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  • 1. Bunner, Anne E
    et al.
    Nord, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Williamson, James R
    The effect of ribosome assembly cofactors on in vitro 30S subunit reconstitution2010In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 398, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosome biogenesis is facilitated by a growing list of assembly cofactors, including helicases, GTPases, chaperones, and other proteins, but the specific functions of many of these assembly cofactors are still unclear. The effect of three assembly cofactors on 30S ribosome assembly was determined in vitro using a previously developed mass-spectrometry-based method that monitors the rRNA binding kinetics of ribosomal proteins. The essential GTPase Era caused several late-binding proteins to bind rRNA faster when included in a 30S reconstitution. RimP enabled faster binding of S9 and S19 and inhibited the binding of S12 and S13, perhaps by blocking those proteins' binding sites. RimM caused proteins S5 and S12 to bind dramatically faster. These quantitative kinetic data provide important clues about the roles of these assembly cofactors in the mechanism of 30S biogenesis.

  • 2.
    Bylund, Göran O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lövgren, J. Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, P. Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Characterization of mutations in the metY-nusA-infB operon that suppress the slow growth of a DeltarimM mutant2001In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 183, no 20, p. 6095-6106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RimM protein in Escherichia coli is associated with free 30S ribosomal subunits but not with 70S ribosomes. A DeltarimM mutant shows a sevenfold-reduced growth rate and a reduced translational efficiency, probably as a result of aberrant assembly of the ribosomal 30S subunits. The slow growth and translational deficiency can be partially suppressed by increased synthesis of the ribosome binding factor RbfA. Here, we have identified 14 chromosomal suppressor mutations that increase the growth rate of a DeltarimM mutant by increasing the expression of rbfA. Nine of these mutations were in the nusA gene, which is located upstream from rbfA in the metY-nusA-infB operon; three mutations deleted the transcriptional terminator between infB and rbfA; one was an insertion of IS2 in infB, creating a new promoter for rbfA; and one was a duplication, placing a second copy of rbfA downstream from a promoter for the yhbM gene. Two of the nusA mutations were identical, while another mutation (nusA98) was identical to a previously isolated mutation, nusA11, shown to decrease termination of transcription. The different nusA mutations were found to increase the expression of rbfA by increasing the read-through of two internal transcriptional terminators located just downstream from the metY gene and that of the internal terminator preceding rbfA. Induced expression of the nusA(+) gene from a plasmid in a nusA(+) strain decreased the read-through of the two terminators just downstream from metY, demonstrating that one target for a previously proposed NusA-mediated feedback regulation of the metY-nusA-infB operon expression is these terminators. All of the nusA mutations produced temperature-sensitive phenotypes of rimM(+) strains. The nusA gene has previously been shown to be essential at 42 degrees C and below 32 degrees C. Here, we show that nusA is also essential at 37 degrees C.

  • 3.
    Bylund, Göran O
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nord, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lövgren, J Mattias
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Alterations in the β flap and β' dock domains of the RNA polymerase abolish NusA-mediated feedback regulation of the metY-nusA-infB operon2011In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 193, no 16, p. 4113-4122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RimM protein in Escherichia coli is important for the in vivo maturation of 30S ribosomal subunits and a ΔrimM mutant grows poorly due to assembly and translational defects. These deficiencies are suppressed partially by mutations that increase the synthesis of another assembly protein, RbfA, encoded by the metY-nusA-infB operon. Among these suppressors are mutations in nusA that impair the NusA-mediated negative-feedback regulation at internal intrinsic transcriptional terminators of the metY-nusA-infB operon. We describe here the isolation of two new mutations, one in rpoB and one in rpoC (encoding the β and β' subunits of the RNA polymerase, respectively), that increase the synthesis of RbfA by preventing NusA from stimulating termination at the internal intrinsic transcriptional terminators of the metY-nusA-infB operon. The rpoB2063 mutation changed the isoleucine in position 905 of the β flap-tip helix to a serine, while the rpoC2064 mutation duplicated positions 415 to 416 (valine-isoleucine) at the base of the β' dock domain. These findings support previously published in vitro results, which have suggested that the β flap-tip helix and β' dock domain at either side of the RNA exit tunnel mediate the binding to NusA during transcriptional pausing and termination.

