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  • 1.
    Henriksson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biotic resistance in freshwater fish communities2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasions of non-native species cause problems in ecosystems worldwide, and despite the extensive effort that has been put into research about invasions, we still lack a good understanding for why some, but not other, communities resist these invasions. In this doctoral thesis I test hypotheses on biotic resistance using a large dataset of more than 1000 both failed and successful introductions of freshwater fish into Swedish lakes. We have found that the classic species richness hypothesis is a poor descriptor of introduction success because it fails to acknowledge that resident species contribute to the resistance in different ways. We developed a new measure of biotic resistance, the weighted species richness, which takes into account that the resident species contributes to the resistance with different strength and sign. Further, we correlated performance traits of species in their role as an invader and as a resident species to predict how the biotic resistance of these communities would develop over time. We found a positive correlation between performance traits: Some species have high introduction success, they make a large contribution to the resistance, and they cause extinctions when introduced but do not go extinct themselves when other species establishes, whereas other species are weak performers in these respects. Thus, the biotic resistance of these communities should grow stronger as non-native species accumulates. These results give us clues about what type of communities that should be most sensitive to further invasions, i.e., communities harboring species weak performers. 

    My results show that the biotic resistance of communities is an important factor in determining invasibility of a community. They also show that methods for quantifying resistance must take into account how interactions are structured in nature. What determine the biotic resistance of a community is the type of interactions that the resident species have with the invader and not the species richness of the community.

  • 2.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Failed and successful intentional introductions of fish species into 821 Swedish lakes2016In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 1p. 1364-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introductions of fish into lakes can be viewed as whole system experiments, which can be used to study the principles of community assembly and factors determining the outcome of species invasions. Freshwater fish species have been translocated by humans for centuries in Sweden, and this activity has been documented by national and regional authorities starting at the end of the 19th century. Based on this documentation and additional interviews with local fishermen, we have compiled a data set that includes 1157 intentional introductions of 26 freshwater fish species into 821 Swedish lakes. The data include both successful and failed introductions; where a successful introduction means that the introduced fish species was present in the lake for ≥20 yr or that reproduction was observed earlier than that. The oldest introduction is from 1658 and the latest from 2002. Additionally, the data set includes species composition, water temperature sum, maximum water temperature, lake area, elevation, longitude, and latitude for all lakes. These data have been used to test hypotheses about biotic resistance and invasion success in three papers. We found the presence or absence of specific species predicted invasion success better than the species richness of the lakes. We also found that species with high invasion success tend to make a large contribution to biotic resistance, which will make communities more resistant in the future as they are invaded by additional species.

  • 3.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Failed and successful introductions of fish species into 821 Swedish lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introductions of fish into lakes can be viewed as whole system experiments, which can be used to study the principles of community assembly and factors determining the outcome of species invasions. Freshwater fish species have been translocated by humans for centuries in Sweden and this activity has been documented by national and regional authorities starting at the end of the 19th century. Based on this documentation and additional interviews with local fishermen we have compiled a dataset that includes 1158 introductions of 26 freshwater fish species into 821 Swedish lakes. The data includes both successful and failed introductions; where a successful introduction means that the introduced fish species was present in the lake for ≥20 years or that reproduction was observed earlier than that. The oldest introduction is from 1658 and the latest from 2002. Additionally, the dataset includes species composition, temperature sum, maximum temperature, lake area, elevation, longitude and latitude for all lakes. This data has been used to test hypotheses about biotic resistance and invasion success in three papers. We found the presence or absence of specific species predicted invasion success better than the species richness of the lakes. We also found that species with high invasion success tend to make a large contribution to biotic resistance, which will make communities more resistant in the future as they are invaded by additional species.

  • 4.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wardle A., David
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strong invaders are strong defenders: implications for the resistance of invaded communities2016In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystems receive a steady stream of non-native species. How biotic resistance develops over time in these ecosystems will depend on how established invaders contribute to subsequent resistance. If invasion success and defence capacity (i.e. contribution to resistance) are correlated, then community resistance should increase as species accumulate. If successful invaders also cause most impact (through replacing native species with low defence capacity) then the effect will be even stronger. If successful invaders instead have weak defence capacity or even facilitative attributes, then resistance should decrease with time, as proposed by the invasional meltdown hypothesis. We analysed 1157 introductions of freshwater fish in Swedish lakes and found that species' invasion success was positively correlated with their defence capacity and impact, suggesting that these communities will develop stronger resistance over time. These insights can be used to identify scenarios where invading species are expected to cause large impact.

  • 5.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Wardle A., David
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Weighted species richness outperforms species richness as predictor of biotic resistance2016In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 262-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The species richness hypothesis, which predicts that species-rich communities should be better at resisting invasions than species-poor communities, has been empirically tested many times and often poorly supported. In this paper we contrast the species richness hypothesis with four alternative hypotheses with the aim of finding better descriptors of invasion resistance. These alternative hypotheses state that resistance to invasions is determined by abiotic conditions, community saturation (i.e., the number of resident species relative to the maximum number of species that can be supported), presence/absence of key species, or weighted species richness. Weighted species richness is a weighted sum of the number of species, where each species' weight describes its contribution to resistance. We tested these hypotheses using data on the success of 571 introductions of four freshwater fish species into lakes throughout Sweden (i.e., Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), tench (Tinca tinca), zander (Sander lucioperca), and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)). We found that the weighted species richness best predicted invasion success. The weights describing the contribution of each resident species to community resistance varied considerably in both strength and sign. Positive resistance weights, which indicate that species repel invaders, were as common as negative resistance weights, which indicate facilitative interactions. This result can be contrasted with the implicit assumption of the original species richness hypothesis, that all resident species have negative effects on invader success. We argue that this assumption is unlikely to be true in natural communities, and thus that we expect that weighted species richness is a better predictor of invader success than the actual number of resident species.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Wardle, David A.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biotic resistance in freshwater fish communities: species richness, saturation or species identity?2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 8, p. 1058-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some communities are susceptible to invasions and some are not. Why? Elton suggested in 1958 that the ability of the community to withstand invading species - its biotic resistance - depends on the number of resident species. Later contributors have emphasized the habitat's ability to support species, as well as the contribution of individual species to the resistance. In this study we use information from 184 introductions of Arctic char into Swedish lakes to study both abiotic and biotic aspects of the resident community's ability to resist introductions. We find that the best model included the proportion of forest cover and the proportion of agricultural land cover in the watershed in combination with the presence versus absence of northern pike. Thus, the most important biotic factor to explain the outcome of introductions of Arctic char is the presence of northern pike, a large piscivore. This means that one single species explains the outcome of the introductions better than does the species richness or the saturation level of the community.

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