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  • 1.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Pro-invasive properties of Snail1 are regulated by sumoylation in response to TGFβ stimulation in cancer2017Inngår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, nr 58, s. 97703-97726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a key regulator of epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT) during embryogenesis and in tumors. The effect of TGF beta, on EMT, is conveyed by induction of the pro-invasive transcription factor Snail1. In this study, we report that TGF beta stimulates Snail1 sumoylation in aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancer cells. Sumoylation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 confers its transcriptional activity, inducing the expression of classical EMT genes, as well as TGF beta receptor I (T beta RI) and the transcriptional repressor Hes1. Mutation of Snail1 lysine residue 234 to arginine (K234R) abolished sumoylation of Snail1, as well as its migratory and invasive properties in human prostate cancer cells. An increased immunohistochemical expression of Snail1, Sumo1, T beta RI, Hes1, and c-Jun was observed in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their functional roles in tumorigenesis.

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  • 2.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Pro-invasive Snail1 targets TGFbeta receptor I to promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cancerManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Mu, Yabing
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Wallenius, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    TRAF6 stimulates the tumor-promoting effects of TGF beta type I receptor through polyubiquitination and activation of Presenilin 12014Inngår i: Science Signaling, ISSN 1945-0877, E-ISSN 1937-9145, Vol. 7, nr 307, artikkel-id ra2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) can be both a tumor promoter and suppressor, although the mechanisms behind the protumorigenic switch remain to be fully elucidated. The TGF beta type I receptor (T beta RI) is proteolytically cleaved in the ectodomain region. Cleavage requires the combined activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE). The cleavage event occurs selectively in cancer cells and generates an intracellular domain (ICD) of T beta RI, which enters the nucleus to mediate gene transcription. Presenilin 1 (PS1), a gamma-secretase catalytic core component, mediates intramembrane proteolysis of transmembrane receptors, such as Notch. We showed that TGF beta increased both the abundance and activity of PS1. TRAF6 recruited PS1 to the T beta RI complex and promoted lysine-63-linked polyubiquitination of PS1, which activated PS1. Furthermore, PS1 cleaved T beta RI in the transmembrane domain between valine-129 and isoleucine-130, and ICD generation was inhibited when these residues were mutated to alanine. We also showed that, after entering the nucleus, T beta RI-ICD bound to the promoter and increased the transcription of the gene encoding T beta RI. The TRAF6- and PS1-induced intramembrane proteolysis of T beta RI promoted TGF beta-induced invasion of various cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, when a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was treated with the gamma-secretase inhibitor DBZ {(2S)-2-[2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-acetylamino]-N-(5-methyl-6-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b, d]azepin-7-yl)-propionamide}, generation of T beta RI-ICD was prevented, transcription of the gene encoding the proinvasive transcription factor Snail1 was reduced, and tumor growth was inhibited. These results suggest that gamma-secretase inhibitors may be useful for treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Persson, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Osteoblast-derived factors promote metastatic potential in human prostate cancer cells, in part via non-canonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling2018Inngår i: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 78, nr 6, s. 446-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) functions as a double-edged sword in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. In initial stages of the disease, TGFβ acts as a growth inhibitor upon tumor cells, whereas it in later stages of disease rather promotes invasion and metastatic potential. One well-known cellular source of TGFβ in the bone metastatic site is the bone-forming osteoblasts. Here we have studied the effects by osteoblast-derived factors on metastatic potential in several human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Methods: Effects on metastatic potential in prostate cancer cells by osteoblast-derived factors were studied in vitro using several methods, including Transwell migration and evaluation of formation of pro-migratory protrusions. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate possible changes in differentiation state in tumor cells by analysis of markers for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Matrigel-on-top 3D culture method was used for further assessment of metastatic characteristics in tumor cells by analysis of formation of filopodium-like protrusions (FLPs).

    Results: Osteoblast-derived factors increased migration of PC-3U cells, an effect less prominent in cells overexpressing a mutated type I TGFβ receptor (TβRI) preventing non-canonical TRAF6-dependent TGFβ signaling. Osteoblast-derived factors also increased the formation of long protrusions and loss of cell-cell contacts in PC-3U cells, suggesting induction of a more aggressive phenotype. In addition, treatment with TGFβ or osteoblast-derived factors of PC-3U cells in Matrigel-on-top 3D cultures promoted formation of FLPs, previously shown to be essential for metastatic establishment.

    Conclusions: These findings suggests that factors secreted from osteoblasts, including TGFβ, can induce several cellular traits involved in metastatic potential of PC-3U cells, further strengthening the role for bone cells to promote metastatic tumor cell behavior.