  • 4.
    Byström, Anders S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hjalmarsson, Karin J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Björk, Glenn R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    The nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli operon containing genes for the tRNA(m1G)methyltransferase, the ribosomal proteins S16 and L19 and a 21-K polypeptide1983In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 899-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleotide sequence of a 4.6-kb SalI-EcoRI DNA fragment including the trmD operon, located at min 56 on the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome, has been determined. The trmD operon encodes four polypeptides: ribosomal protein S16 (rpsP), 21-K polypeptide (unknown function), tRNA-(m1G)methyltransferase (trmD) and ribosomal protein L19 (rplS), in that order. In addition, the 4.6-kb DNA fragment encodes a 48-K and a 16-K polypeptide of unknown functions which are not part of the trmD operon. The mol. wt. of tRNA(m1G)methyltransferase determined from the DNA sequence is 28 424. The probable locations of promoter and terminator of the trmD operon are suggested. The translational start of the trmD gene was deduced from the known NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The intercistronic regions in the operon vary from 9 to 40 nucleotides, supporting the earlier conclusion that the four genes are co-transcribed, starting at the major promoter in front of the rpsP gene. Since it is known that ribosomal proteins are present at 8000 molecules/genome and the tRNA-(m1G)methyltransferase at only approximately 80 molecules/genome in a glucose minimal culture, some powerful regulatory device must exist in this operon to maintain this non-coordinate expression. The codon usage of the two ribosomal protein genes is similar to that of other ribosomal protein genes, i.e., high preference for the most abundant tRNA isoaccepting species. The trmD gene has a codon usage typical for a protein made in low amount in accordance with the low number of tRNA-(m1G)methyltransferase molecules found in the cell.

  • 5.
    Lövgren, J. Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, P. Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hybrid Protein between Ribosomal Protein S16 and RimM of Escherichia coli Retains the Ribosome Maturation Function of Both Proteins2001In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 183, no 18, p. 5352-5357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RimM protein in Escherichia coli is associated with free 30S ribosomal subunits but not with 70S ribosomes and is important for efficient maturation of the 30S subunits. A mutant lacking RimM shows a sevenfold-reduced growth rate and a reduced translational efficiency. Here we show that a double alanine-for-tyrosine substitution in RimM prevents it from associating with the 30S subunits and reduces the growth rate of E. coli approximately threefold. Several faster-growing derivatives of the rimM amino acid substitution mutant were found that contain suppressor mutations which increased the amount of the RimM protein by two different mechanisms. Most of the suppressor mutations destabilized a secondary structure in the rimM mRNA, which previously was shown to decrease the synthesis of RimM by preventing the access of the ribosomes to the translation initiation region on the rimM mRNA. Three other independently isolated suppressor mutations created a fusion between rpsP, encoding the ribosomal protein S16, and rimM on the chromosome as a result of mutations in the rpsP stop codon preceding rimM. A severalfold-higher amount of the produced hybrid S16-RimM protein in the suppressor strains than of the native-sized RimM in the original substitution mutant seems to explain the suppression. The S16-RimM protein but not any native-size ribosomal protein S16 was found both in free 30S ribosomal subunits and in translationally active 70S ribosomes of the suppressor strains. This suggests that the hybrid protein can substitute for S16, which is an essential protein probably because of its role in ribosome assembly. Thus, the S16-RimM hybrid protein seems capable of carrying out the important functions that native S16 and RimM have in ribosome biogenesis.

  • 6.
    Lövgren, J. Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, P. Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    The rlmB Gene Is Essential for Formation of Gm2251 in 23S rRNA but Not for Ribosome Maturation in Escherichia coli2001In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 183, no 23, p. 6957-6960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rRNA Gm2270 methyltransferase, Pet56p, has an essential role in the maturation of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit that is independent of its methyltransferase activity. Here we show that the proposed Escherichia coli ortholog, RlmB (formerly YjfH), indeed is essential for the formation of Gm in position 2251 of 23S rRNA. However, a DeltarlmB mutant did not show any ribosome assembly defects and was not outgrown by a wild-type strain even after 120 cell mass doublings. Thus, RlmB has no important role in ribosome assembly or function in E. coli.

