However, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the regional expenditures are weakly exogenous in the local expenditure equation.

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kommuner, heterogenitet och effektivitet2005In: Självstyrelse, likvärdighet och effektivitet: målkonflikter i den offentliga sektorn, Riksbankens jubileumsfond , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Optimal tax progression: does it matter whether wage bargaining is decentralized or centralized?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how the optimal use of labor income tax progression depends on whether the wage bargaining system is decentralized or centralized. Assuming a nonlinear labor income tax and an unrestricted profit tax, we show that a Utilitarian government is able to implement the first best resource allocation with a zero marginal labor income tax rate under decentralized wage bargaining, whereas centralized bargaining typically implies a progressive tax as well as unemployment. However, if the government and a (central) wage-setter bargain over wage formation and public policy, the resulting equilibrium is characterized by full employment and a zero marginal tax rate.

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Optimal taxation and risk-sharing arrangements in an economic federation2003In: Oxford Economic Papers, ISSN 0030-7653, E-ISSN 1464-3812, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 104-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes optimal taxation and risk‐sharing arrangements in an economy with two levels of government. Both levels provide public goods and finance their expenditures via labor income taxation, where the tax base is responsive to the private agents' labor supply decisions. The localities are assumed to experience different random productivity shocks, meaning that       the private labor supply decision as well as the choices of income tax rates are carried out under uncertainty. Part of the central government's decision problem is then to provide tax revenue sharing between the local governments. The optimal degree of revenue sharing depends on whether or not the localities/regions differ with respect to labor supply incentives.

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Local public goods and income heterogeneity2006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honor of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham , 2006, p. 85-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Selander, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Taxation, dividend payments and ex-day price-changes2009In: Multinational Finance Journal, ISSN 1096-1879, Vol. 13, no 1/2, p. 141-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to study the effect of taxation on dividend payments and ex-dividend price-changes in Sweden during 1991-1995. Tax changes in Sweden during the 1990s were implemented in such a way that they provide an opportunity to include direct measures of the tax-treatment of dividends and capital gains in the empirical analysis, in contrast to previous studies. The results indicate that tax-reforms can have large effects on dividend payments, while the effects on ex-dividend price-changes are less conclusive.

  • 11.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fixed budgets as a cost containment measure for pharmaceuticals2006In: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 37-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Västerbotten County, Sweden, there are two health centers which (in contrast to all other health centers in the region) bear strict responsibility over their pharmaceutical budget. This study examined whether the prices and quantities of pharmaceuticals prescribed by physicians working at these health centers differ significantly from those prescribed by physicians at health centers with open-ended budgets. Estimation results using matching methods, which allows us to compare similar patients at the different health centers, show that the introduction of fixed pharmaceutical budgets did not affect physicians' prescription behavior, indicating that fixed budgets may not be an efficient measure to reduce costs. Another explanation is that the health centers under study already had taken measures to contain costs, making it hard to further reduce costs.

  • 12.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Public Provision and Cross-Border Health Care2016In: Forum for Health Economics & Policy, ISSN 1558-9544, E-ISSN 1558-9544, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how the optimal public provision of health care depends on whether or not individuals have an option to seek publicly financed treatment in other regions. We find that, relative to the first-best solution, the government has an incentive to over-provide health care to low-income individuals. When cross-border health care takes place, this incentive is solely explained by that over-provision facilitates redistribution. The reason why more health care facilitates redistribution is that high-ability individuals mimicking low-ability individuals benefit the least from health care when health and labor supply are complements. Without cross-border health care, higher demand for health care among high-income individuals also contributes to the over-provision given that high-income individuals do not work considerably less than low-income individuals and that the government cannot discriminate between the income groups by giving them different access to health care.