  • 5.
    Landström, Maréne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi. Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    TRAF62012Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules / [ed] Sangdun Choi, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2012, s. 1916-1921Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Mu, Yabing
    et al.
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekman, Maria
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap. Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yakymovych, Mariya
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Annika
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dimitriou, Helen
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria Teresa
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Johan
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    TRAF6 ubiquitinates TGF beta type I receptor to promote its cleavage and nuclear translocation in cancer2011Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 2, nr 330, s. 11-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a pluripotent cytokine promoting epithelial cell plasticity during morphogenesis and tumour progression. TGF beta binding to type II and type I serine/threonine kinase receptors (T beta RII and T beta RI) causes activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. T beta RI is associated with the ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). Here we show that TGF beta, via TRAF6, causes Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of T beta RI, promoting cleavage of T beta RI by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), in a PKC zeta-dependent manner. The liberated intracellular domain (ICD) of T beta RI associates with the transcriptional regulator p300 to activate genes involved in tumour cell invasiveness, such as Snail and MMP2. Moreover, TGF beta-induced invasion of cancer cells is TACE- and PKC zeta-dependent and the T beta RI ICD is localized in the nuclei of different kinds of tumour cells in tissue sections. Thus, our data reveal a specific role for T beta RI in TGF beta mediated tumour invasion.

  • 7.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    TRAF6, a key regulator of TGFβ-induced oncogenesis in prostate cancer2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, with the incidence rapidly increasing in Europe over the past two decades. Reliable biomarkers for prostate cancer are currently unavailable. Thus, there is an urgent need for improved biomarkers to diagnose prostate cancer at an early stage and to determine the best treatment options. Higher expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has been reported in patients with aggressive cancer.

    TGFβ is a multifunctional cytokine that acts as a tumor suppressor during early tumor development, and as a tumor promoter at later stages of cancer. TGFβ signals through the canonical Smad or non-Smad cascade via TGFβ type II and type I receptors. The TGFβ signaling cascade is regulated by various post-translational modifications of its key components. The present investigation aimed to identify a potential function of TRAF6 in TGFβ-induced responses in prostate cancer.

    The first two articles of this thesis unveil the proteolytic cleavage of TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI), and the biological importance of the liberated TβRI intracellular domain (TβRI-ICD) in the nucleus. We found that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) polyubiquitinates TβRI, which leads to cleavage of TβRI by tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) in a protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ)-dependent manner. Following ectodomain shedding, TβRI undergoes a second cleavage by presenilin 1 (PS1), which liberates TβRI-ICD. TβRI-ICD translocates to the nucleus, where it regulates its own expression as well as expression of the pro-invasive gene Snail1, thereby promoting invasion. We further found that TβRI-ICD associates with Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to drive expression of the pro-invasive gene Snail1, as well as Notch1 ligand Jag1.

    The third article provides evidence that TRAF6 promotes Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TβRI at Lys178 in a TGFβ-dependent manner. TβRI polyubiquitination was found to be a prerequisite for TβRI nuclear translocation, and thus for regulation of the genes involved in cell cycle, differentiation, and invasion of prostate cancer cells.

    In the fourth article we investigated the role of the pro-invasive gene Snail1 in TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer cells.

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  • 8.
    Sundar, Reshma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Uppsala University.
    Landström, Marene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Identification of Lys178 as the acceptor lysine of TGF-beta type I receptor poly-ubiquitination.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Sundar, Reshma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landström, Maréne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    TRAF6 promotes TGF beta-induced invasion and cell-cycle regulation via Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of Lys178 in TGF beta type I receptor2015Inngår i: Cell Cycle, ISSN 1538-4101, E-ISSN 1551-4005, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 554-565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) can act either as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor in a context-dependent manner. High levels of TGF are found in prostate cancer tissues and correlate with poor patient prognosis. We recently identified a novel TGF-regulated signaling cascade in which TGF type I receptor (TRI) is activated by the E3 ligase TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) via the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRI. TRAF6 also contributes to activation of TNF--converting enzyme and presenilin-1, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage of TRI and releasing the intracellular domain of TRI, which is translocated to the nucleus to promote tumor invasiveness. In this report, we provide evidence that Lys178 of TRI is polyubiquitinated by TRAF6. Moreover, our data suggest that TRAF6-mediated Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the TRI intracellular domain is a prerequisite for TGF regulation of mRNA for cyclin D1 (CCND1), expression, as well as for the regulation of other genes controlling the cell cycle, differentiation, and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.

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