  • 7.
    Lövgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Bylund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Srivastava, Manoj
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology.
    Lundberg, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Persson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wingsle, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology.
    Wikström, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    The PRC-barrel domain of the ribosome maturation protein RimM mediates binding to ribosomal protein S19 in the 30S ribosomal subunits2004In: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1798-1812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RimM protein in Escherichia coli is associated with free 30S ribosomal subunits but not with 70S ribosomes. A DeltarimM mutant is defective in 30S maturation and accumulates 17S rRNA. To study the interaction of RimM with the 30S and its involvement in 30S maturation, RimM amino acid substitution mutants were constructed. A mutant RimM (RimM-YY-->AA), containing alanine substitutions for two adjacent tyrosines within the PRC beta-barrel domain, showed a reduced binding to 30S and an accumulation of 17S rRNA compared to wild-type RimM. The (RimM-YY-->AA) and DeltarimM mutants had significantly lower amounts of polysomes and also reduced levels of 30S relative to 50S compared to a wild-type strain. A mutation in rpsS, which encodes r-protein S19, suppressed the polysome- and 16S rRNA processing deficiencies of the RimM-YY-->AA but not that of the DeltarimM mutant. A mutation in rpsM, which encodes r-protein S13, suppressed the polysome deficiency of both rimM mutants. Suppressor mutations, found in either helices 31 or 33b of 16S rRNA, improved growth of both the RimM-YY-->AA and DeltarimM mutants. However, they suppressed the 16S rRNA processing deficiency of the RimM-YY-->AA mutant more efficiently than that of the DeltarimM mutant. Helices 31 and 33b are known to interact with S13 and S19, respectively, and S13 is known to interact with S19. A GST-RimM but not a GST-RimM(YY-->AA) protein bound strongly to S19 in 30S. Thus, RimM likely facilitates maturation of the region of the head of 30S that contains S13 and S19 as well as helices 31 and 33b.

  • 8.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bhatt, Monika J
    Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Farabaugh, Philip J
    Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Mutations of ribosomal protein S5 suppress a defect in late-30S ribosomal subunit biogenesis caused by lack of the RbfA biogenesis factor2015In: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1454-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits requires assistance by maturation proteins that are not part of mature ribosomes. One such protein, RbfA, associates with the 30S ribosomal subunits. Loss of RbfA causes cold sensitivity and defects of the 30S subunit biogenesis and its overexpression partially suppresses the dominant cold sensitivity caused by a C23U mutation in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA, a structure essential for ribosome function. We have isolated suppressor mutations that restore partially the growth of an RbfA-lacking strain. Most of the strongest suppressor mutations alter one out of three distinct positions in the carboxy-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S5 (S5) in direct contact with helix 1 and helix 2 of the central pseudoknot. Their effect is to increase the translational capacity of the RbfA-lacking strain as evidenced by an increase in polysomes in the suppressed strains. Overexpression of RimP, a protein factor that along with RbfA regulates formation of the ribosome's central pseudoknot, was lethal to the RbfA-lacking strain but not to a wild-type strain and this lethality was suppressed by the alterations in S5. The S5 mutants alter translational fidelity but these changes do not explain consistently their effect on the RbfA-lacking strain. Our genetic results support a role for the region of S5 modified in the suppressors in the formation of the central pseudoknot in 16S rRNA.

  • 9.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Bylund, Göran O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lövgren, J Mattias
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    The RimP protein is important for maturation of the 30S ribosomal subunit2009In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 386, no 3, p. 742-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits requires assistance by auxiliary proteins that are not part of mature ribosomes. More such assembly proteins have been identified for the assembly of the 50S than for the 30S ribosomal subunit. Here, we show that the RimP protein (formerly YhbC or P15a) is important for the maturation of the 30S subunit. A rimP deletion (DeltarimP135) mutant in Escherichia coli showed a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype as demonstrated by a 1.2-, 1.5-, and 2.5-fold lower growth rate at 30, 37, and 44 degrees C, respectively, compared to a wild-type strain. The mutant had a reduced amount of 70S ribosomes engaged in translation and showed a corresponding increase in the amount of free ribosomal subunits. In addition, the mutant showed a lower ratio of free 30S to 50S subunits as well as an accumulation of immature 16S rRNA compared to a wild-type strain, indicating a deficiency in the maturation of the 30S subunit. All of these effects were more pronounced at higher temperatures. RimP was found to be associated with free 30S subunits but not with free 50S subunits or with 70S ribosomes. The slow growth of the rimP deletion mutant was not suppressed by increased expression of any other known 30S maturation factor.

  • 10.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Tukenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Wikström, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Substitutions in the C terminal domain of the E. coli ribosomal protein S5 suppress the lack of the ribosome maturation factor RbfA as well as the dominant cold-sensitive C23U mutation in 16S rRNA.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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