  • 13.
    Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Assessing the effects of the child-care fee reform on public expenditures and taxationManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of the Swedish child-care fee reform on public expenditures and taxation in the municipalities. The reform implied a common system of child-care fees among all the municipalities and was introduced in 2002. In order to study its effects, we employ a difference-in-difference approach, where outcomes are compared with respect to differences in the municipalities' pre-reform fee systems. It was found that pre-reform characteristics determine taxes and expenditures in the post-reform period. We then discuss the likely causes of these differences and find that the reform did change the child-care demand in municippalities that had applied time rates relative to those who applied income dependent fees prior to reform. Changes in child-care quality were not connected to the pre-reform fee systems characteristics.

  • 14.
    Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Amalgamation impacts on local growth: Are voluntary amalgamations more efficient than compulsory amalgamations?2010In: Canadian journal of regional science, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 57-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse amalgamation impacts on local population and income growth as well as whether voluntary amalgamations are more efficient compared to compulsory amalgamations. The empirical analysis is based on data for 1,005 Swedish municipalities for the period 1953-1959, i.e. a six-year period after the 1952 municipal reform. The reform was state imposed and 66 percent of the newly formed municipalities were amalgamated on a compulsory basis. The results show that amalgamations had a positive effect on population growth in small municipalities. The main finding in the paper is that municipalities formed on a voluntary basis had higher population growth compared to municipalities formed on a compulsory basis. One conclusion is that local opinions are important to consider when forming a new local government structure.

  • 15.
    Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does the local government structure affect population and income growth?: An empirical study of the 1952 municipal reform in Sweden2008In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 593-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the paper is to analyse if the Swedish municipal reform in 1952 affected subsequent income growth and population movements. The empirical analysis is conducted using data for the period 1953 to 1959. The main result is that the municipal amalgamations had no effect on the municipal income growth patterns. However, a positive effect on population growth is found for the municipalities that were small in size prior to the reform. It is also found that the composition of the municipalities formed affected subsequent growth.

  • 16.
    Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Municipal Preferences for State-imposed Amalgamations: An Empirical Study Based on the Swedish Municipal Reform of 19522012In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 2733-2750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns municipal preferences for state-imposed municipal amalgamations, focusing on factors that may explain municipal acceptance of, or objection to, a state-imposed amalgamation decision. The empirical analysis is based on the extensive municipal reform that occurred in Sweden in 1952, which reduced the number of municipalities from 2498 to 1037. In 66 per cent of the amalgamated cases, at least one municipality complained. The results show that income differences affected the willingness to amalgamate; high-income municipalities opposed amalgamation with less wealthy municipalities. The results also indicate that the size (absolute and relative) of the municipalities affected their willingness to amalgamate. Small and large municipalities were most likely to accept the amalgamation decision and equally sized municipalities were less likely to amalgamate voluntarily.

  • 17.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Rolfsman, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wedman, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Det nya högskoleprovet: samband mellan provresultat och prestation i högskolan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Norberg-Schönfeldt, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Skilsmässor och ekonomi2008In: Jämställdhetens pris, 2008, p. 195-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Halleröd, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Norberg-Schönfeldt, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nyman, Charlott
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vi kan inte bortse från jämställdhetens baksida2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age2004In: Education Economics, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comparing the incomparable: a predictive validity analysis based on matching methods2008In: The impact of testing on people and society, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the selection instruments for higher education in Sweden, by comparing how students selected on either grades from upper secondary school (GPA) or an admissions test (the SweSAT) perform in higher education. The study appreciates that evaluating multiple instruments is not without problems, as applicants in different admission groups are not necessarily comparable with respect to personal traits, and different instruments may benefit individuals differently. The study investigates if combining regression models with matching methods will give additional or better information about the different selection instruments, compared to traditional methods in predictive validity studies. The data consists of register data from students born 1972-1974, who have been admitted to a Business Administration or Edconomics programme in a Swedish university between the years 1993 to 1996. The number of credits taken in higher education serve as criterion for academic success. The results from the regression analyses support previous findings in validation studies, showing that the GPA admitted students are more productive in the economics programme than students admitted from the SweSAT group, and even a negative correlation between test scores and number of credits among those admitted. However, the results also show that the SweSAT group are more productive than the GPA group overall, when the total number of university credits serve as criterion.

  • 22.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Grade inflation and school competition: an empirical analysis based on the Swedish upper school grades2005In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 309-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal school competition leads to grade inflation. We also compare independent schools with public schools. It is found that intra-municipal school competition leads to modest levels of grade inflation. Foremost, non-native students fare better being graded in municipalities with potential competition than in single school environments. Independent schools appear to inflate grades heavily. A male student with average previous educational achievement improves his position in the grade distribution by approximately 15% if graded in an independent school.

  • 23.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Group differences in student performance in the selection to higher education: tests vs grades2017In: Frontiers in Education, ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 2, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student selection in the Swedish admission to higher education system is based on two fundamentally different performance measures: their criterion-referenced upper secondary grade point average (GPA) and their score on a norm-referenced and multiple-choice admissions test [Swedish admissions test (SweSAT)]. Several student characteristics are known to affect rankings in such assessments. The objectives of this study are to assess main and interactive effects of several variables that influence rankings obtained from these measures in greater detail than previously attempted and assess the findings from a fairness perspective. The data consist of test scores, upper secondary grades, and background information for SweSAT participants aged 19–25 years, who took the test in the autumn of 2011 (N = 23,214) or spring of 2012 (N = 27,075). The data were analyzed through correlation and regression analyses. The results support previous findings that gender, parents’ education, and immigration status are all influential. Males obtain better SweSAT scores than females, while females obtain better GPAs, in accordance with previous findings regarding gender-related variations in rankings provided by similar instruments. Moreover, we found the same pattern in scores for specific components of the test and grades in specific subjects, suggesting that the test and GPA measure different, gender-related, things. In addition, students with an immigrant background seem to be more highly ranked by grades than by the SweSAT, largely due to differences in assessments of their verbal skills.

  • 24.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    University entrance selection and age at admission2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the predictive validity of the upper secondary grade point average (GPA), when used as selection instrument to higher education. The purpose of the paper is to find out if the predictive strength of the GPA is affected by time, here measured as the time that has passed between when the grades were received (graduation) and university entrance. The data includes approximately 5 900 students admitted to a Business administration or an Economics programme in a Swedish university between the years 1993 to 1996. The predictive validity is studied by correlating the GPA from upper secondary school for the students from each age group with their academic performance, measured by university credits. The results show that there is a weak positive correlation between grades and university credits, but that the predictive strenght decreases with time, to be insignificant about three years after upper secondary school completion. Implications are discussed.

  • 25.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Urval till högre utbildning: Påverkas betygens prediktionsvärde av ålder?2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige används i huvudsak två urvalsinstrument för att gruppera och rang-ordna sökande till högskolan: betygsmedelvärdet från gymnasieskolan och resultat på högskoleprovet. I den här rapporten studeras hur betygen från gymnasieskolan förutsäger studerandes prestationer i högskolan bland studen-ter som antas vid olika tidpunkter efter avslutad gymnasieutbildning. Syftet är att undersöka om den prediktiva styrkan hos gymnasiebetygen påverkas av tid mellan utbildningen och utbildningsutfall i högre utbildning. Studien omfattar cirka 5 900 studenter som antagits till ett ekonomprogram vid en svensk hög-skola, 1993–1996. Resultatet visar att det finns en svag positiv korrelation mellan gymnasiebetyg och universitetspoäng, men att den prediktiva styrkan minskar med tid mellan avslutad utbildning och utbildningsutfall i högre utbildning. Om det gått tre år eller mer mellan gymnasium och antagning finns inget signifikant samband kvar.

  • 26.
    Wikström, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Prediction of study success: should selection instruments measure cognitive or non-cognitive factors?2009In: Assessment for a creative world, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a number of countries, both high school GPA and admission tests are used in the selection to higher education. The validity research on such instruments has mainly focused on their predictive validity, and the outcome generally shows that the GPA is a better predictor than the test. One explanation is that the grades also measure non-cognitive factors, which are considered important for school performance. Moreover, many admission tests have been criticised for being too alien to what is being taught in schools, hence lacking in relevance for future education. As a consequence, many admission tests are being revised, to be more similar to the school grades in terms of content. A relevant question is if this is the right way to proceed if the main purpose of the test is to predict future study success? This study compares the subtests of a traditional admissions test (the SweSAT) with high school grades in verbal and quantitative subjects in terms of content construct and predictive strength. Success in higher education is measured by the number of credits achieved by students in economics and business administration programmes at Swedish universities. The purpose is to find out if the difference in predictive strength can be related to cognitive or non-cognitive factors.  The data is analysed by regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings show that there are differences in content as well as construct, but that variations in predictive strength have to do with both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, where quantitative grades and test scores are more similar in construct than verbal grades and test scores, but also better predictors of performance in higher education. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, and some suggestions for future research are made.

  • 27.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Fiscal Externalities2005In: Nordiska skattevetenskapliga forskningsrådets årsbok, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Four papers on wage formation in a unionized economy1992Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kommunalekonomiska effekter av maxtaxa och ökad tillgänglighet inom förskola och skolbarnomsorg2007Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Kön, resultat och urval2008In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Nationella prov måste vara nationella2007In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Childcare Reform: Effects on Earnings and Employment among Native Swedish and Immigrant Mothers2015In: Gender in the Labor Market / [ed] Solomon W. Polachek, Konstantinos Tatsiramos, Klaus F. Zimmermann, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 93-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies earnings and labor force participation of native Swedes and recent immigrants in Sweden in response to the childcare reforms of 2001 and 2002 using a difference-in-differences approach and register-based data for the period of 1995–2009. Immigrant and native Swedish mothers are distinguished in order to study if increased accessibility to childcare might be particularly beneficial for groups facing obstacles in entering the labor market. The results show that the reforms had a positive effect on earnings and labor force participation among native mothers with preschool children. The group of immigrant mothers studied did not experience any gain in labor market outcomes as a response to the reform.

  • 33.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Admissions Tests2018In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation / [ed] Bruce B. Frey, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2018, p. 48-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    University education and income: does prior achievement matter?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if the income premium from university entrance differs with respect to prior achievement as measured by previous grades. Using income at the age of 28 to 30, we analyze if high-achievers have larger income premiums from entering university than low-achievers in a sample of Swedish upper secondary school students. We find that income differences generally are positive, albeit larger for females than for males. It is also found that the income premium is larger for high-achievers than for low-achievers. However, especially for males, the income premium rises only marginally with prior achievement for a large part of the grade distribution, indicating that there are only small differences in the returns to university entrance for a majority of upper secondary school graduates.

  • 35.
    Wikström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Who benefits from university admissions tests?: a comparison between grades and test scores as selection instruments to higher education2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are two separate instruments for ranking applicants in the admission to higher education; the GPA from upper secondary school and the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test (the SweSAT). A problem in the selection is that different groups of students perform differently on the instruments. Also, while the GPA is regarded more valid but with reliability problems, the test is seen as reliable but with lower predictive validity. Hence, in 2011, the test was revised, with the purpose to increase its relevance for university studies. New item types and new subtests were introduced, and the weights of the verbal and quantitative parts of the test were made more balanced. This study compares how students are ranked on the basis of the new test compared to their GPA, to find out if previous group differences still remain. The data consists of test participants in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012 at the ages 17 to 25. The results show that the correlation between test scores and GPA is approximately the same as before the revision. It is also found that there are still group differences in terms of boys performing better on the test and girls on the GPA. However, when studying separate sub-tests and grades and national course tests from isolated subjects, the students seem to be ranked more similarly than in the overall SweSAT-GPA comparison. Although students with a non-Swedish background are performing lower than other students on both instruments, boys in this group seem to be graded more leniently than the girls with a similar background in mathematics, and the opposite is the case in verbal subjects.

1 - 35 of 35
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